The Cabinet Dictionary - The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia (2023)

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"Chair-making is a branch generally confined to itself, as those who professedly work at it, seldom engage to make cabinet furniture. In the country manufactories it is otherwise; yet even these pay some regard to keeping their workmen constantly at the chair, or to cabinet work. The two branches seem evidently to require different talents in workmen, in order to become proficients."--The Cabinet Dictionary (1803) by Thomas Sheraton

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Rhombicuboctahedron by Leonardo da Vinci

The Cabinet Dictionary (1803) is a compendium of instructions on the techniques of cabinet and chair making by Thomas Sheraton.


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INTRODUCTION.INperusingthe followingDictionary, the readerwill findsometerms, whichprobablyhe will judgetoo simplein theirnatureto justifytheirinsertion. Totheexperiencedworkman of both branches, it may appearso, as he is so wellacquaintedwith everyarticlealready

but if hebe candid,

as well as skilful, in his business, let him recollecthimselfalittle, on the natureand evidentdesignof suchalphabeticalarrangements

and it will

readilyoccurto him, that theyareintendedto instructyouth, andparticularlythoseentering into eachrespectivebranch, who aresupposednot evento understandthe names of the tools they are to workwith.But, besidessuchconsiderations, there aregentlemen, who,being of a mechanicalturn, frequentlyamusethemselvesbyenquiriesinto thetechnicaltermsof suchprofessions


I know of none to whichgentlemenof this classhave astrongerturn than the cabinetbranch.In compiling a dictionary, professedly to illustrate all thewords of both branches, I thought myself bound to attendas minutely to every term, as their nature would admit of,judging it safest to follow the example of all other dictionarywriters; who never make an estimate of those words thatthe public are supposed already to be acquainted with, andwhich are, therefore, not to be introduced into their work.On the contrary, they wisely think for the rising generationthat are springing up before them; and for foreigners too,iv INTRODUCTION.who need to be informed. As Dr. Johnson himself does,in his immortal Dictionary, that a, an, and the, are articlesput before nouns, to express their relation or circumstances:and there are thousands ofother words in that justly celebrated performance, that the most illiterate were acquaintedwith, as a part of their mother tongue, before it made itsappearance in the world.Whenwe view the maps ofwell-known places and roads,we are seldom offended with the geographer, for insertinginto his descriptive picture, those which we are familiarwith already; but rather approve of his strict attention indirecting entire strangers. In this light, I am persuaded,the sensible and candid of both branches, will consider theinsertion ofseveral words in the subsequent work.It is, however, the fate of such performances, publishedfor the use of one or two mechanical branches only, tolabour (particularly it is so with those that appear periodically before completed, as this has done) under the disadvantage arising from the gross ignorance and invidiousnessof certain persons belonging to them, who, when they havegained some smattering knowledge, set up for critics, andare the most ready to snap at the hand by whom they havereceived it; that it may appear to their neighbours that theyare no way indebted to such works for their knowledge;and that themselves are the most proper persons to havebeen employed in such a service.But, though we have thus laboured under the ignorance,prejudice, and melevolence of some, yet there has beensufficient encouragement granted by the dispassionate,candid, and judicious of both branches, to bring it to aconclusion; and the increasing mortification of the formerINTRODUCTION.will fall upon their own heads, with double force, whenthey will perceive it surviving, and themselves hushed intosilence, by public approbation.I have no doubt, however, of my own imperfections inthe work, andthat many things are capable of being improved by the ingenious workmen of both branches, when theycome to put them into execution. Yet I have this to say,that all the designs are capable of being finished exacly asthey appear in the engravings; for I have not figured away.with my pencil, on a baseless fabric, as some have done,without consulting whether the particulars out of the common way, were or were not workable by a good mechanic.And it may be proper to inform the reader, that a fewof the articles, which are referred to the Supplement, havebeen omitted to give place to a more particular attention tothe subject of geometrical and perspective lines, whichwerejudged of more consequence to the work.It is also requested, that the reader will notice an errorin page 267, on measuring: where it is directed to add theproduct to itself only, for the whole sum of the area, whichshould be multiplied by 4; for, in proposing to divide thegiven area into half the length and width, for the sake ofease, it did not occur to me at the time of writing it, thatsuch a division made the area only a quarter of the whole,which it evidently does, and therefore the product of thequarter area, requires to be multiplied by 4. This mementoI received from a Mr. Orchard, of Bath, who, in a letter,was so obliging as to send me the hint, which I thankfullyacknowledge in this public manner.1vi INTRODUCTION.The reader will perceive that the plates are, many ofthem, numbered incorrectly, when he compares the indexnumber with it; but this will cause no embarrassment, aseach design is placed as near as can be to face its ownname, in the alphabet.Lastly, the reader, if he be a subscriber, on inspectingthe wrapper of his first number, will find that the conditionsstated only seventy copper plates in the whole; but nowheisinthe possession of eighteen plates more; and four oftheseare of a folio size, on perspective, which in all makeeighty-eight. When, therefore, the book is to be bound,it will be proper to see if the plates amount to this quantity,and answer to those specified in the index; and if any deficiency or redundency has arisen, through the carelessnessof the stitchers, these may be rectified by proper application.And I flatter myself, that the subscribers to this dictionary,on finding that I have thus acted both faithfully and gene.rously towards them, will feel themselves disposed toencourage my new and more splendid work, now pubfishing, entitled theCabinet-maker, Upholsterer, and General Artists' Encyclopædia.T. SHERATON.London, October, 1803.!Directions for placing the Plates.PLATEI to face s12162345678920II121314751617#819Am8888 તેમજતે2930313333333mi32333435365678373839404142434445464748味牛肉丽麵49505452PAGE17J818182020363638444444444444728789092104 112 118119 127 167 167 167 160 162164 166170 172172 172 172 172 202 202203203 203203203348 248 248256Alcove bedLines in perspective, and chair arms Drawing room arm chairs Grand masonic arm chair Library arm chair and masonic ditto Curricle arm chairs Herculanium chairsVarious easy chairs and their dimensionsArchitraves and mouldings, numbered 8, under the article AṇoCHITRAVE, instead of 9Three bason stands The bases of the five orders Bason stand and balconyAn elegant French bedAdesign for a four- post bed Acamp bed Aduchesse bedA sofa bed A crib bed BookcaseBotanyBookcase doors, 12 different patternsBrackets for lamps, and stump feet for drawersBuffet, with lights for china, by mistake marked 23 Bureau, and moving book shelf, by ditto marked 23 An elegant cabinet for a lady, by ditto marked 24A ditto with a glass and lights by ditto marked 25Acanterbury for supper, ditto Conversation chair and coridor stool , ditt Two bed room chairsTwo designs for parlour chairs The Tuscan order in perspective The Doric order ditto The Ionic order dittoThe Corinthian order dittoThe Composite order ditto French commodeEnglish commodeA cylinder bookcase with wings Aladies cylinder bookcase with lightsThe sister's cylinder bookcase to write at on both sides Sofa dressing table Dressing commodeTwo designs for dumb waiters Lines for dining table and horse shoe writing table Deception table and French rodTwodesigns for drawing room chairs, by mistake engraved drawing chairsAn elegant design of a Grecian dining table with a suitable sideboard A Grecian couchAGrecian squabA handsome pier glass AFrench horse dressing glassviiiDIRECTIONS.PLATE53 toface 256 545556575859606162636465VODOBRE AMON57867686970717273747576777879ზაPLATE34PAGEPLATE2259 260 260 260 260 260283 283 284 284285 292300 303 30334304 304 395PAGEI to face 342 2 350358362305 305 305 306 306318PAGEI to face 400400404414Two designs for hall chairs An elegant library case Two new designs for library tables, one after the antique Anew shaped library table with brass rail and lights Library stepsAnew design for a loo table A new occasional tableApedestal and vase A tripod light332332 Elegant dittoSupplementary Plates on Geometry and Perspective,Anew design of a Pembroké table 'Anew pier table Five new designs of table pillarsTwo new designs of pouch tables Two new designs of sarcophagiiAsecretary and bookcaseA gentleman's secretary and ladies writing table A gentleman's shaving table Anew design for a sideboard, with centre cellarets and brass rodA very elegant design of a sideboard , with a mirror in the centre of the brass rodAneat horse fire screen with 2 sliding wings A Grecian sofaAsofa and sofa table A quartetto table A sofa writing table A field officer's tent and guard setElegant drapery for window curtainsContains twenty one figures of geometrical lines for workmen Contains six figures, by which to illustrate the instruments of drawingContains six figures of lines for cornice, bed tester, and pedi ment drawingContains thirteen figures of lines for mouldings, including two methods of drawing the Ionic volutePerspective Plates ofFolio Size.Containing ten figures, including the elementary planes, achair, shaving stand, and step ladder, in perspective Containing figures, of the representation of various pieces of furnitureContaining the representation of the lonic and Corinthiancapitals at large The complete picture, being a representation of five pieces of new fashioned furniture, variously oblique to the picture;shewing their respective vanishing points, both of the ob jects and their shadows; together with the methods of finding the sun's vanishing points on the picture, whether parallel, perpendicular, or variously oblique to the picture;both when the eye of the spectator is situated between thesun and the picture, and when it is supposed that the picture is between the eye and the sun"THECABINET DICTIONARY.AAABACUS. In architecture is the uppermost member ofthe capitals of the five orders. In the Tuscan and Doricorders it is square, but in the Corinthian and Compositethe sides of the Abacus are concave. See CAPITAL. Itconveys the idea of a tile laid over a basket, which theovolo in the capital represents. This according toVetruvius was its origin. It is therefore a crowning member, and completes the column, serving as a rest to thearchitrave. Literally, it signifies a flat board, table, ortile, and arithmetically, a board divided by the ancientson which to reckon and make calculations. ThisAbacus was divided into five lines, on which were placedunits, tens, hundreds, thousands, and tens of thousands;so that each line increased the number or value of thepreceding one ten times; noted by placing little balls orpins fixed into holes for that purpose.ACANTHUS, is a plant which grows irregularly withlarge leaves. The ornament introduced into the Corinthian and Composite capitals was taken from it, andso modelled as to make a uniform and elegant appearancein those orders-See CAPITAL.ACCIDENTAL POINT. In perspective, is the meetingof any two original lines parallel to each other on theplane of the horizon, not in the centre of the picture.BAERThe lines A B in fig. 1. plate 2. are lines originallyparallel, which have their vanishing point in v in theplain of the horizon. The distance d, s, is pre-supposed,and d, v, being drawn parallel, A B gives the accidentalpoint, which is only so in a relative sense, with respectto the centre of the picture s, which is a fixed pointperpendicular to the eye of the spectator, into whichall lines vanish which are perpendicular to the picture.Hence any point not in the centre s may be consideredas accidental, since its place on the horizon depends onthe angle which the original line A B makes with theground line G R. Strictly speaking, no point is accidental; considered as generated from some original lineor lines; produced till they cut the perspective plane;which line or lines must find some determined point onthe vanishing plane of the said lines, whether parallelto the horizon, in the horizon, or in a plain oblique toit. Under this view of the subject the term AccidentalPoint in perspective is a solecism .ACROTERIA. Small pedestals without bases, in pediments, serving to support statues. Those at the extremities ought to be half the height of the tympanum, andthat in the middle one eighth more.AERIAL PERSPECTIVE, is used in distinction fromlinear. The former denotes those rules by which objectsare drawn by lines, according to their distance and proportion; the latter, that due degree of tint and colouringnecessary, to make those objects seem at a proper distance. And onthis depends as much of the beauty of anypicture, as on any other branch of art whatever.This theory is founded npon optical principles; for asvision is effected by rays of light, reflected from luminous bodies to the eye; consequently the rays becomeweaker to the eye, in proportion to the length of theirpassage through the air, before they arrive at the pupil.2013AER 3Hence a strict regard to these principles, with their dueapplication, is termed the science of Aerial Perspective.Those who understand linear perspective, and practise little but architecture, are very apt to make blundersin their keeping, when they attempt any thing of landscape. Their back grounds will be too strong of colourprobably, and their front objects too weak. The gradations of light and shade, according to the differentdistances will not be preseved, nor the tints blended together so as to harmonize with nature. Nature at adistance seems to be a combination of every colour, orlight variously tinged with red, yellow, blue, and theprivation of light, which is black; so that a judiciousmixture of these appears to be that sort of grey tingesuitable for the greatest distances, gradually dividingthese colours as we advance to the fore ground. -See KEEPING.Let the young practitioner observe in plate II. fig. 3.that there are several distances in that small landscape,which are distinguishable not merely by their being contracted in magnitude as the hills recede; but likewise inthe strength of their tints and colouring: for suppose thehills all of one strength of colour, they would then appear to be so many hills in one parallel plane, one largerthanthe other, and not as they are intended to convey theidea of hills behind each other, until they nearly blendin with the sky. And let him observe as to the house,bridge, and tree, that they have a proportionable strengthof tint, according to their natural colours and distance.The house is supposed to be on the other side of thebridge; the colour is therefore rather weaker, and theparts more faintly made out. The tree is on this side ofthe bridge, and being green requires still additionalstrength of colour on this account; and it is stronglymarked as all objects onthe foreground require; thereforeB 2景"ALCthe figure in the boat, and the boat itself being nearerthe eye, are objects that require the strongest light andshade in this landscape. Lastly, observe that the insidesof the arches are strongly shaded, that they may clear thehills which they intersect in appearance. ALABASTER. A stone, nearly allied to marble, andwill receive a good polish. There are several species ofother stone .it, some of which exceed in whiteness every It is soft and easy to work, on which account it is usedby sculptors for statues, and for other work where muchcarving is required.

ALCOVE, or RECESS, used in Spain for seats and sometimes for beds of state. The English have imitated theseby sometimes fitting up the end of long rooms in thisstyle; which may answer both for ornament and tobring any apartment of an undue length into proportion.In forming such an alcove for a place of retirement torest on; a couple of Corinthian columns may be placedon each side of the room, so as to leave a spacious en trance into the alcove. The columns should not be lessthan six feet from the end of the room, nor more thannine, except in extrordinary cases . The seats are madelow to receive their cushions, and drapery valances arefixed to the under edge of the frame. From surbaseheight the walls are covered with silk quilted, or disposed into uniform pannels, in any other manner, to suitIn the space between the surbase the rest of the room. are placed back cushions, or a stuffed back, framed to fitall round and screwed to. Fromthe frieze ofthe cornicebelow the ceiling is fixed draperies, either with or without tails: such alcoves when properly applied have apleasing effect. When they are fitted up for beds it willadd to the effect , if the bed be placed on a double plinth,in the form of two steps, laid with carpet to suit therest, and the effect will be still heightened, if a draperyf•

1•ALD 5•be fixed, parting from the centre of the, entrance andflowing down each side of the inner columns. In plate1. is a design for a bed of this kind, which, if well executed, I presume, would have a pleasing effect.+There is a curtain under the drapery which slides ona rod, and may be brought forward to cover the wholebed. The other tied up may be considered as a fixeddrapery, but may be taken down occasionally. Thetester and cornice need not project more than twentyinches, and the length of the bed including the volutesabout eight feet. Not having room on the plate wecould not represent the columns mentioned in the description, which the reader will supply in his own conceptions.ALDER TREE. In the Linnean system it is termedBetula, comprehending five species, four of which, according to their generic character, are of the birch kind;1. With oval sawed leaves, ending in points, or thecommon birch tree. 2. With rhomboid, oval, pointedleaves, doubly sawed. 3. With oblong, pointed, heartshaped, sawed leaves. 4. With round, runated leaves.5th, With branching feet stalks, which is the Alder Tree.Mr. Wheeler says, " The common birch tree is a nativeof the northern parts of Europe: the 2d and 3d speciesof North America, and the 4th grows naturally, on themountains of Lapland, Sweden and Russia. The 5th,or Alder Tree, is a native of most countries of Europe,and may be propagated by planting of truncheons ofthree feet in length. About the beginning of March thetruncheons should be sharpened at one end, and theground loosened with an instrument before they arethrust in, lest the bark should be torn off. They shouldbe two feet deep in the earth at least, and kept afterwardsclear from large weeds. They must be planted at sixfeet square distant from each other, and in the followingB 36ALKautumn may be transplanted to the place where they areto remain. "TheAlder Tree, as planted in our forests, is distinguishedunder two species, red and white. It suits well, says Mr.Emmerick, to " wet or swampy spots, where scarcelyany other valuable wood can be raised. It is particularlyadapted for buildings, or props under water; as, if no airget to it, it becomes as firm and hard as stone, and willstand for ever. The hatters give a great price for itsbark, which they use in dying black. " It is said thatthe peculiar properties of this tree prevents cattle fromcropping it when it is first planted.ALKANET. A species of Anchusa, as I suppose, theroot of which is much in use amongst cabinet makers,for making red oil; the best composition for which, asfar as I know, is as follows: take a quart of good linseedoil, to which put a quarter of a pound of akanet root, asmuch opened with the hand as possible, that the barkof the root which tinges the oil may fly off; to this putabout an ounce of dragon's blood, and another of rosepink, finely pounded in a mortar; set the whole withina moderate heat for twelve hours at least, or betterif a day and a night. Then strain it through a flannelinto a bottle for use. This staining oil is not properlyapplicable to every sort of mahogany. The open grainedhonduras ought first to be polished with wax and turpentine to fill up the grain; but in general this wood looksbest with wax and turpentine only; but if it be tolerablyclose grained and hard and wants briskness of colour, theabove oil will help it much. All hard mahogany of abad colour should be oiled with it, and should stand unpolished a time, proportioned to its quality and textureofgrain; if it be laid on hard wood to be polished offimmediately, it is of little use; but if it stand a few daysafter, the oil penetrates the grain and hardens on theAAA11ANA 7Surface, and consequently will bear a better polish, andLook brighter in colour.ALTITUDE. The perpendicular height of any objectSee MEASURE.AMBITION is represented in painting by a virgin,cloathed in green, with branches of ivy; standing on arock and shewing as if if she would leap over it: onthis rock are scepters and crowns; and she is attendedwith a lion, looking up. The ivy denotes ambition,always growing higher and spoiling the walls; signifying that the ambitious spare neither conscience norcountry, man nor beast, if they may but become greaterthan others.AMERICA is represented by a woman with a tawnyaspect-having a veil folded over her shoulders; roundher body an artificial ornament of feathers of diverscolours; holding in her hand a bow, and having aquiver on her shoulder, or by her side; at her feet ahuman head pierced with an arrow, and on the grounda lizard. This description rather answers to the Stateof America when first discovered, except we confineit to some of the uncivilized states, which still may bearan accurate resemblance to it.AMPHIPROSTYLE. One of the ancient temples,which had four columns in front, and as many in theprospect behind.AMPHITHEATRE. A circular building in use amongstthe Romans, for various exhibitions of wild beasts andgladiaters. These kind of buildings are now entirely outof use, and their remaining ruins are only so manyproofs of the folly and barbarity of past ages.ANATOMY. My design in introducing this term, is witha view to what we shall say under the article FIGUREin relation to the parts, proportion, and manner ofdrawing the human body. This, I presume, will beB48 ANT•acceptable to young persons who are desirous of acquainting themselves with this branch of delineation .Anatomy, literally signifies the dissecting of the humanframe, but considered in a more general sense, as it isusually taken, it includes the names, insertions, andœconomy of every part of our wonderful structure.Therefore, as the science of anatomy provides us with⚫ proper terms for every member of the body, with theirdue connection and proportion, I have selected fromDr. Bell, such terms and parts as have a necessary con' nection with drawing the whole body, which, in a comparative view, is but a very small part of anatomy; yet,so much seems necessary to enable us properly to express and point out the main parts of the whole figure,as well as duly to conceive of the prominences andcavities of its exterior surface-See the article FIGURE.ANNULET. Small square mouldings or fillets in theDoric capital. These were used in the ancient Doric,and are, preferable to any modern invention . The projection of these annulets are one minute each, theirheight is the same, and three in number; next under thebasket or ovalo of the capital. -See DORIC CAPITAL,fig. 7.ANTICHAMBER. A room that leads to the principalapartment or drawing room, where servants wait, orstrangers, till they may be spoken to by those on whomthey attend. The proportion of the anti-room, may bein length the diagonal of the square of its width; thewidth of the room being divided into three, give two ofthese for the height; or if it be required to be moregive five-sevenths. In spacious buildings the anti- roomon the first story may have an arched ceiling, which addsto the beauty and magnificence of such apartments.The suit of furniture proper for the anti-chamber,is in style of elegance next to the drawing or saloon•"•365·•APOroom. Anti- rooms are various, but always have a relation to some principal room which they join, or areopposite to; for the word Anti, which is Greek, signifies against, answerable to, or opposite to any thing.Hence, in royal palaces there are, or may be, antisaloon, anti-banqueting, and anti-drawing rooms, whichhave their furniture partly to agree with the room theylead to.ANTIQUE is generally applied to such painting andsculpture, or architecture, as were executed at theperiod, when these arts arrived to their utmost perfection amongst the Greeks and Romans.ANTIQUES. An irregular composition of men, beasts,birds, fishes, flowers, and such like, merely fanciful,as on the walls of the Vatican at Rome, painted byRaphael-These kind of ornaments had their originamongstthe Grecians, who adorned the friezes of theirtemples with such kinds of figures as best suited andrepresented the idols that were worshipped in them.See ARABESQUE.APERTURE, in architecture, any opening to admit oflight or air, as windows, doors. Painters, when theywant a principal light, sometimes suppose an aperturewhere there is none in appearance.APOPHYGE, in architecture, is the hollow next theshaft ofa column. See plate 8 , fig. 2, at e. Observe thefillet or cincture projects four minutes from the shaft,which are to be divided into five; then place six of thoseparts upwards on the shaft, and draw a line out, onwhich lay on the said six parts which will be the center,by which to describe the Apophyge. In the Tuscanorder this is nothing more than a quadrant, but in allthe others, this rule must be regarded as the base; andalso at the collarino or top of the shaft next the astragal,or neck of the capital. See CAPITAL, fig. 7, at b,10 APPAPPEARANCE, in perspective, is the representation ofany figure or object on the plane of the picture, or asthe said object describes itself on an upright transparentplane, interposed between the object and the eye of thespectator. The appearance in magnitude will be as thedistance of the original object from the plane of thepicture is to the distance of the eye from that plane.Suppose in fig. 2. A. B. the front of a house, and C. aperson in a room on the opposite side of the street. Therays directed to his eye are intersected at e, f, on thewindow which is the appearance of the height of theopposite front; but if C. be removed further from thewindow, then will e, f, increase in magnitude, or ifA. B. the front of the house be brought nearer to e, f,the same increase will be effected. Hence it is, that bystanding near to any window, in order to view the opposite side of the street, we are able to take in moreon the perspective plane which the window is to thespectator; for as vision is performed by rays of light,directed to the pupil of the eye, in right lines, as shewnby the lines in fig. 2. so it is evident by barely inspecting it, that the image or representation of the object weview will occupy a smaller space on the window as weapproach to it: so that by placing our eye about eightinches distance from a common sized square of a window, about the space of three common sized fronts ofhouses, describe themselves on that square; or in otherwords they will be perceived or appear within the saidlimits.APPEARANCE of any original right line, is in representation a right line. C, D, fig. 1. is an original rightline, and being perpendicular to the picture, it willvanish in s the center; therefore draw C, s, and s , d, thedistance; then a line from Dto d intersecting at E givesC, E the image or appearance of the original line DCARA 11the perspective plane. That side of any object which isoriginally parallel to the picture, will assume the samefigure on the plane of the picture as its original. Consider1, 2, 3, 4, pl. 2 fig. 1. at P. as the side of a cube placedparallel to the picture. Draw the visuals 1 d 2 d andtheir intersections at 5, 6, and as Fwill be parallel, fromthese points raise perpendiculars, intersecting the visuals1s 2s and the image will be found a perfect squareas its original. The same may be said of a circleplaced parallel to the picture. In fig. 4 let A B C Dbeconsidered as a circle placed parallel to the picture a, b,c, d, and the spectator viewing it through a transparentmedium. Now it is evident that it must appear a circleof a smaller size on that plane; since by drawing therays from each point in the original to the pupil; aparallel section of these rays is produced by the pictureat g, h, i, k, the image of the circle; for each ray cutsits correspondent diagonal and diameters in both figures,as is clear by inspecting them. The same holds true inany poligonal figure.APRIL is represented like a young man in green, adornedwith a garland of myrtle and hawthorn buds, winged;holding in one hand flowers, peculiar to this month,and in the other the sign of the zodiac, Taurus; because the sun passes through this sign in April.AQUEDUCT. An artificial canal for conveying waterfrom one place to another, either above or under ground.These have been carried over vast vallies, by means ofarches, in the form of a bridge, so that water mightfind a direct course from hill to hill, to any distance.ARABESQUE. Arabian like.ARABESQUE ORNAMENTS, are those which have nofigures of beasts, birds, or of the human kind, consisting only of various foliages, flowers, and stems. Theseare distinguished from the antique ornaments, which12 ARCincluded every thing that the mind could fancy for decoration-See ANTIQUE. The difference of these speciesof ornaments, are founded on two religious principlesThe Arabs, who follow Mahomet, were forbidden topaint human or animal figures; the Pagans worshippedsome animals, at least, considering them as the vehicleor symbols of the respective idol they received or represented, and therefore painted them about their temples.ARCH. Any portion of a circle not more than a semi ,that is, in an architectural sense, for no arch can bemore, either in wood or stone.The opinion of the best architects is, that no form ofan arch can equal the semi- circular one, both for strengthand elegance. There are however some eliptic arches,which answer as well in some situations, and look aselegant.The quantity of any arch is easily found, by drawingthe cord line 1 , 2, fig. 7, pl . 2; from the centre of which,raise the perpendicular a 3; then draw the half cord to2, 5, from which raise a perpendicular, which cuttingthe other at 6, gives the centre of the arch.Lastly, by drawing a line parallel to the cord line1 , 2 , through the centre 6, it is easily seen how muchless or more this arch is than half a circle, for eachsimi being divided into 170° , and the quadrant into 90 ° ,the difference is soon ascertained when the quadrant isfound, as the figure shews. This figure also teaclicshow to find the centre of any arch, whether more orless than a semi.To represent an arch in perspective-first, if it beparallel to the picture, as the arches of a bridge generally are in landscape, as in fig. 3, plate 2, where observe the line drawn across the river, on which are placedthe piers and spaces of the arches c, c, c. The centreof the picture is at s, where I have placed the spectator,ARC 13who is viewing the bridge from a boat, so that everyobject is drawn as they would appear to him in thatsituation: the figure is thus introduced, that it may bemore striking to the learner in perspective and landscape.In representing these arches in this parallel situation,nothing more is required than to find the centre of eacharch, as at c, c, c, and with the compass describe thearches; then from these centres draw lines to s, thecentre of the picture; and provided the width of thebridge be half the diameter of the small arches, drawfrom the centre c of the left hand small arch to dthedistance, and it cuts at b; whence draw another lineacross the river, and you have at 0, 0, 0, the centre forthe other side of the arches. Set one foot of the compass at o, and contract the other till it touch b, andturn the foot till it touch the front side, and so of thenext.To represent an arch, whose side is perpendicular tothe picture, as in fig. 5, let 1 , 2, 3, be the quarter planof the circle, and 1 , 5, the square of the pier of thearch, from thence draw lines to s, and let d be thedistance. From ' t draw to d, which will be the diagonalof the pier, which draw to 6, parallel to the groundline; from 6 draw to d, and you have the centre at g,from which you have a perpendicular; repeat the operation from g, and you find the other quarter of thearch and the square of the last pier by the same line.Suppose the spring of the arch at 8, draw to s, and youhave the center, from c draw the diagonals a, anddo the same on the other side of the arch. Take fromthe plan o 4, and place it from b to o, and from o drawlines to s, cutting the diagonal of the arch in the points,through which the line of the arch is to pass. Thesame operation must be performed on the other side, in14 ARCorder to obtain the true intersection of that part of thearch which is seen.ARCHITECTURE. This term is vastly comprehensivewhen understood in its full extent; including the wholeart of building ofevery species: as aquatic architecture,or the building of bridges of stone, wood, and iron; ornautical architecture, including ship building in all itsbranches.That kind, however, which connects itself with thedesign ofthis work, is chiefly the working and drawingof the several parts of the five orders, and the ornamentspeculiar to each, which see under their articles respectively. The figurative representation of this noble art,in painting, is a woman sitting on part of a column,surrounded with various tools and instruments, lookingintensely upon a draught on her lap. Behind her is aperson representing Reason, who also is looking upon adesign or drawing. On her head is a helmet, in her lefthand Pallas's shield; and in her right hand Mercury'scaduceus.ARCHITRAVE, in architecture, signifies the principalIn the en beam on which the whole building rests.tablature, which includes cornice, frieze, and architrave,the architrave is the lowest, resting on the corona of thecapital.The Doric architrave is quite plain, serving as aground to the Conic drops peculiar to that order.For the proportions of the architraves of each order,see the article ANTABLATURE, and for specimens ofmodern ones, for doors and windows, see plate 8.ARCHIVAULT or ARCHIVOLT. The inner contourof an arch or a band, adorned with mouldings, runningover the faces of the arch stones, and bearing uponthe imposts. It has only one face in the Tuscan order,two in the Doric and Ionic, crowned, and the sameARM 15mouldings as the architraves of the Corinthian andComposite orders.ARCHIVE. A chamber for records, 'charters, and otherpapers, used by Romans.ARÆOSTYLE. The largest intercollumniation or spacebetween columns, including four diameters at the lowerpart of the shaft.AREA. Any plain surface in geometry, the superficialcontents ofany figure. Thus, if a table top be a square,whose sides are four feet, the area is sixteen feet.To measure anyboard or floor, is to find the contentsofthe area-Thus7If a board be 9 feet 3 inches in length, 2 feet 10 in width, say twice 9 are 18-twice 3 are 6-then 10 times 9 are 90,the 12's in 90 are 7, and 6 remain-Lastly,10 times 3 are 30, which only produce 2 18inches and 6 parts, therefore the real content is 26 feet 2 inches and 6 parts of aninch. See article MEASURE, where the 26subject is more fully considered.ARISTOCRACY is represented as a lady in the prime ofher years, attired in a splendid habit, sitting majesticallyin a chair of state, a crown of gold on her head, holding in her right hand a bundle of rods bound together,and a garland of laurel; and in her left, a head piece.On her right side is a bason and purse full of gold andprecious jewels, and on her left hand an axe.ARM. Variously applied to any thing which sustains orholds up. The arms of a wardrobe in the cupboardpart, or wings in which clothes are hung, turn roundon a swivel, hooked to a rod, which for strength ismade of beech, and coloured.Ft. Ins.9 S2 106992 62 616 ARMARMS of a chair, of which there are four patterns inplate 2. No. 1 , 2 , and 4, whether made of beech, ormahogany, should have the toe carved. No. 3 mayhave the ornament painted with carving.ARM-CHAIR . Of arm-chairs there are a great variety,which I shall attend to as far as the limited nature ofthis performance will admit of. And in a note for thispurpose I have given a plate of the outlines of armchairs on a small scale, not only as a memorandum,but that I may describe them more intelligibly to thosewho are unacquainted with their structure and size.The shaded arm-chairs in plate 3 are intended fordrawing-rooms, except No. 1 , which I think will lookbest for a parlour carved in mahogany. No. 2 has astuffed top rail, as also the square pannel in the back.This chair would look well in mahogany, with a brassbead round the stuffing to hide the tacks, &c. and whichproduces a lively effect.No. 3 will look well in painted black rose wood andgold.ARM-CHAIR for free- masons; see plate 4. This chair IThe pro suppose to be in style for the grand master.portion is in front 3 feet 3 by 31 inches high at the seat.The whole height to the top of the canopy is 8 feet 6inches, the rest of the measure will follow in course.The genii in front are placing the steps, on which themaster is to ascend the chair.The ornaments are in some respects emblematic ofthe profession of free-masonry, which, according tothat fraternity, had a very antient and honourablefoundation.The circle in the back of the chair, is formed by aframe, and stuffed, let into a rabbit, and screwed behind. The representation of the sun is painted on canvas, and the stuff covered with it. The small circlesARM 17which represent the earth and moon, with two planetsabove, may be carved in wood, and painted. Theother parts of the chair should be in white and gold,or all gold. The back feet form Corinthian pillars, andthe arms are supported by eagles, to denote the sublimity of the art. The books, compass, and stars in front,with the triangle in the upper part of the entablature,shew that it is connected with geometry and astronomy.The canopy has a cornice ornamented with globules,behind which is a drapery valence tacked to a tester,which supports the whole. The curtain on each sidedraws round to inclose the whole occasionally. Themasonic arm-chair in plate 5 is intended to stand oncach side of the grand master's, for the accommodationof those next in rank. This is in the Doric style, toindicate the antiquity of the institution . The metopeof the entablature have alternately the sun and mooncarved in the mahogany. The back on each side of thestuffing is formed in imitation of the Doric soffits.This chair is to be on a smaller scale than the other.The front 30 inches wide by 2 feet high, and the wholeheight about 6 feet .ARM-CHAIR for a library, or a reading chair; see plate 5.These are intended to make the exercise easy, and forthe convenience of taking down a note or quotationfrom any subject. The reader places himself with hisback to the front of the chair, and rests his arms onthetop yoke. The desk is moveable to any point in thecircumference of the yoke or top rail, by means of agrove cut in the wood, and plates of iron screwed on.Before these plates are screwed all round the top yoke,there must be tee headed iron plates screwed to the underside of the piece of mahogany, about 1 wide, whichis made hollow at one edge to fit the top, to which the 2с18 ARMdesk is hinged. These being screwed on, this piece isput to its place, and the tee-headed irons go into thegroove; then, lastly, the thin plates are screwed, so thatthe tee-headed plates are kept in, but not so confined asto prevent its moving about. To the underside of thismovable piece is sometimes fixed a long and narrowdrawer for ink and pens. Also, it must be observed,that to the under side of this same piece is tenoned a railof mahogany half an inch thick, which is cut innotches to receive a foot, by which the reading flap issupported to any position, as shewn in the plate. Thewhole height of this chair may be 31 or 32 inches,over the seat 19, from the inside of back to front 21 ,the height of seat 16, between the back feet 12, ormore sometimes, and the opening of the top yoke 25 by17 inches from the depth of the arch, which is considerably more than a semi. The size of the reading flap is 12 by 16 inches long.ARM-CHAIRS, plate 6, are what I call Curricles, fromtheir being shaped like that kind of carriage. Thesemay claim entire originality, and are well adapted fordining parlours, being of a strong form, easy and conveniently low, affording easier access to a dining tablethan the common kind. The size of the front may be爨2 feet over all, and nearly that from back to front.ARM-CHAIRS HERCULANEUMS, plate 7, which I haveso named on account of their antique style of composition. No. 1 is peculiarly adapted to rooms, fitted up notonly in the antique taste, but where apartments are appropriated for the purpose of exhibiting ancient or moderncuriosities; and we particularly recommend them forthe use of music rooms. No. 2 is adapted to the saloon, being more massy and enriched than the other.Much depends upon the execution of these particularlyARM 19in the carving part, and for the sake of proceeding withcertainty, a full-sized drawing ought to be made in order to judge of the effect.In plate 8 are given most of the arm-chairs now inuse. No. 1 , is a cabriole arm-chair stuffed all over.The legs are mahogany. See CABRIOLE.ARM-CHAIR, No. 2, is a fauteuil, having a moulded toprail and arm, and turned stumps, which are either giltorpainted. But this pattern will suit best to be gilt, onaccount of the legs, which have heads. -See the articleFAUTEUIL.ARM-CHAIR, No. 3, is termed a hunting chair. Theseare stuffed all over, except the legs, which are of mahogany. The slide out frame in the front, when it isbrought out to the full length, is intended to support theloose back cushion, which brings it even with the seatof the chair, and forms a temporary resting place foronethat is fatigued, as hunters generally are. These chairsare sometimes made without the sliding front, on whichaccount they are made larger by a few inches each way.ARM-CHAIR, No. 4, is for a bed occasionally, or nearlyfor the same purpose as a hunting chair. The designshews a trunk below the seat, which is intended for thebed clothes. When the frame is folded quite down,within the seat, the cushion is placed upon it, and theback cushion being loose, is laid upon the frame whenopened out, so that both of them make up nearly thewhole length of the frame Observe, whenthe whole is folded in, there is a case of cotton, &c. tohide the whole.•ARM-CHAIR, No. 5, is a bergere, having a caned backand arms. Sometimes the seats are caned, having loosecushions. The top rail and arms are moulded to agreeall round. The stumps and legs turned, and the framesgenerally painted.ASHARM-CHAIR for a camp, made to fold up, the back andbottom of which are formed of girth-webbing, asshewn in the design.20ARM-CHAIR, No. 6, is a tub easy chair, stuffed all over,and is intended for sick persons, being both easy andwarm; for the side wings coming quite forward keepout the cold air, which may be totally excluded from theperson asleep, by laying some kind of covering over thewhole chair.And here I intreat the reader to observe, that thisplate is given not as a specimen of new pattern chairs,but of the uncommon kind, to help the memory, byaffixing the particular sizes to each part, as shewn inthe plate. The numbers are all of them in inches.ASH, of which there are six sorts, but by some, onlythree, Mr. Wheeler says, of this genus are reckonedthree species- Ist. with small leaves sawed, and flowerswithout petals, as to common Ash tree. - 2. Withsmaller leaves sawed, and flowers having petals, ( i.c.the flowers divided into parts or leaves) .- 3. Withthe smaller leaves very entire, and taper foot-stalks.The common Ash is a native of most part ofEurope,and particularly of England. The second sort growsnaturally in the southern part of Europe; and the thirdin Virginia. These trees are propagated, by sowingthe seeds as soon as they are ripe: the ground wherethey are sown should be kept clean all the summer,and not disturbed, and when the plants come up,they must be kept clean from weeds during summer;and if they make good progress in the seed bed, theywill be fit for transplanting in autumn, as soon as theirleaves begin to fall; and to prevent injuring their roots,they should be taken up by a spade, placing them a footand a half distance in rows three feet asunder. In thisnursery they remain two years, at the end of which,ASP 21they will be strong enough to plant in the places wherethey are to remain . ”Mr. Emerick, one of His Majesty's surveyors offorests, says, " that the Ash grows rapidly in fat land,but does not agree with a wet soil. The leaves of theash being good food for horn cattle , it is very profitableto sow extensive tracts of land with it." Ash isreckoned in strength next to the oak, and is much inuse amongst wheelers, plow-makers, and countrywrights. The best season for felling these trees isthought to be between November and February; at anyother time they are subject to worms.ASHLAR. A term used to denote common free stones,as they come rough out of the quarry, of differentlengths and thicknesses.ASHLERING, quartering to tack to in garrets, about 2feet 6 inches long, perpendicular to the floor, up to theunder side of the rafters.ASIA is represented in painting as a woman decked withflowers and fruit, clothed in a rich robe, holding in herright hand branches, with roots of casia, pepper, andcloves, and in her left a censer smoaking, and by her acamel on its knees. The emblem may be thus explained the flowers and fruit denote, that Asia producesdelightful odoriferous things; her garments richly embroidered, the great plenty of stores; the bundle ofspices, that she distributes them to other parts of theworld.ASPALATHUS, African broom. Of this genus thereare 19 species, all of which are natives of warm climates, and must be preserved in stoves by those whowould cultivate them here. The rose-wood, whencethe oleum rhodii is obtained, is one of the species, butof which we have yet had no particular description.The wood is heavy, oleaginous, somewhat sharp andbitter to the taste, of a strong smell, and purple colour.22 ATRIt is called rose- wood, or lignum rhodium, either on account of its sweet smell, or of its growth in the islandof Rhodes. It affords an oil of an admirable scent, reputed one of the best perfumes. British Encyclop.ASPHALTUM. It is originally a solid bituminous substance, ofa brownish black, but when mixed with varnish, and exposed to heat, turns a fine black. It maybe had at colour shops, ready for use, of a consistencenear to that of japanners' gold size; and, if necessary,be mixed with a little ivory black, finely ground,to lay upon glass, or other hard bodies. Some preferburnt lamp black, being more of a body colour than theformer, but either will do.mayIn blacking glass, take the pure asphaltum, or theblack varnish, of which it is the chief ingredient, andhaving aired the glass gently, lay it on, and let it dryby the fire, then add coats repeatedly till you obtain afine black. See GILDING ON GLASS.ASSEMBLAGE, in architecture, is the placing of orderover order in a due manner; first, the Tuscan; second,the Doric; third , the Ionic; and fourth, the Corinthian.The strongsupporting the weak all the wayup. In placingthem each axis must be in the same perpendicular.ASTRAGAL, in architecture, a small round moulding,like a ring on the shaft of a column. It is generallydivided into three parts, two of which are for the round.ATLANTIDES, a name for the Persian male figuresemployed in ancient architecture of the Lacedamonians.-See CARYATIDES.ATRIUM, grand entrance or hall of the ancient Greekand Roman houses. Palladio, from Vitruvius, describesfive different species of these: the Tuscan, that whichhad four pillars , the Corinthian, the Testudinated, andthat which was open.The Tuscan atrium was divided into three in length,two of which was for its breadth. That which had four――――ATT 23pillars, was thus distinguished: the proportion was todivide the length into five, and take three for the widthof the atrium. These pillars were placed at each angleof the hall, at a distance from the wall equal to one-fifthof their height.•尊The width of the atrium being measured from the in-side of these pillars, exclusive of the wings, and thelength including these. The plan of the walls musttherefore have been square, as is described by Mr. Hoppus in his Palladio.The order of these pillars was Corinthian, havingtheir lower diameter equal to one half of the wing, or

their distance from the wall, which was 64 feet Inthe

roof there was an aperture, or opening, one-third ofthe-width ofthe hall, with ballustrades round it.The Corinthian atrium was in length the diagonal ofthe square of its width, and the wings one-seventh eachof the whole length. It had on each side four pillarsof the Composite order, placed from each other atequal distances,The opening in the middle is one-third of the widthof the hall taken between the pillars.The Testudinated atrium, or that which was afterthe form of a tortoise, had its plan bearing the sameproportion as the Corinthian, the height of which wasits width reaching to the architrave of the roof. Wemay form some idea of the magnificence of those apartments, by the proportion ofthe Composite pillars used inthose of Corinthian structure. The height of these pillars were 35 feet, their diameter 34 feet, and beingplaced 8 feet from each other, the length of the hallmust have been 52 feet, at least, but in English feetabout 61 , for the Venetian foot used by Palladio, wasnearly two-twelfths more.ATTIC, after the manner of Attica, a Grecian province,of which Athens was the metropolis.24 AURThe Attic order in building, is to have the appearanceofthe front so as to hide the roof.The attic story is low, and placed on the other orders, next the roof, having square windows between thepilasters. The order consists of a pilaster placed over thecolumns or pilasters of the other orders. On these atticpilasters are sometimes placed balls or vases for ornaments. The height of it is in proportion to the orderbelow it, which is never less than one-fourth, but generally one-third of the height. Its diameter is the sameas the column on which it rests, and placed perpendicularly over it. The height of the attic pilaster is, bysome, divided into nine equal parts, one of which isthe height of the cornice, which, being divided into 10equal parts, 12 of these are the height of the plinth .The torus on the plinth is two of these parts, and itsfillet one half.The attic base is of a peculiar kind, used in the Ionicorder by the antient architects; and also by Palladio,and other moderns in the Doric. It certainly is one ofthe most beautiful of all the bases. -See BASE.ATTITUDE, in sculpture and painting, is the expressiveposture of a figure, by which we discover the actionit is engaged in, and also the feelings of the mind.Such figures are said by artists to be impressive, and willalways prove attractive to judges.ATTRIBUTES, in carving and painting, are the symbolsof the peculiar characters ascribed to those figures withwhich they are connected: as a harp is the attribute ofthe idol Apollo, a club of Hercules, a trident ofNeptune, a palm of Victory, &c.AUREOLA. Originally signifies a jewel of gold, or ofthe colour of gold, from the latin word aureolus , whichsignifies shining like gold, or of the worth of gold. Ajewel of this kind was given by the Romans, as a reward111

24aGBAC 25of victory, in some public disputes; hence figurativelyapplied to the reward of martyrs, &c. which, by painters,is represented to signify the crown of glory with whichthey adorn the heads of saints.AXIS. In an optical or perspective sense is the ray whichpasses from the centre of the picture perpendicularly, tothe pupil of the eye; or it is that ray which proceedingfrom the centre of the luminous cone, falls perpendicularly on the chrystaline humour, consequently passesthrough the centre ofthe eye.AXIS. In a geometrical sense, is a line round which anyfigure or body revolves. So in the Ionic volute, a linemay be imagined to pass through each opposite eye,round which the volute turns, which may be conceivedas the axis of the volute.Axis. In peritrochio, one of the five mechanical powers.-See MECHANIC.BBACK BOARD. In common drawers are made plain,of half-inch deal; but in good work, of inch stuff,framed sometimes into two, and sometimes four pannels.-In horse or screen dressing glasses, the back board isframed in four pannels of light clean mahogany, half-inchthick, rabbeted for a quarter-inch pannel of soft Honduras, as light wood as possible, that the whole framemay add as little to the weight of the glass as possible,and only require a moderate lead-weight to balance it.The inner edge of the framing is stuck with an ovalo orquarter round.The back boards or blind frames of large glasses, aremade of 1½ inch deal, into four or six pannels, and thinback boards ploughed into the framing, to save the.26 BACsilvering. Before the glass is laid on to the blind frame,thin flannel is tacked over the framing, to serve as asoft bedding for the silver.BACK PAINTING. This is a pleasing and simpleart of painting on glass, by first transferring themezzotinto black prints to a piece of fine glass,free of flints. This is done by boiling the print, orsoaking it in clean water till it is soft, when it istaken out, and laid between two other papers, overwhich place two more, after these papers have drawnup the water from the print, then take the glass, andplace it within the warm air of the fire; and havingprocured Strasburg turpentine, warm it till it becomesfluid, which, with the hog's-hair brush, spread even overthe glass, which, to keep in due temperature, should belaid on a warm board. Then take the print frombetween the papers, and lay it on to the glass, beginningat one end, and rubbing it down gently as you proceed,so as to prevent the air bubbles from disturbing the print.Proceed then to roll or rub off the paper with yourfingers, with care, till the whole appears black like theprint transferred on the glass, which then must be set todry; after which it must be varnished with clear varnish, and then it is fit for painting upon. This beingdone, prepare the oil colours very stiff, and lay on suchcolours as the print requires to suit the subject . Theshadows of the print are generally sufficient to effect thecolours laid on with a proper shade; but if any shouldbe too faint, mix a shadow in oil, and first wipe off whatwas laid on before, and lay on the shade first, or nextthe glass , and then soften off from that to the lighterparts of the print.Painting may be performed on glass without a print,by persons skilled in drawing and painting on paper orcanvass. This I have attempted by first sketching theBAL 27view with a little white on the glass. Having thusprepared the glass, begin with the sky, next the horizon;first with a mixture of lake, then softened towardsorange, then a yellowish grey; lastly, a little moreblue.For the distances, proceed first with a purplish grey,suitable to the tinge produced by such a sky reflectingon the most distant hills. And observe, that the truecolours must be laid on at first, for they cannot bealtered as in the usual way of painting. And further,that the shadows must be laid on first, and then softenedoff, with the lights joined to them, and blended in. Butit is in vain for any to attempt this mode of painting,till they can master a landscape on paper or canvass.BAGUETTE. In architecture, a small round moulding,less than an astragal: so called because it resembles aring.BALCONY. In architecture is a projecture from thefront of any building, supported by pillars or consoles.Their use is to afford some pleasing prospect, and givean easy opportunity of regaling in the air. When theyare made large, they occupy the centre of some wall, onthe first floor. Sometimes they are over the front door,and serve as a shelter as well as an ornament to themain entrance. They ought never to be placed nearthe angles of a house, least they should weaken thebuilding.Balconies are now sometimes continued the wholelength of the front, without adding any thing to theusual width of the aperture or window which leads tothem . These are composed of stone and iron ballusters.-In London, and some other cities, in modern buildings, balconies are fixed to each window on the firstfloor, and the windows are brought to a level with it,which gives additional light to the drawing-room, and28 BALrenders it convenient for placing a flower-pot in them,which is the chief use of such balconies.As modern balconies, on account of their lightness,.have a pleasing effect in the front of a neat house, Ihave given a small sketch of one as executed in thenewest building in London, which, I presume, willgratify some of my country friends- See plate 11.And the front is greatly improved by the manner inwhich the first story is rusticated, which finishes closeup to the under side of the balcony.The squarechannels which form the rustic work, is not wider thanone-tenth of the depth of the quoins, and not more indepth than half their width. Their length extends fromwindow to window, without any crossing joints.BALDACHIN. A building or piece of architecture inthe form ofa canopy, supported by pillars. The covering over the masonic chair is of this kind-See plate 4.These were also employed as a crown or covering foraltars.BALNEARY, a bathing room.BALUSTRADE, a series or row of balustres joined by arail, for defence or ornament, on balconies, terraces,altars, or the like. The baths, and some other apartments of the antients, were sometimes separated bybalustrades; but the baths, in particular, were encompassed with them. The word expressing that separation,was balustrum, from which are derived balustrade andbaluster, a single pillar vulgarly termed banister.The proportion of balustrades is ruled by the kind ofentablature they are connected with, particularly whenthey are used as an ornament with which to finish thefront of a building, where columns or pilasters are used.In this case the height of the balustrade should be fourfifths, or two-thirds of the entablature on which they areplaced, not including. the zocholo or little plinth onBAN 29·which the balustrade rests; which zocholo must be proportioned to the height of the whole building, and theprojecture of the cornice on which they rest, that thewhole of the balustrade may appear to the eye at amoderate distance from the building. The balustradeitself, or the four-fifths of the entablature they are connected with, is to be divided into 13 equal parts, eightof which are given to the height of the baluster, threefor the base, and two for the cornice or rail. One ofthese parts may serve as a module, and being divided intonine equal parts, as minutes, bywhich to proportion thesmaller parts. The height of the plinth of the balusteris one module, or ninth part, its width two modules.The corona of the cap is one ninth part, and the base,including a torus and scotia, one ninth. The belly ofthe baluster touches the right line drawn from theplinth to the corona, which are each alike in dimension.BAMBOE, or BAMBOO, a kind of Indian recd, which inthe east is used for chairs. These are, in some degree,imitated in England, by turning beech into the sameform , and making chairs of this fashion, painting themto match the colour of the reeds or cane.These reeds or canes are said to grow sometimes tothe height of 60 feet, and 5 or 6 inches in diameter.They are of a shining yellow colour, and are so hardand durable, that they are used in building. These,when they are bored through a kind of membrane attheir joints, are used for water pipes.BAND, or BANDELET. A term used to denote a flatmoulding in architecture and cabinet making. In theDoric order there is a band running along the architrave, crossing the tiriglyph , and another above, as acrowning member to it.In cabinet work, banding is of a threefold kind.

30 BANStraight banding is when thin wood is cut lengthwiseof the grain. Cross banding is when it is cut acrossthe grain. Lastly, feather banding is cut in an anglebetween the two.BANQUETING ROOM, or SALOON. The ancientRomans supped in the altrium, or grand entrance hall,of which see ALTRIUM, But in after-times theyadopted a more magnificent plan, in imitation of theEgyptian banqueting-house. It is said that the infamousNero, the Roman Emperor, who reigned in the firstage of the Christian æra, caused one to be built whichexceeded all that had been seen before. He named itDomus Auria, or the house of gold, which, by thecircular motions of its partitions and ceilings, imitatedthe revolution of the heavens, and represented the different seasons of the year, which changed at every service,and showered down flowers, essences, and perfumes, onthe guests.It is said that the banqueting rooms of the Egyptianswere from 100 to 150 feet in length , and in breadthsomewhat more than half the length. At the upperend, and along the two sides, they placed rows ofcolumns, according to the architecture of those days.At the lower part they made a magnificent entrance,extending nearly the whole width of the room, includingits ornaments. Upon the pillars thus ranged theyplaced an architrave, and probably some sort of cornice.On this architrave they built a wall, and placed threequarter columns on each side, over the lower pillars.In proportion, they were one fourth less than the first.Between these three-quarter columns, were placed thewindows that enlightened the building. From the topsofthe lower pillars to the outside wall, was laid a floor.This covered the portico within, formed by the lowerrange of columns, and made on the outside a platform,BAR 31which was surrounded with a corridor, with rails andbalusters. Thus terraced, it served as a place to walkupon. It is not easy to determine in what manner theEgyptians furnished such rooms, but it appears that thechief ornaments were the statues which were placedin them.BARK. The exterior part of trees, corresponding to theskin of an animal . The bark of trees is twofold, theouter and inner. The outer bark of the trunk, consistsof a coarse fibry texture, and the inner is replete withfatty juices, by means whereof the cold is kept out, andeven the frost in winter; whence it is, that some sorts oftrees are evergreens. This inner part of the barkannually lignifies, or turns to wood. Therefore thebark of a tree is found to divide itself in a contrarydirection each year: the outer part gives toward theexterior crusty bark, which at length falls off, whilst aportion of the inmost bark is added to the wood as itlignifies, and being thus incorporated, the diameter ofthe tree increases, and appears in ringlets or layersat the end when they are cut. But as the tree increases in mature growth, these external ringlets, orstrata of young wood, are gradually distributed to, andcondensed with the heart of the wood, so that theydisappear gradually towards the centre of the tree.Hence, I presume, arises the difference between centreand outside boards of wood of any kind, particularly ofmahogany; for the external boards partaking more ofthe nature of the vegetative sap, in connection with theinternal bark, the grain is necessarily produced in paralleland a right lined direction; for the internal bark beingcomposed of a vast number of lignous fibres, or threads,compressed together by the external air, and nourishedby the sap which ascends from the root, they naturallygrow in right lines, Hence we observe that outside32 BAR1 thingowboards run plain without figure, and straight grained.This,I think, will account fora fact observed bycabinet-makers, that outside wood dries soonest, workstenderest, and stands the truest when glued. That itdries the soonest is owing to the speedy evaporation ofthe vegetative sap, by means of air, which sooner affectsoutside boards, by reason of the straightness of the grain,which, as it thus dries, is compressed together in paralleldirections, and thus becomes one solid body, not so liableto warp by oblique springs or forces, produced by crossgrained wood. Yet the advantage that it gains in this respect, is lost in some others ofmore consequence,i.e. asto strength and beauty, for as the sap easily evaporates, itbecomes at length wholly exhausted of it, and then rots,and breaks by slight pressures. Hence the wood nearestthe centre is the strongest, and most durable, andgenerallymost beautiful, as it retains and matures more ofthe original sap of which the wood is constituted, andby which itis nourished. The configuration of wood arises probably from the abublitions of the natural juice or sap,ina confined state, which, like water amongst stones, istwisted and turned into waving and serpentine forms.Under this term it will not be impertinent to noticethe opinion of botanists relative to the importance ofpreserving the bark of trees.It appears from the experiments of M. Buffon, thattrees stripped of their bark the whole length of the stems,die in about three or four years

but being cut down at

this period, the timber is heavier, more uniformly dense,stronger, and fitter for service, than if cut down at thetime of growing. This agrees with what has beenobserved on the sap of trees, for when it is exhausted insome degree, the wood is better. And this is the casewitha tree that has its bark cut off in the spring aboutMay, when it ascends up to every branch, but having no·BAS 33bark, its supplies are stopped, and it feeds on itself forthree years, during which time the sap exhausts, andthe wood matures. But if a young tree have its barkcut round to the wood, all that part above the cutwill die gradually, though it may bear fruit the first yearafter.BAR. A piece of wood laid across a passage or door tohinder entrance. In chair making it is usually appliedto upright square pieces of mahogany, about a quarterthick one way, and three quarters the other, which formsometimes the whole, and at other times only a part ofthe baluster or back.BASE. In architecture it applies to the lower part of thecolumn of every order except the ancient Doric, whichhad no base; but in the modern has adopted the attic one,and sometimes only the Tuscan torus, with the additionof a bead.The pedestal of each order has also a base peculiar toitself; and both kind of bases have their plinth, onwhich they rest.It is contended by some, that the plinth is no part ofthe base; as the plinth was first in use, then the base,afterwards the pedestal . But in the general divisions of .each full order, assigned by all modern architects, thebase includes the plinth, and both are 30 minutes inheight, and their projection 10, in the Tuscan; and theremaining four each 11 .No. 1. The Tuscan base, the height of the plinthis 15 minutes, which is equal to the torus and fillet,so that the whole are 30 minutes, which some architects term a module, others but half a one. Theseminutes are numbered in the heights of each member,and the several toruses and cavetos being semis andquadrants, there is no need to confuse the plate withD34 BAS

inserting the projections. Thus if the height of theTuscan torus be divided into 12 equal parts, that willserve as a scale for all the rest, as shewn in the Tuscanbase. It must be observed that the scotias of each baseare elliptical, or, more strictly speaking, are portionsof two circles of different radii joined to each other; todraw which see the composite base, where the height ofthe scotia is divided into seven equal parts, three ofwhich are for the diameter of the upper or small circle;then turning the arch, and raising a perpendicular fromthe extremity, as the figure shews, lay on this line fourof those parts, from which centre draw through that ofthe small circle, and the line will shew where the largecircle is to commence, which is described from s, thecentre ofthat arch.No. 2. is the Doric base; its plinth is 14 minuteshigh.No. 3. The Ionic base of the moderns, or the AtticSee the article ATTIC. The plinth is 10 minutes high.No. 4. The Corinthian; its plinth the same inheight.No. 5. The Composite base; and its plinth nine.minutes. -See pl. 11 .BASE-LINE, in perspective, is that which is produced bythe plan of the picture intersecting the ground plane.On this base-line is placed the original length and widthof objects, according to some scale or known proportion. When the height of such objects is to be determined, a perpendicular line is drawn from the base-line,on which is placed the original measurement, and a lineis drawn to the point of sight, or some other vanishingpoint on the horizontal line. -See PERSPECTIVE .BASEMENT, in architecture, is a mode of decoratinga part, and sometimes the whole of the first story. OnBAS 35these basements, in superb buildings, are placed ordersof columns over each other. In this case the basementoccupies a space at least half of the height of that orderwhich is placed upon it-sometimes the whole, butgenerally two-thirds of the whole order.The usual method of enriching these basements, iswith rustics of different kinds. In Palladio's buildings,these rustics are generally smooth faced, and the jointsbetweenthem square, about one quarter of the height ofthe rustics, which were half the diameter of the columnabove the basement. These rustics varied in length asoccasion required. We see some of them in his buildings running the whole length of the space between thewindows. But in general the length is a little morethan twice the height of the longest; and the shortestsometimes one-third, and one-half of the longest. - Somearchitects give to the square jointed rustics only oneeighth part of its height; the depth of which joint isequal to their width. The rustics which are chamfered, form a rectangular channel, when two of themare placed together, the diagonal of which is from onethird to one-fourth of the height of the rustic.BASILICA. A public hall, or court of justice. Theword is from Caging, which in Greek denotes a royalhouse or palace. In these halls or courts, even princes,as well as magistrates, sat to administer justice: hencetheir name Basilica. The Roman Basilice werecovered, by which they were distinguished from thefora, which were open roofed, and exposed to the air.The Basilica Julia, which Vetruvius speaks of, wassupported by 100 marble pillars in four rows, and enriched with decorations of gold and precious stones. Init were thirteen tribunals, or judgment seats, wherethe prætors sat to dispatch causes.BASON-STAND. A piece of furniture much in use,36 BASand as generally known. As a help to the memory weshall take notice of their size and variety. The common square bason-stand is generally made of commonHonduras wood, with legs of one inch stuff; the sizefrom 13 to 15 or 16 inches square, and 34 high. Thestretcher ought not to be less than 13 inches from theunder side of the drawer, to allow sufficient height forthe bottle.These kind of bason-stands are sometimes inclosed tothe drawer to form a cupboard with folding covers, therims of which are made of three-quarter inch mahogany,rabbeted, for half inch mahogany, sometimes solid, orotherwise veneered. The cupboard door is made in one,clamped and veneered. But when they are made of alarge size, about 18 inches square, the door is divided intwo, rabbeted in the middle, and fastened by a turnbuckle, to suit the knobs on the drawers.Corner Bason-stands, with three legs, having the twofront ones to spring forward, to keep them fromtumbling over. The front is made circular, as No 1 ,plate 10, drawn from a centre where the sides meet at theback, which are framed rather flatter than a square, thatthey may fit closer to the angle of a room.The common ones are from 15 to 18 inches over theends, on which is fixed a piece of mahogany 12 inchesbroad, cut to a quarter round or ogee shape. Thedesign ofthese pieces is to prevent the water from spraying the wall where they stand. These have but onedrawer, and two shams, one on each side of the centre,with a stretcher, the same as No. 1. Those like No. 1 ,are made considerably larger. The general sizes ofwhich are marked upon the plate, where observe adotted circle, which shews that the top is hinged, andturns down to hide the bason, and enclose the whole.Observe a spring at the upper end of the dotted circle,BAS 37tFwhich is made of thin iron or wood, so that the topbeing placed upright, it starts out to prevent it fromcoming down.The circular Tripod Bason-stand, No. 2, is entirelynovel, and is designed for a young lady to wash atThe back, to which the curtains are fixed, is madeseparate, and turned over in a scroll, where the lightsare fixed. To this back must also be fixed a smallshelf to hold a soap glass, and to which a face glass ishinged, and supported by a small brass wire foot behind,which falls into notches.The bason occupies the whole circumference, as isobvious by the design. The curtains are intended notmerely for ornament, but to cover the bason, by beingbrought forward, which, having a small fringe at thebottom, will look handsome.The lower part contains a cupboard for the waterjug, and in the lower frieze may be a small drawer, ifthought necessary.No. 3 is enclosed at the top by tambour, and is thefirst ofthe kind I have seen. The workman will easilysee how to manage the tambour, by making a partitionto come before the back, to give room for its passagedown a groove cut for that purpose. On this accountthe stand should be wider from back to front by an inchand a half. The scale for this and No. 2, is marked atthe foot of it. But observe that No. 1 is drawn to asmaller scale; but to prevent any mistake, the sizes areaffixed to the design.In plate 12 , is another corner bason-stand, containinga night convenience. This will require to be madelarge to contain it. The stool part is made to fit exactlyin, and on the right hand turns either on hinges or byiron centres, as the workman may judge most proper.To prevent its coming too far out, a groove must be38 BATcut at the bottom in a true arch, and an iron pin madeso as to be screwed on the bottom of the stool to pass inthe said groove. And observe, that when the stool isbrought forward till it stops, there is a foot hinged to theunderside, which lets down to support it. The heightto the top ofthis stool need not be more than 16 inchesfrom the ground. The top is hinged, and managed thesame as No. 1 , plate 10.BASSO- RELIEVO, in sculpture and carving, implies acertain degree of projecture assigned to figures or animals, cut out in tablets, &c. Where there is a groupof figures, the relief is to be managed with such art as toproduce distance, as in perspective. For this purpose thebasso-relievo assigns to the first or principal figure, a projection more than half out, to the second one half, to thethird one quarter; so that the back figures will seem torecede more than they strictly do . - See RELIEVO.BASTION, in fortification , is a large heap of earth, facedeither with sods or bricks, and sometimes with stones,projecting from a rampart, anciently termed bulwark.BATH, in architecture, denotes a house or apartment forbathing in . These are sometimes fitted up with tasteand elegance, even in modern times. But the Greekand Roman baths seem to have displayed as much oftheir opulence and taste in building as any other branchof their architecture. It seems that some parts of thebaths of Titus and Dioclesian are still to be seen atRome, though these Emperors lived, the former in thefirst, and the latter in the third century.Some of these baths were laid with the richest marble,and wrought by the rules of the most delicate architecture. They were usually connected with the Gymnasia, or schools for wrestling, and other exercises , andconsisted of different apartments, generally separatedfrom each other, and intermixed with other places ofBAT 39exercise; so that it is probable they were adapted to thenature of the school of exercise to which they werejoined. These were, 1st, the cold-bath; 2d, the roomwhere they anointed with oil; 3d, the cooling room; 4th ,the stove apartment, from whence they had their hotbaths; 5th, the sweating room, with a vaulted ceiling,or vapour bath; 6th, the dry stove-room; and 7th, thehot-bath. It is not, however, to be imagined, that suchas bathed for pleasure only could want all this variety.These baths were of a politic nature, and of Imperialinstitution, for the training of young persons up in military exercises. There were also schools for youth ofboth sexes connected with them, and under proper instructors. Ifthe body were too gross, they could reduceit by sweating and the hot-bath; if they were toorelaxed, they could brace by the cold-bath. The extentof these kinds of baths, as described by Palladio, wasvery great, including every office and place of recreationconnected with them. For the whole they measuredout 250 Roman paces.The Imperial baths were some of them adorned with200 marble pillars, and were furnished with 1600 marbleseats; and in which 1800 persons might find accommodations for bathing at one time.BATTEN, a scantling of wood from 2 to 4 inches broad,and 1 inch thick, or more. Yellow deal battens areused for flooring of a good kind, being, on account oftheir narrow width, least liable to shrink or twist.By means of battens, doors are sometimes made to appear as if framed with pannels.There are also battened doors, which are called doubledoors, for front or outer doors, which are usually madeof whole deal, and afterwards battened on the outside,and pieces 4 or 5 inches broad mitred round the edgeson the outside of the door; and then it is lined across40 BAYthe door between these pieces with thin slit deal, whichmakes it level with the mitred pieces, and having a beadon the inner edge, it appears like what joiners term beadand flush.BATTER, a term used by bricklayers, to signify that awall inclines from a perpendicular inwards or from them.BATTLEMENT, in architecture, is sometimes taken fora low wall on the top of buildings, for defence orsafety, without regard to the notches or indentures thatare sometimes in battlements. The battlements on thetop of old built churches, cathedrals, and such like,with open spaces, and then piers alternately, seem to bewhat we in general mean by this term .BAYS, or BAIZE, a sort of open woollen stuff, having along nap, sometimes frized, and sometimes not. Thisstuff is without wale, and is wrought in a loom withtwo treadles like flannel. It is chiefly manufactured atColchester and Bocking, in Essex, where there is a hallcalled the Dutch-bay-hall, or Raw- hall.This manufacture was first introduced into England,with that of says , serges, &c . by the Flemings, whofled thither about the fifth of queen Elizabeth's reign,from the hand of persecution , for their religion .Brit. Encyclop. Bays is in breadth commonly 1 yard,1 yard, or 2 yards, and their length from 42 to 48yards. It is much in use by cabinet-makers and upholdsterers. By the latter, bays is used to cover over carpets, and made to fit round the room, to save them.Bays is used by cabinet- makers, to tack behind clothespress shelves, to throw over the clothes.BAYS DOORS are such as are used in winter to prevent the cold from penetrating into the apartments of dedelicate persons. For which purpose, a cylindricalspring, joined to an iron arm, is fixed to some part ofthe casing of the door. This arm has a roller fixed atBEA 41+ dd31.ororathece,beahisthatalld,101,d,18d•_I÷1.eseealofatits end, and there being an iron or brass plate screwedto the bays door, every time the door is opened thespring presses the arm against this plate, and the rollerlets it pass free, so that the door falls to of itself. Theframes of these doors are made of 1 and 2 inch deal,according to their situation and size, and then they arefit into the place where they are to be hinged, and roomenough must be left for the thickness of the bays.BAY TREE. It has spear-shaped leaves, veined, is anever-green, and a native of Italy. Its chief use is forornament, in gardens or plantations, and it thrives wellunderthe droppings of other trees, and forms an agreeable shade. But as I do not find that this tree is in useamongst workmen, I therefore thus dismiss it.BAY WINDOW, or window that projects in a circlefrom the front, for the sake of prospect.BEAD, in architecture, is a semi- circular moulding joinedto the edge of thin facias, or slips , and are worked bya plane named after the moulding that it works.BEADS are of three descriptions; a quirk bead, amongstcabinet-makers, is frequently worked by a small irontool, filed to the shape of a bead, which they workacross the grain, and longwise for the sake of dispatch:2d, a cock bead projects in a semi-circle above the surfaceof any thing. This bead is worked by a plane, sotermed, and is that moulding which is put round mahogany drawers as an ornament: the 3d is a staff-bead,used byjoiners, which is their common bead plane mentioned above, which they work on both sides of anything which forms a staff at the corner of posts, &c.How beads in architecture are ornamented be seen mayin plate 9.BEAM, in carpentry, is applied to those massy pieces oftimber, which either stretch the whole length or widthof a building, and are sometimes supported with pillars.42 BEDIn roofing the principal rafters are tenoned into beams,which bind the walls, and support the whole roof.According to act of parliament, a beam 15 feet longmust not be less than 7 inches deep by 5 inches thick;one at 16 feet long must be 8 inches by 6; and at 17feet must be 10 inches by 6.BED, taken in a general sense, includes the bedstead andother necessary articles incident to this most useful ofall pieces offurniture.By not reflecting upon the history of beds, we forgetour present indulgence in their quality, when comparedwith those of our forefathers. Our ancestors before theRoman invasion, slept upon skins, that for this purposewere spread on the floor of their apartments. Afterwards they enjoyed rushes and heather. But when theRomans taught us agriculture, one of the benefits resulting from it was a straw bed. Weare informed by acertain writer, that straw beds were in use in the royalchambers of England as late as the close of the thirteenthcentury.Since that time beds were no longer suffered to restupon the ground, but, as had been practised long beforein the east, were mounted on pedestals. This, however, was only amongst the gentry, and not the poorersort till within four or five ages past. And even in⚫ our own times straw beds are in use amongst some ofthe Highlanders, and in some parts of Ireland andWales. But these particular cases are no rule by whichto estimate the custom of a nation; for now the greatbody of the people in the three kingdoms sleep eitherupon chaff or feather beds, laid at least upon some kindof frame; and in most of the southern parts of England, and many in the northern, the poorest people invillages enjoy a feather- bed. We have noticed, thatlong before the Roman conquest the eastern nations,BED 43particularly Judea, had their beds laid on frames orpedestals . This appears from two or three passages ofsacred writ, wherein is particularly mentioned the ironbedstead of a Gentile prince of a very extraordinarysize, and in another place such as were made of ivory,whereon those that were in worldly ease stretched themselves . And in after-times, when the Jews had copiedsome of the fashions of the Greeks and Romans, wefind they had not only couches to sleep upon, but suchas they used at meals, on which they reclined at thetime of eating. The first sort amongst the Romanswere termed lecti tricliniorum, literally a three-couch bed,because there were generally three of these in one room.The latter lecti cubiculares, dining beds or couches, ofwhich there were generally three at on table. On thisaccount the masters of such feasts were termed, in ourSaviour's time, agxigixλivos , architricklinos, compoundedof archi, head, and tricklinos, three beds or couches,which is translated in our version, the governor or rulerof the feast. John ii . 9..These dining beds were about 4 or 5 feet high, whichinclines me to suppose they had a back something likeour sofas. -See GRECIAN DINING TABLE.As we do, so it appears that the Greeks and Romansaffected loftiness of style; but in what way they furnished the frame with bedding is not easily determined.It is certain that they had coverings of worked counterpanes, and that the ladies exerted their genius in decorating them by their own productions of various kinds.As our health in some measure depends on the mannerof sleeping, it may be pertinent to observe the generalprinciple on which bedding should be composed, butwhich should, in my opinion, be regulated by the natureof the constitution of those who are to sleep on them.Some may require a softer bed than others, but in44 BEEgeneral firm beds are the most healthy, especially forpersons inclining to perspire, or those who are of a delicate frame, to whom scarcely any thing can be morehurtful than to sink in soft down. These sort of bedsare better adapted to the robust and healthy, who canwith propriety sustain the indulgence, and who mayrequire to be reduced by sweating.For delicate persons I offer my opinion how theyshould have their beds made: first to begin with a strawmattress, then a flock ditto , on which the feather bed isto be laid, and lastly, a hair mattress; but if it shouldfeel too firm , then a very thin flock mattress may beplaced upon it. But in general the hair mattress will bebest, being of an elastic nature, which prevents from sinking so as to perspire. The same observations will, in general, hold good in the pillows and bolsters. To renderthe constitution hardy, every effeminate person should bydegrees bring himself to the habit of sleeping on hardbeds, and not to sleep too long at one time. And allsuch persons, who by a relaxed habit have contractedweaknesses in the back, should be particular in avoiding soft beds.From my own experience I have been induced tomake such remarks; for having been by sickness reduced to a very laxed habit of body, I found myselfmuch relieved by attending to these things.As to the particular management of beds, and thearticles required in mounting them, together with theirvarious classes; these, it is presumed, will most conveniently come under their respective names, as State,French, Alcove, Sofa, Half- tester, and Field Beds, &c.—For which look for these terms.BEECH, a species of the fagus, of which the chesnut reckoned one by some botanists, and the red and whitebeech two others.BEN 45The beech tree is a native of Europe, and is oftenplanted amongst other trees in forests. The red beech.grows in general almost to as large a size as the oak, butspreads where it has room rather wider with its branches.Its growth, when raised from the seed, is quicker thanoak. Beech thrives well amongst other leafy woods,and requires the same sort of soil as the oak does. Thewood of this species is not so hard as the white beech.They require at least about 15 or 16 years growth beforeany use can be made of them by cabinet-makers. Atthe end of so many years, when the beech may be cut,the stumps which are left will send out new branches.It is said that the white beech will thrive in a poorersoil than the red, but its growth is not so large; itsstem, which in height generally reaches from 20 to 30feet, seldom attains to the thickness of a stout man. Thisbeech being extremely hard, when of a good growthand quality, is much used in mill -work, amongst planemakers, and chair-makers. It requires to be kept dry,and will then prove lasting, but being exposed to wetand much dampness will rot very soon. It will imbibeinto its pores a good quantity of linseed oil , which is agreat preservative to it. Boiling it in red stain is hurtfulto it, and before japan colour be laid on to it, it shouldhave a thin coat of white lead and oil.It is propagated by sowing the seeds, which in formresemble a cherry-stone, from October to February.It requires to be kept clear from weeds when it rises.above ground. It is brought to London in great quan,tities from 1 inch boards to 5 inch planks, and is nowthe cheapest wood in use.BENCH, properly a seat, or seat of justice . Amongstcabinet-makers the term is used to denote a strong beechtable on which they work.46 BENBEND. To incurvate any substance from a straight to acrooked form.Most substances may be thus effected by means ofheat and water.The practice of ship -building proves, that plank woodof almost any thickness, by the united effects of theseelements, may be brought to any curve. For, as theconstituent parts of wood are of a fibry nature, or likeso many threads joined together in one body, these, bymeans of infused heat, steam, and water, are relaxed toa degree which makes them give way to force, and sosettle to any form .Oak plank is therefore boiled in long troughs for thatpurpose, or placed in a steam furnace.Amongst cabinet- makers, the difficulty of bendingwood is owing to their not being able to apply a sufficient quantity of the mollifying elements, without thereby subjecting the wood to the hazard of shrinking, asgenerally such wood thus prepared is to be glued downimmediately. To prevent this, bend as much as possibleby fire heat only; but after a certain degree of it, woodbecomes more brittle, and liable to break. The mediumbetween the two must be studied by the ingenious workman in bending wood. For this purpose, that temperature produced by sizing is recommended, together withgentle heating, otherwise the glue will harden and prevent the wood from bending. Where linseed oil can beapplied, it is well first to oil the wood to be bent, andthen glue size it well, and proceed to heat the wood thusprepared, and with as much dispatch as possible lay itdown.BENEFICENCE, in painting, is represented by a youngwoman with an agreeable aspect. Beautiful, becausebenevolence is approved by all. Young, to denote thatBIC 47the remembrance of past favours should never grow old.In one hand she holds a bag of gold and jewels ready todistribute them; and in the other, a chain of gold, tosignify that beneficence ties and obliges.BEVEL, amongst cabinet-makers and joiners, is an instrument used to take any angle with, or by which tomark a line which is not square. For this purpose theblade is made to move in a long groove, made in thestock or handle, and fixed to it by a nut and screw, sothat it will alter to suit any degree of obliquity required;and thus it differs from a square, which is a fixed inftrument at the angle of 90 degrees. A mitre bevel is aninstrument fixed to an angle of 45 degrees, or which isthe same thing, the diagonal line of any square.This instrument is sometimes termed a mitre templet,because of its use to cut mitres by.To findthe bevel of chair rails, let the learner plane apiece of thin deal, and if the front rail be 18 inches, andthe back 15 , then 3 inches being the difference, let himtake half of it, and lay on a square line drawn at oneend of the lath; then, if the length of the side rail be 16inches, lay it on from the 1 inch, placed as abovementioned, and draw in the 16 inches to the edge of thelathe, and cut and plane it to this bevel line. Lastly,from this side thus prepared place the bevel, and movethe blade till it coincide with the square line that wasfirst drawn, which will give the correct line for the backand front joints of the proposed side rail. In this manner, by a little practice, the young chair-maker mayfind out any bevel he wants.The bevel of hip rafters, and their backing, are takennotice of under the article RAFTER.BICE, a kind of colour. Blue bice is used in oil, butbeing of a sandy quality, it requires to be well ground, `and upon a very hard stone. It is a lightish blue, and is48 BIDsometimes a substitute for ultramarine. It looks wellnear the eye, and may therefore be used on foregrounds.Green bice is of a pleasant tint, between sap green andverdigrease. It is used in water colours, and suits wellfor the bright leaves, and fore- ground of landscape.BIDET. A nag, or little horse, in use among soldiersformerly, but now laid aside. Amongst cabinet- makersit denotes a small stool with four legs, sometimes fixed,and at others to screw off, to render them more portable.-They contain a pan made of tin, and japanned, or areof earthen ware, made for the purpose.Ofthis species of furniture there are a variety. Someare framed in two inch beech, and cut afterwards to theparticular shape of the pan, which is first provided as aguide to the whole. The outside of this frame is thenveneered crosswise, and afterwards the upper side, withquarter inch mahogany, and rounded off in a smoothmanner, till it meet with the side veneer. The loose topis fitted into a rabbet, which the pan hangs in. The topought to be of hard, good wood, as it is very liable towarp from its situation. It is of three- quarter mahogany,and gently rounded off to a thin edge. The legs arethermed, to which are sometimes glued small ogeebrackets to the underside of the frame. Their length is18 inches or a little more, width 12 , and height 16 , outside measure.CFortable bidets are made with their legs to screw off,and tops to lock up in some form or other.The simple box shaped ones are about 5 inches deep,with the top to slide in a groove, formed by a cross bandround the top edge, which at one end is glued on the top,and mitered to the sides , so as to appear uniform allround. This cross banding is also rounded off as theother sort. A common till lock is sufficient to fasten258 +43BID 49Athe top with; for as it is confined by a groove at theopposite end to that where the lock is fixed, it is evident,that the upright shut of the lock bolt is sufficient tosecure it from being opened. And lastly, observe thatthe legs are turned, and of such a length as to pack inthe inside of the pan. To the top is fixed a commondrawer handle to lift it by.The tops of these are sometimes made to fix uponthe box, and to come flush with the outside all round,on the corners of which a bead is stuck. -The mannerof fixing the top is by letting in two plates, with holesin them, on the edge of that end of the box opposite thelock. Then to the underside of the top, which neednot be more than half inch mahogany, two hook platesare let in to answer them. Lastly, when the top is tobe locked, lift it partly upright, that the hook plates ofthe top may enter those with holes on the edge, thenlet it settle down to its place, and turn the lock, which,in this case, is of the box kind; the link-plate beingscrewed to the under side of the top.Seat Bidets are those which have a frame to slipover that wherein the pan hangs; they are stuffed withhair, and covered, by which the pan is hid, and are made.useful to sit on.Travelling bidets are made like a chest, with a top totake off, either by slip hinges, or in the manner describedabove, with hook plates. They have a drawer at thebottom , which slides in between the legs of the bidetframe, which rises out by the hand to a proper heightfor sitting on, and which is prevented from falling backby flaps hinged to the frame ofthe bidet, which are madeto spring out these, when the seat is let down again, areeasily pressed to by the hand. The drawer abovementioned is fitted up with various partitions and boxesfor a lady's convenience, for whose use they are parETY50 BILticularly adapted. The size of these bidets run about2 feet in length, 16 broad, and 18 or 20 inches high.BIER. A wooden machine for carrying the bodies of thedead; from biere, French. Among the Romans thecommon bier was only a sort of wooden chest, whichwas burnt with the body. Those which were for therich, were pompously adorned.In the churches of Rome there are monumental biers,on which they placed the bodies of some of their renowned saints, to be venerated by their devout friends.BIFRONS. An appellation of Janus the son of Apollo,who was rewarded by Saturn with the knowledge ofpast and future events, and is therefore by painters described with two faces looking backwards and forwards.Sometimes he was painted with four faces, having areference to the seasons of the year.BILL, amongst workmen, a small hand axe, having itshead of a crescent shape.BILL, in trade and amongst workmen, signifies an accountdelivered, either of goods sent in, or of work done forone.BILLIARD-TABLE. Thesetables are made very large,when they are ordered as full sized ones. Their shape isan oblong, about 12 feet in length, and 6 feet in width,and the height feet.They are covered with fine green cloth, and havestuffed cushions all round the inside of the top, whichare to cause the balls to rebound. At each corner, andin the centre of the sides, are fixed nets or pockets, toreceive the balls. To these tables belong maces and cues,by which the balls are driven into the above pockets.The former of these have a broad end or head, shapedout of inch thick hard wood, and about 1 inch broad,scooped out, and tapered to the part where the hole isbored for the stick, which in length is about 4 feet orBIR 51more, and at the top end barely half inch in diameter,tapering to a full quarter of an inch. The cues arethick sticks, diminishing gradually to a point of abouthalfan inch in diameter,Billiard-table making is generally a branch by itself;though sometimes they are made in regular cabinetshops. When they are, they require the best of workmen to execute them. And particularly the tops requireto be framed in such a manner, as to prevent them fromeither warping or giving way. And if the surface benot perfectly even, they are of no use.BINDING. Amongst upholsterers is applied to thevarious kinds of narrow laces used to strengthen andornament the edges of any sort of curtains, drapery, orbed furniture.Binding for tickings are about three-fourths of aninch broad, of white and blue stripe of cotton and linen,others a little broader, of a diamond pattern, of worstedand linen.The principal bindings are as follows:Bindings of silk ribbonds, various.Silk and worsted ditto.Silk covered laces, of various colours, 1 inch and upwards broad.Silk guard lace, and silk quality.And at present there is introduced from France, veryrecently, a sort of black velvet binding, which havingnot yet seen, I can give no account of it; but may onsome future occasion.BIRCH TREE, the betula tree, of which there are fourspecies according to the Linnæan system, and the common alder is the fifth. See the article ALDER. Thiswood is very useful, being both light and tough, and ofa sort of cream colour. Mr. Emmenich says it willgrow in any soil, if ever so poor, provided it be dry52 BISIts growth is quick and straight, and is therefore used .for hoops. This tree is remarkable for its vast quantityof sap in the spring season, at which time it is easilydrawn offby making a proper orifice in the trunk. Thebest place for bleeding this tree, as it is termed by botanists , is under some large spreading branch from thetrunk, which is to be performed by driving in a chisselin an oblique direction very deep, to which a convenientvessel is to be placed so as to receive the stream of sapwhich issues from it, whichin 14 days will amount tothe weight of the whole tree, together with its roots.Of this sap is produced birch wine, recommended forthe stone and gravel. It appears, however, that such ableeding is unto death, as the tree never recovers. Thebirch seed is ripe in September and October, unlessit has been a cool and wet summer, when it does notripen till November, at which season, and also duringthe winter months, it may be sown, even upon snow.In June and July there is an appearance of seed, but itis not real. The real seed comes in clusters in the abovemonths, and when rubbed clear of its capsule, is of abritish yellow colour, smaller than mustard seed.Birch bark, being of a bituminous substance, is warmand emolient, and is therefore used in fumigations tocorrect a distempered air. The inner silken bark wasanciently used for writing tables before the invention ofpaper.With the outward, thicker, and coarser part of thisbaik, are houses in Russia, Poland, and other northerntracts, covered instead of slates and tile.Birch leaves are of use in the dropsy, either internallyor externally applied. Encyclop. Britannica.BISTRE, a transparent colour of a brownish, tint , and isextracted from the sort of wood. The French bistre isesteemed the best, on account of the very dry beechBLA 532which they are careful to extract it from. When it isof a warm deep brown it is reckoned good. This colourworks only in water, and is often used by artists inmaking out Indian ink drawings. It mixes well withIndian ink, and gives a warmth and mellowness to manyparts, which may receive a considerable advantage bybeing touched with it. In landscapes it gives a properhue to leaves inclining to wither. It also produces agood shade on fore-grounds, when joined with lake andIndian ink.BIT, amongst cabinet-makers, denotes a small boringtool, which is fixed by a spring into a wooden stock.Of bits there are a great variety, in a complete set,amounting to near four dozen in the whole.BLACK, a well known colour, though strictly speakingit is rather the absence or privation of light. Whethercolours of any kind be a real property in matter, or onlya sensible quality, I shall endeavour to illustrate underthe article COLOUR, which see.

Lamp black is the most generally in use, and is ofthe soot kind, prepared from the resinous juice collectedfrom incisions made in pine and fir trees, which, afterbeing incrusted, is burnt, and the soot is collected fromthe smoke.The best lamp black comes from the smoke of linseedoil, but is not so easily procured as those blacks produced from the smoke of woods and resinous substances.As lamp black is of an oily extraction , it does not drywell, but if it be burnt in any iron vessel over a clearfire till it become red, the oily quality will evaporate,and it will dry much sooner. But by this operation itrather wastes in substance, and also requires more particular grinding before it can be used. If, however, itbe required to use it in large quantities on commonwork, a portion of Paris white, or common whiting,54 BLAmay be ground up with it, which will not materiallyinjure the black, but make it dry much quicker, thoughthe lamp black should not be burnt. But should thecolour be rendered less black by this admixture, a thincoat of entire lamp black, mixed and ground up withturpentine and drying oil, may be laid over it, as theabove is only intended for a priming. Though lampblack be not the brightest black, yet it is the mostopaque, and consequently bears the best body; on whichaccount, in japanning it is preferred to ivory black,which is of a more transparent nature, and is moreadapted for water colour.Ivory black is prepared from ivory or burnt bones.This, when, finely ground, forms a more beautiful blackthan the other, but does not cover so well.For certain purposes a mixture of both answers verywell, as the lamp black assists the ivory in opacity, andthe ivory the lamp in point of blackness. The best kindof ivory black is prepared from the raspings of ivory;for that which is from bone is inferior, and is used toadulterate the other with. Ivory black is a bad drier,and therefore requires to be worked in some mediumto make it harden, as sugar of lead and drying oil;sometimes a little verdigrease may be used for this purpose, without in the least impairing the black.To make a black for japanning chairs. Grind uplamp black in turpentine as stiff as it can be worked,then, having prepared the ground by size and whiting,and made it smooth, take as much turpentine varnish aswill dilute the black ground as above. Lastly, take a hogs'hair brush, and lay it smooth on the ground of whiting.Whenthis is dry, take some ofthe lamp black groundas before, and addto it some white spirit varnish, which will incline it to stiffen the turpentine colour; to prevent which,take a small quantity of turpentine varnish, and pour1FBLA 55into it, which being stirred about will keep it in a flowing state, but it will presently coagulate again, if it benot laid on immediately, and with all expedition. If thework is to be made fine, it will require another suchcoat, previous to which the ground should be rushed, ormade smooth by some means. The reason of usingspirit varnish is, that the ground may bear a good body,and dry instantaneously, and especially where there areany lines or ornaments to be laid on the ground; for inthe ordinary way of painting black, it would be so longin drying, that it would thereby be exposed to dirt, norwould the ornaments appear so bright as on a properjapanned ground.In oil painting black is best relieved by a ground oflight red, which will harmonize with the lights of theblack object, which is also a light red; and Indian redand a little ivory black for the shadows.The finishing colours for the lights, are black, white,and a little lake. The middle tint has less white, andmore lake and black. The shade tint is composed ofanequal quantity of lake and brown pink, with a verylittle black. The shade of black ought to be kept clearand transparent, otherwise the shadow will too muchresemble the object, and consequently will produce notonly a heavy but a confused appearance. Black is of acold heavy hue, and requires the lake in due proportionwith the lights, and particularly if there are red reflecting objects contiguous to the black.BLANKET, a warm, woolly sort of stuff, light and loosewoven, chiefly used in bedding. The most fainous placefor their manufacture is Witney, in Oxfordshire. Thewool of which blankets are made is called felt wool,or that which comes off sheep skins. Ofthe head wooland bay wool, they make blankets of 12, 11 , and 10quarters broad; ofthe ordinary and middle sort, blankets56 BLIBLIND, amongst cabinet-makers, denotes some kind ofopaque medium, placed or fit into a window as a check,either to the sun's rays, or the intruding eye of an over


"Jof 8 and 7 quarters broad; of the best tail wool, blanketsof 6 quarters wide.1Those sort most commonly used are of mahogany,either to fold in two or in one leaf, with green stuff ofsome kind strained into a rabbet in the frame. Theseblinds are sometimes fixed with slip hinges, so that theframes may occasionally be taken off. When they aremade to fold, they have a bolt on the left side, and ai . turn buckle in the centre of the right to keep them totheir place.1.The more fashionable blinds are all of wood, paintedgreen, except the frame, which is of mahogany. Theî blind part is either composed of upright or horizontalnarrow laths, an eighth part of an inch thick, painted abright green, and which move, by means of a lever, toany position, for admitting more or less light.Those most approved of at present are with upright粤 laths, and move by turning a brass knob at the upperside of the frame.1Of such mediums there are a great variety, eitherplaced internally or externally.The cheapest kind of blind is that of green canvasfixed to two sticks, either of mahogany or wainscot,hung by a couple of rings, and hooks screwed to the lowermost sash frames.The latest improvement of these is by Mr. Stubbs,of Oxford Street, who caps the ends of the laths withbrass, so that the ends are secure from splitting bythe wire put in to move them by. At each end of thelaths are two of these wires, which by holes communicate with two brass slips let into the top and bottom ofBLI 57the mahogany frame. These brass slips slide past eachother in the manner of a parallel ruler, for the lathsfixed to the brass , act with them in the same manner asthe brass joints to the sides of these sort of rulers.Rolling blinds for internal use are either with springbarrels made of tin, or turn on a plain oak stick of 11inch diameter.Spring rolling blinds are charged by a worm springmade of wire, extending the whole length of the tinbarrel or cylinder; but when the blind is drawn up tothe top close to the cylinder, the spring is relieved, andthe above-mentioned worm spring contracts in, but increases in diameter. Hence, if the power ofthis springbe not properly adjusted to the length of the canvas, orin other words, to the height of the window, they arevery liable to go wrong, and be spoiled.. If a spring beover charged, then it has not sufficient room in thebarrel, consequently the wire will twist out ofform, andthe spring is obstructed; but if it be not enough charged,then it is incapable of drawing up the canvas to the top.To remedy which, it must be taken out of the case bywhich it is screwed up to the window, and the chargemust be increased by a few more turns round the roller,or barrel, before it is put up again. To remedy the defects of these spring blinds, Mr. Stubbs has invented anewly constructed spring, which, though confined to asmall barrel, will draw up with ease any length of canvas, to 100 feet if required. And should a windowbe uncommonly narrow and high, his new spring iseffectual in such a case, which upon the old plan alwaysproved a matter of embarrasmentOne peculiar advantage accompanying this new-invented spring blind, is its not being subject to the disorders of the other kind. These blinds are intended tokeep the sun from the room, not merely on account ofheat, but to prevent the discharge of colours, and the58 BLIinjury which is done to furniture, where the heat of thesun is suffered to have uninterrupted access to anyapartment which has elegant furniture.The plain rolling blinds, without springs, are most inuse, being both cheaper and answering the same end.These have either a wood or brass pulley at each end,one with a channel to receive a line, and the other without any, to guard the canvas as it rolls up, which iseffected by a line passing round in the above channel,fixed to a brass rack which contains a small pulley thatreceives the line, which, by being tight drawn down, theline draws up the blind to any height.Venetian blinds are for the same purpose, but drawup by pullies fixed in a lath 1 inch thick, the same asa festoon window curtain.External sun blinds are also various. Those for shopwindows come down over a roller, fixed within a boxor case of wood, which receives the canvas, and when letfall from the inside, is stayed by iron rods.There are other blinds now in use for shop windows,made in light frames strained with canvas, which beinghinged to an outer frame made to receive these, sometimes three, or more in number, move all at one time toany convenient angle, so as to keep out the sun. Themeans by which they move all at one time, is by asmall lath screwed to each frame, so that when one ismoved, the other necessarily follows in a parallel direction, on the same principle that the parlour blinds, withupright laths, move; for the screw having play at thehead, the frames will fall down of themselves, so thatthey must be kept to their appointed position by a linefixed to the upper frame, and passing through a pulleyat the upper end of the outer frame, which is tied to ahook. These sort of blinds are made to take off whenthey are not wanted.BLU 59There are other external blinds for first floor windows,which draw up under a cornice fixed to the outside ofthe head frame ofthe window. But these being of canvas are not so proper for outside blinds as those of theVenetian kind, with brass chains, instead of the usualway of hanging the laths in green tape. These lastmentioned have been introduced by Mr. Stubbs, as above,and bid fair for answering the intended purpose as external window blinds. The Venetian part is enclosedunder a cornice; when drawn up, and in letting down,is guarded by a frame, so that the wind cannot blowthem aside.BLOCK. Applied sometimes to wood, and also to marble.A marble block, denotes marble in its rough state, as itcomes from the quarry, before it has either assumedshape or polish from the hand of the workman. Onthe contrary, a block of wood implies, that a piece oftimber is cut to some shape, and appropriated to a certainpurpose in the mechanic arts.BLUE. One of the seven colours into which the rays oflight divide themselves, when refracted through a glassprism.The order of the seven primary colours is as follows,red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.These are considered as primary, because the rays oflight are capable of various degrees of refrangibility,which, when effected by a prism, the above colours arediscovered on the glass. Hence it was demonstrated bySir Isaac Newton, that what we call pure light, is acompound of these primary colours; therefore, in aphilosophical sense, white is not a separate colour, buta compound; and black the privation of all these, orthe absence oflight, which is the compound of the sevenprimary colours. -K, W"UP, will· 60 BLUThose rays which are least refrangible, produce red;and those which are the most, violet. By refrangiblerays, is to be understood those which are turned asidefrom their direct course by some medium, as air, glass ,polished metals, and water, into which they enter, andare broken from a right line, by which are producedthat variety of colours now specified. —See COLOUR.[6]The blues used by painters are ultramarine, Prussian,bice, smalt, verditer, and Saunder's blue.Ultramarine is the finest and dearst blue, and is usedin high finished skies in landscape, and those reflectionson water produced by it.Prussian blue is next to it, but will not prove so firmand durable. It works best in oil; and by a propermixture of white, will make a pleasing light blue, ofany degree of shade. To this light mixture of blue,add a little lake and orange, with the least touch ofyellow, for a sky blue . - See SKY.As Prussian blue is the principal in use, it may beproper to observe, that it is much adulterated to reducethe price, and impose on the unwary. In purchasingthis article, if it be broken, and appears inclining to ablackish hue, it is good; but if filled with white speckles ,it is impregnated with white of some kind. If indigo begood, it breaks into a copperish colour.Blue bice is also a pleasant colour in oil . -See BICE.Saunder's blue is of much the same nature.Indigo blue is most in use for dying, but is sometimesworked in oil , and used for a shade on lighter kinds ofblue.3-kABlue verditer is most used in water. It is of apleasant tint, but does not lay in solidly. In order tomake it cover on paper, it should be ground with alittle white flake, sore h tends to unite its volatile parnted.IWBLU 61ticles. But this blue is apt to change, and fade into adirty green.Smalt is a very fine bright blue, inclining to purple,but excessively hard, and gives a vast trouble in grinding.Painters use blue to make objects turn off, and to giveto others their due distance, by a judicious mixture withtheir natural colours. Hence it may be observed, thatas blue is a receding or retiring colour, it can have noproper place in high lights, or front objects, except it bea natural colour, in which case its lightest parts will benearly white, and the shades a bluish black: but an objectthus painted, will look cold and frigid, without sometouches of a warm tint, especially if the contiguousobjects be of a red hue.Sir Isaac Newton observes, that the blue appearanceof the sky originates by the condensing of vapourymatter into natural particles, which become of such abigness as to reflect the azure rays before they constituteclouds, or any other colour. This, therefore, being thefirst colour which condensed vapour begins to reflect , itmust be that of the most transparent kind of sky, inwhich the vapours are not arrived to a grossness sufficient to reflect other colours. Other philosophers, considering the immensity of space of the skies as naturallyproducing blackness , suppose that blackness appears tous the blue that we see, because we behold this immensity of space through white rays of light, which, bynatural experiments, produces a blue tint: as, if anyblack body be viewed through a transparent white one,the sensation of blue is thereby produced. Hence theyhave observed, that soot or lamp black, mixed withwhite, is a blue. The lamp black, white lead, and asmall quantity of queen's blue, will make a passablecolour for common work.62 BOAThe blueness of some of our veins is accountable fromthis observation: for the blood, in such a confinedmedium, must be next to a black, and being near theextremities of the body, are viewed through the whitemembrane of the skin, by means of rays of light, theblood appears blue: to represent which, in painting thehuman body, artists use a delicate tint of Prussianblue.Blue kills some colours; and on which account,before any be used to join with another colour, theyshould be compared together, and if the more brilliantcolour to which it is joined, becomes thereby less vivid,some other colour should be chosen.Blue and white, blue and black, very light blues andyellow, will harmonize.BOARD. A term used to denote any kind of wood cutinto quarter, half, three quarters, and inch thicknesses.Wood cut into inch and quarter, and all above, iscalled plank wood. In measuring mahogany logs , thesuperficial content is taken in square feet, and the thickness of the log or plank is divided into inch boards, andthe superficial content of the log, &c. is multiplied bythe number of inch boards, which is the produce of thewhole.Deal boards are generally sawn abroad, and so imported into England. Cap boards are imported fromSweden and Dantzic. Oak boards chiefly from Hollandand Sweden, and some from Dantzic.BOASTING, amongst carvers and statuaries, is themassy and rude formation of any general outline. Boasting, in this sense, is the great ground work of the finerparts of relief, and requires the skill of a master in carving. It is to this art what the composition of a goodbass is in music, it lays a foundation for a fine air.Those carvers which are the ablest in drawing, areBOD 63for the most part employed in boasting, as they are bestacquainted with the necessary projecture to be given tothe respective parts. Hence it becomes the province ofthe boaster, after making out the sketch, to shape theoutline by gouges or saws, and then make out the prominences of each part, by glueing on pieces of wood forthat purpose. These rude pieces are glued to a board,and paper inserted between to make the carving comeeasier off when it is finished. When the work is sufficiently dry, the boaster proceeds to place his gouges bya judicious choice of such kind only as will suit the turnof the parts in boasting; for to have more would onlyhinder him. Lastly, he proceeds to give the principalstrokes of the whole piece, bylaying on the first layerof muscles, if we may here use that anatomical expression. This being a sufficient guide, the work is putinto the hands of the carver, who is in the habit ofgiving the finishing strokes. In small factories it iscommon for one carver to begin and finish the whole ofthe carving. But where there are a number of handsemployed, and in pieces that require much skill, theother is the most preferable way.Boasting, in painting, is represented by a womanmaking a great shew, covered with the feathers of apeacock, with a trumpet in her left hand, and her rightin the air. The feathers denote pride, the matter ofboasting; the trumpet intimates self boasting, or a sounding ones own fame; for vain boasters take delight inpublishing their own actions. This may serve as amoral lesson to youth, who are often caught in the follyof self adulation, which to the modest sensible mind ishighly offensive.BODY, amongst painters, applies to the distinction between transparent and opaque substances used in colouring. Body colours are of an earthy or opaque quality,64 BOL.worked with oil, or size and water. The colours bestadapted to oil painting is the most proper for bodywater colours; a list of which is given under the termPAINTING.This term is used to denote the tendency of particularcolours to unite with oil in grinding, so that they become in a manner one body. When paint of this quality is finely ground, it will flow pleasantly from thepencil, and will not separate from the oil, but will coverwell and easy. In japanning, particular regard shouldbe paid to such colours as, in this sense, bears the bestbody, especially in stroke work, as the lines cannot berun so thick, and effectually by that kind of colourwhich does not bear a good body.Those colours which bear a poor body separate fromthe oil in laying on, and therefore will appear in an uneven hue, and will not cover well nor easy.BOLE, amongst gilders, is a kind of viscid earth, less coherent and more friable than clay. It more readilyunites with water than clay, and subsides more freelyfrom it. There are a great variety of these earths, butthat kind used in burnished gilding on wood is bole armoniac, groundthick with very thin size, and then dilutedwith a stronger sort.-See GILDING .BOLSTER, amongst upholsterers, is that part of beddingused to rest the head upon, and serves as a foundationfor the pillows. Bolsters stuffed with hair is, in myopinion, the best, for the reasons assigned under thearticle BED, which see.The bolster of sofas and couches are generally coveredwith the kind of stuff with which the seats are covered.BOLT, amongst cabinet-makers, is various. Those inmost common use, are termed flush brass bolts , used .for bookcases, from 2 to 30 inches in length.There are also bolts of iron with necks, used toBOO 65dining tables. Some use broad flush brass bolts, insteadof these. They are set on the inside of the liningsof square frames, and shut up into the iron strap hingesby which the loose flaps of such tables are fixed to thebed. To receive the bolt the edge of the strap hinge isfiled into a notch, so that when the bolt is shut into it,the strap hinge cannot draw off.Bolts, amongst joiners, are of five or six differentsorts-first, plate bolts and also spring bolts are forfasteningdoors and windows. There are also round boltsofvarious sizes for large doors and gates, some with necksand others straight. Also some curious brass bolts fordouble doors, of a late invention; these have plates seton the edge of the door, extending the whole length,so that by a turn of the knob handle in the centre ofthe door, the bolts shut up and down at the same time.By turning the contrary way, the bolts are relieved, andboth the doors open at once without further trouble.These are very expensive and only used in grand apartments, most commonly in doors which divide or layopen two spacious rooms.To avoid the great expence of those, there are othersthat act on nearly the same principle, named springlatch bolts, about 13 inches long, with a stout plate.Two of these are required to a pair of doors; one atthe top, the other at the bottom: the bolts are shut bya spring in each, which the right hand door pressesagainst, and being locked, both are thereby secured.It is needless to give a more particular description, asthey may be had at Mr. Lane's, at the Seven Dials, byenquiring for spring latch bolts.BOOK-CASE. As a bookcase or library is doubtless aleading article in the cabinet branch, it is presumed thata short narrative of the origin of books, and of theF66 BOOmaterials which the most ancient literatii employed totransmit their learning to posterity by, will not be inconsistent with the professed design of this dictionary.To have a tolerable acquaintance with books in general, as to matter, use, substance, and dimension, willunquestionably tend to furnish the ideas of a cabinetmaker, better both for designing and executing a librarycase in any stile, than he would be without such help.Amongst the truly learned, there is no question as tothe superior antiquity of the holy scriptures of the oldtestament: yet amongst the Egyptians, there must havebeen some kind of writing prior to that on tables ofstone, mentioned by Moses. But whatever was writtenin Egypt more anciently than this period, never washanded down to posterity in any form of a book.The books of Homer and Hesiod cannot vie withthose of Moses in point of antiquity, and in point ofimportance is infinitely short of them. And I cannotbut embrace this opportunity of cautioning the youngcabinet-maker, to beware ofslighting these books, that hemay more freely receive the scoffing infidelity of the age;and particularly of a late writer, who has endeavouredto degrade these vencrable books to a degree beneath profane history. If any such books have fallen into yourhands, I take the liberty of recommending a suitableantidote against such deadly poison. This you may findin Bishop Newton on the Prophecies, in 3 vol. octavo,in which you will see the books of Moses and the otherprophets, placed upon a rock, against which the gates ofhell shall not prevail. And he who is now endeavouringto serve you in your secular profession, would kindly offerit as his opinion, that you never will be able to make agood use of books, until you be properly acquainted withthose written on tables of stone by the finger of God.Exod. xxxi. 18. -xxxii. 15. 16 .BOO 61Several sorts of materials were used by the ancientsto write on besides stone, though this seems to havebeen the first; for Josephus mentions, that the childrenof Seth, before the flood, used brick and stone pillars,on which they wrote their astronomical discoveries and memoriable events. In after times, box and ivory wereused. When they used wood, they sometimes coveredit with wax, that they might easily erase what wasthought improper; afterwards they made use of theinner and finer part of the bark of lime, ash, elm, andmaple trees; whence the word liber, which signifiesthe inner bark of trees; and our word library, from thelatin liber, a book. These barks were rolled up tomake them more portable, or easily laid aside, andhence they were termed vollumen, a volume; a nameafterwards given to the like rolls of parchment and paper.It is not easy to determine whether the leaves of treeswere in use before the bark, but it appears that the palmtree leaf was sometimes written upon.It seems that the sybilline oracles of the Roman prophetic virgins , were written on leaves, probably of thepalm, as that tree was much in use amongst their emblematical exhibitions. Their prophecies being writtenon such leaves, were arranged in some order by thesedaughters of superstition , but were sometimes scatteredwith the wind, and were not easily collected again.Hence they had a proverb, laboriocius est quam sibyllæfolia colligere, as difficult to collect as the books of thesybils. Lead was then used; afterwards leather, especially the skins of goats and sheep, which terminated inthe use of parchment, which is made of such skins.Linen, silk, and horn; and lastly, paper, as at presentin use amongst us.The first kind of volumes were composed of a numberof sheets fastened to each other, and rolled upon a stick,68 BOOthe whole making a kind of column or cylinder, whichwas handled by a part of the stick projecting out at theend of the roll; it being reputed a crime to take hold ofthe roll itself. The outside of the volume was calledfrons, and the ends of the stick or umbilicus, cornua,which were usually carved, and adorned with gold,The silver, or ivory, and sometimes precious stones.title subs, or syllables, or letters composed into syllables and words, denoting that it was to be respected asa book, and not considered as a mere blank. Thesevolumes were about four feet wide, and the length of thesheets supposed to be put to the end of each other,amounted sometimes to about fifty yards or more.Thus much may suffice on the origin and substanceofbooks. Next to a right use of books, and a properchoice of them; the cabinet-maker is most concernedwith their various sizes; but as I wish to direct theyoung men of this profession into that path of instruction which will be most conducive to their lasting improvement, the more advanced in knowledge will candidly excuse a few hints on this subject . The increaseof useful knowledge is by a perusal of well- selectedbooks, on subjects whose result will unite in formingthe minds and manners of youth into such a mould, aswill render them useful and honourable members ofsociety . The notion of attaining the knowledge ofdead languages, in youth intended for commercial professions, is fanciful and chimerical, and by no means.adequate, as is supposed by mistaken parents, to insurea perfection in spelling and writing the English tongue.That most accute philosopher, Mr. Locke, has explodedand even ridiculed the idea; and Dr. Lowth, the bestgrammarian of his age, was of the same opinion. Thereason why Latin scholars generally write and spell betterthan others who are quite ignorant of that tongue, isBOO 69that they learn Latin by consulting a dictionary, in whichthe Latin is explained by English words; so that bythehabit of translating into English, they acquire a knowledge of both languages together. But if half the timenecessary for attaining Latin were spent in Englishalone, by the use of good dictionaries and grammars, itwould insure a greater perfection of both spelling andwriting the English than learning by Latin. The Englishtongue being a branch of education of the utmost consequence, youth ought particularly to apply themselvesto its cultivation. A moderate share of arithmetic andgeometry, but as much of architecture, perspective,and painting in general, as can possibly come withinthe reach of the young cabinet-maker or upholsterer,ought to be regarded as unitedly contributing to his perfection in those arts. Tosome knowledge of these, heought to add an acquaintance with history, particularlyof past and ancient ages, which will tend to suppressthe unwarrantable prejudices he has in favour of theproductions, taste, and manners of his native country,which generate self-confidence, and prevents him fromsharing those benefits, derivable from a due respect paidto the shining talents of foreigners, and those who havegone before us in our own country.By a judicious choice of books of history, he will seethe great outlines of providence towards other nations,both in civil and religious affairs, which will expandand enlarge his ideas, both of the goodness of God, inhis gifts to others, and of the honourable way in whichthey were improved, by the persevering vigilance ofmen both in a civil and religious sense. Such a view ofpast events and transactions, will bring home humblinglessons of instruction in both ways, that will greatlycontribute to form the minds of youth into a mode of70 BOOthinking and reflection, that may probably issue in lasting improvement.The youth who has but little opportunity to read,should be careful to have none but such as will improvehim in useful knowledge; which he may be assured henever can obtain from whimsical novels and farces:these only vitiate the mind, and turn it off the moreserious pursuits of real science. Under a certain view,too many books are a real evil, when thereby not oneof them is fundamentally studied. I would advise read an author of his own choice, closely throughfirst; and those parts he wishes most to retain in hismemory, ought to be copied in writing; for it has beenobserved, by competent judges, that once copying is equalto twenty readings. The second time of reading a bookmay be most advantageously done, by only dipping intoit in certain emphatical parts, by which, the sentimentof the author will often convey itself more clearly to theunderstanding, than on reading regularly through, andat half the expence of time. And if the reader betolerably acquainted with a subject, before he takes upan author, he may collect advantage by only a cursoryreading at first. By such a use of books, a multiplicitymay be no real evil, but advantageous.If a multiplicity of books be a sure indication of anincrease of useful knowledge, we have the pleasure ofseeing that in our times: at any rate there is an increaseof trade arising from it; and in some past ages it hasbeen the 匪 means of preventing a total extinction ofscience, by the injuries of time, the rage of tyrants,the zeal of prosecutors, and the ravages of barbarians.Cabinet-makers have doubtless felt an interest in theincrease of books, detached from their wish of thespread of real knowledge, in the multiplied demands.that have been for bookcases of late years, which inBOO 71·some manufactories have been the leading articles ofemploy. To assist in the proper management of which,I shall subjoin the names and dimensions of the variouspapers of which books are formed, which it is presumedwill prove a useful guide to the plan of particular bookcases, sometimes ordered by gentlemen .NAMES OF PAPER AND SIZE IN INCHES.Inches. Inches.26 by 4026/1 3423 3422 3023 28191 27191 2418 239 Demy (of which is this dictionary) 17 2210 Crown 15 2013 161 Grand eagle or double elephant2 Atlas -3 Colombier4 Imperial -5 Elephant6 Super-royal7 Royal8 Medium·-·11 Foolscap -According to these dimensions the following sizedvolumes are formed.A double elephant folio will be 26 by 20, consequently the lower part of a bookcase for such books ,must be 27 or 28 inches between base or surbase, inthe clear. This paper is mostly used for the largestprints without folding, in which case the portfolio forsuch, will be 30 by 44; which, in planning the bookcase, must be attended to.The same must be observed of the atlas, colombier,and imperial, which are mostly used for prints; but if forletter-press, they fold into quartos of the following sizes.Quarto double elephantDitto atlas --Ditto colombierDitto imperial -- -Inches. Inches. ...20 long by 134 wide17 13417 11215 1112 BOOThese, by mistake, are generally termed folios, incomparison with the following, which are the usuallyprinted quartos.Quarto super-royalDitto royalDitto medium -111These, folded into octavo or eight leaves.Inches.Octavo demyDitto crownDitto foolscapOctavo super-royalDitto royalDitto medium-··Inches.9 long by 6 wide9/1/2 69 5/1The following are however more commonly employedfor octavo books.·····Inches. Inches.13 long by 9 wide12 941· 9Inches. Inches.8 long by 57/1 561 4층The design for a bookcase, plate 19, is in generalso easy to understand by a workman, that little needs besaid to explain it. It may, however, be necessary toobserve, that round the lower and upper doors, it isintended to have a double bead all round, to which thedoors are to be hinged, and which will give them roomto turn clear of the columns; and also add to the appearance of the whole. The workman must likewise observe, that the diamond work on the upper end of thelower doors, is in the framing, and is meant to be crossbanded. The pannel stands a quarter of an inch withinthe framing, and the diagonal strokes in the centre areflutes, to be worked in quarter mahogany, in thatdirection, and let into the pannel to come even with itssurface. The pannel in the centre of these flutes , whichare of the Doric kind- see Fluting-may be of anyhandsome veneer, cross-banded either of mahogany or7BOR 73some other kind. This pannel is to serve as a stop tothe flutes, which thus executed, will have a pleasingeffect. The scale of feet will shew the dimensions, bya very little allowance for its position.Under the term Library, is given another design, morelaboured and extensive, suited to a library room, whichsee.BOOK-SHELF. Small open shelves for books underpresent reading, and which a lady can move to anysitting room. For this purpose they are made small,about 2 feet to 27 inches in length, of thin mahoganyor satin wood, banded on the edges of the shelves, whichare seldom more than two in number, exclusive of thetop and bottom. To keep them light, the shelves areoften connected together by means of strong brass wireat each corner, and in the centre of the shelves; sothat they have no need of close ends of wood. Bythesame wires which support and connect the shelves together, uniting in a point at the top, about 15 inchesabove it, the book-shelf is hung, so as it may be takenoff at pleasure. The books placed on such shelves, areduodecimo, as they are not strong enough for those ofa larger kind. There are, however, book shelves of astronger construction, and to the length of 3 feet ormore, of mahogany, which have close ends, and arefixed fast to the wall; and serve for gentlemen's volumesof a larger size.BORDER, Is a general term, both amongst cabinetmakers and upholsterers, but chiefly the latter, whoare concerned with a boundless variety, both of carpetbordering and paper hangings. Amongst cabinet-makersthe term is very contracted, and is only used to denotea broad band or margin, about an inch and halfto twoin breadth; which have been sometimes japanned incabinet work, but is now wisely laid aside for the more74BOR.durable work in solid brass, let into dark wood, suchas black rose-wood, or coromandel, &c. Of carpetborders and those in paper hangings, see the articlesCARPET-PAPER-HANGING.BOREAS, poetically, is used to denote the northwind. The Greeks erected an altar to Boreas, becausehe was thought to preside over the cold climates andseasons. Hence, the Athenians represented him withhis robe before his mouth, as if he felt the pinchingwinds.In painting he is generally represented as an old man,with an horrible look, his hair and beard covered withsnow, or hoar-frost, with the feet and tail of a dragon.BORING. The art of perforating, or making a holethrough any solid body.For this purpose, cabinet-makers use a stock and bitsof various constructions, as centre-bit, nose-bit, shellbit, and auger-bit.Boring common ship pumps, is first by an auger madestrong and large for that purpose: and to bring the boreof the pump to a sufficiently large diameter, they thenapply a sort of rincing scoop-bit. Water-pipes, madegenerally of alder, are bored by the same kind of tool.They lay the poles of alder on tressels of a proper heightto rest the auger upon, whilst they are boring; and if thestick of alder be not straight, it is bored from each endtill the holes meet in the middle of the stick. In joiningtwo of these water-pipes together, they make the smallend of one the male part, and the largest end of theother the female. In turning the male part round, andof a diameter to fit the female end, from about 6 inchesoff the end, they turn a small groove. In the femalepart a small hole is bored, so as to be perpendicular tothe groove of the male part, that when the two parts arejoined together, and forced to their place, they may pour•BOS 75a composition of pitch, tar, and rosin, into the groove,which will run round the whole, and fill the male groove,so as to keep the joint, thus formed, water tight. In thismanner they proceed to any length, in conveying waterfrom place to place.It is presumed, however, that a machine might beconstructed to bore by a wheel, in the manner that thecartridge boxes are bored. This they perform by acentre-bit fixed into a lathe, and having a rest of wood,on which they place the cartridge wood, cut and planedto its proper size , they press it to the centre-bit, and,by a foot treadal wheel, are able to keep it still pressingforwards, till one hole is completed; after which theymove it to the next centre, and so repeatedly, till theyhave bored five or six holes, about 4 inches deep, inabout one minute's time.The sides of ships are bored with an auger; but asthis is not only a tedious , but most laborious business, itis rather remarkable, that no machine has yet beeninvented to bore them by. I shall only venture a hint ortwo on the construction of such a machine as mightpossibly answer the purpose, and leave those to completethe idea thus suggested, who are more concerned in thatprofession.Might not then a tressel frame be made to slide to anypart of the scaffolding of a ship's side? And in thisframe might there not be fixed a wheel to turn by hand,on the axis of which might be fixed different sizedaugers, so that by a method to keep this frame pressingto the sides of the ship, and turning the wheel by hand,holes might thus be bored in a quarter of the time, anda proportionate degree of ease, in comparison with thepresent plan.BOSSAGE, or BASSAGE, in architecture, is a term used forany stone which has a projecture from the wall, and is776 BOTplaced lineally in a building, afterwards to be carved intomouldings. This term is sometimes applied to rusticquoins, at the angles of any building.BOTANY, from Bora , a herb, signifies the knowledgeof plants, and of the uses to which they may be applied.In the vegetable world, it seems to comprehend as muchas anatomy does in the animal. It is not, however, myintention to introduce much on this subject, as it wouldbe foreign to our plan; yet as an account of variousspecies of wood, is one leading object in this dictionary,it will, in this view, be proper to give a few of the outlines on the subject of botany.The subject is, doubtless, of importance in variousrespects and if the hints I have here selected from a fewauthors on the subject, induce a more general enquiryinto the science of botany at large, probably they whofind the benefit of it will not be unthankful for what ishere said on the subject:To inculcate the utility of botanical skill, it has beenobserved, " That many animals are endowed with aninstinctive faculty of distinguishing, with certainty,whether the food presented to them be salutary ornoxious. Mankind have no such instinct; but musthave recourse to experience and observation. But theseare not sufficient to guide us in every case. Thetraveller is often allured with the smell and taste, to eatpoisonous fruit. A ship's company, in want of provisions, may be thrown upon an uninhabited coast, ordesert island. Totally ignorant of the nature of theplants they meet with, disease, or scarcity of animals,may make it absolutely necessary to use vegetable food.The consequence is dreadful; they must first eat beforeany certain conclusion can be formed. Before thevegetables which grow in America, the East and WestIndies, became familiar to our sailors, many lives wereBOT 77lost by trials of this kind: neither has all the informationreceived from experience, been sufficient to preventindividuals from still falling a prey to ignorance or rashness. Ifthe whole science of botany were so completeas some of its branches, very little skill in it would besufficient to guard us infallibly from committing suchfatal mistakes.There are certain orders and classes which are callednatural, because every genus and species comprehendedunder them, are not only distinguished by the samecharacteristic marks, but likewise possess the samequalities, though not in an equal degree. For example:shew a botanist the flower of a plant whose calyx is adouble valved glume, with three stamina, two pistils, andone naked seed; he can pronounce, with absolute certainty, that the plant from which the flower was taken,bears seeds of a farinaceous quality, and that they maybe safely used as food. In like manner, shew him aflower with 12 or more stamina, all inserted into theinternal side of the calyx, though it belonged to a plantgrowing in Japan, he can pronounce, without hesitation,that the fruit of it may be eat with safety. On theother hand, shew him a plant whose flower has fivestamina, one pistil, one petal or flower leaf, and whosefruit is ofthe berry kind, he will tell you to abstain fromit, because it is poisonous. Facts of this kind renderbotany not only a respectable, but a most interestingscience.With respect to medicine, the same thing holds good.It is found, by experience, that plants which are distinguished by the same characters in the flower andfruit, have the same qualities, though not always in anequal degree, as to strength or weakness; so that, uponinspection of the flower and fruit, a botanist can determine, a priori, the effects that will result when taken78 ,BOTt

into the stomach. In order, therefore, to determine themedical virtues of all the plants belonging to a naturalclass, the physician has nothing to do but to ascertain, bya set of clear and unquestionable experiments, the virtues of any one of them. This greatly shortens thelabour of investigation. Supposing the number ofknown species to be twenty thousand; by ascertainingthe virtues of one genus, at a medium, you determinethe virtues of 12 species. But by ascertaining thevirtues of one genus belonging to a natural order, thevirtues of perhaps 300 or more are ascertained. " Brit.Encyclop. Such a view of this subject, will serve toplace it, in the view of a stranger, in a due light, andmay, at least, lead him to venerate what he never mayfind leisure to attain the knowledge of.The father of the most generally approved system ofbotany, was Dr. Linnæus, professor of physic andbotany, at Upsal, in Sweden. He published his famouswork in the year 1735, which, by competent judges,has been received and followed as the most perfectarrangement of plants yet presented to the worldAll, however, that comes within the limits of thiswork, is to explain some of the principal outlines, andthe terms connected with these, and to touch on thatpart ofthe subject which will, in some measure, assist thecarver, as to the nature of leaves and flowers, for ornaAfter what has been said, any thing more wouldbe a deviation from the object we have in view. And,ment.1st. All the known vegetable productions upon thesurface ofthe earth, have been reduced, by naturalists, toclasses , orders, genera, species, and varieties. Theclasses are composed of orders, the orders of genera, thegenera of species, and the species of varities. To have aclear idea ofthis Linnæan arrangement, the whole circleof vegetables may be compared to the inhabitants of theBOT 79earth; so that by classes of vegetables are to be understood botanical nations-all the inhabitants of the earthare divided into nations or kingdoms. In like manner,the orders are the tribes or divisions of these kingdoms;the genera, the families of which these tribes are composed; the species, individuals of families; and varieties,the difference of individuals.2d. The number of classes or botanical nations, are24; the number of orders, or botanical tribes, are about100; the number of families, or genera, about 2000;and the individuals or species which compose thesefamilies, are 20,000; besides the varieties occasionedbythe accidental changes of cultivation . As nations aredistinguished by names, as England, Scotland, for thesetwo kingdoms, so the 24 classes have names peculiar toeach, denoting the number of stamina which characterise the classes . The terms stamina and pistilla, areexpressive of the sexual distinction of male and femalein plants; and signifies the seed vessels, or male andfemale organs of vegetative generation .Each stamenconsists oftwo parts: first, the filament or thread, whichserves to elevate the anthera or summit, and, at the sametime, connects it with the flower. And second, theanthera, or sunimit itself, which contains within it thepollen, and, when come to maturity, discharges theThe pollen is the fine flowry dust containedand secreted within the anthera, and destined for theimpregnation of the germen or rudiment of the fruit.See plate, Botany, No. 1 , where observe, a is the anthera, and b the filament. The number ofthese staminaconstitute the different classes, which have namesderived from the Greek, expressive of the number ofstamina or principal circumstance, which obtains in therespective class or order which they serve to denominate. Hence the first class is called monandria.from povos, single, and avg , a husband, which signifiessame.80 BOTit has only one stamen , or male part; diandria, two husbands, or male parts; triandria, three stamina or maleparts; tetrandria, four; pentandria, five; hexandria, six;heptandria, seven: octandria, eight; enneandria, nine;and decandria, 10 stamina. These 10 classes are bothmale and female in one plant, and are therefore called hermaphrodites, having both stamina and pistil: but if anyflower of these classes has not the pistil, or female part,it is to be classed with some of the succeeding.Dodocandria, the title ofthe 11th class , imports that theflowers have 12 stamina. The class is not, however,confined to this number, but includes all such hermaphrodite flowers as are furnished with any number ofstamina, from 12 to 19, both included. The reason ofthe chasm in the classes from 10 to 12 stamina, is, thatno flowers have yet been found with only 11 , so as toform a class.Icosandria, the 12th class, imports 20 stamina. Inreducing plants of this kind to their classes, particularregard must be had to the insertion of the stamina. Ifthey are inserted into the calyx or cup, the plant belongsto this class; but if to the receptacle, or basis of theflower, it belongs to the next class, or 13th, which ispolyandria .Polyandria, from λ , many, and, as before, avmp ahusband or male, signifies many stamina. The fruits ofthis class are frequently poisonous , which are distinguishable by having the stamina inserted into the basis of theflower, and not the cup.Didynamia, the 14th class, from dis, twice, and duraμs,power, signifying the power or superiority of two; because the flowers of this class have four stamina, ofwhich there are two longer than the other. This circumstance distinguishes this class from the 4th, whosestamina are all of one length. Observe that the longBOT 81Stamina are opposite to each other, and so are the short ones.Tetradynamia, the 15th class, signifies that in thesix stamina of this class, there are four longer than theother two, which circumstance distinguishes it from the6th, or Hexandria class.Monodelphia, the 16th class, from povos single, μονοςadhows a brother, denoting the brotherhood of thisclass, bythe union of the filaments of the stamina, beingjoined together in one substance, at the base, out ofwhich they proceed as from one mother.Diadelphia, the 17th class, signifies two brotherhoods, or two sets of stamina united into one body, bythe filaments.Polyadelphia, the 18th class, signifies many brotherhoods, or the stamina united into three or more bundles,by the filaments.Syngenesia, the 19th class, from ouv together, andyenosa generation, that is , congeneration; because theanthera or generating vessels, are united in a cylinder,and perform their office together, though their filaments be separate.Gynandria, the 20th class , from yʊvn a wife, and avng ahusband, denoting the union of the two; because thestamina or male parts, grow upon the pistilla or femaleparts.Here the hermaphrodite flowers end, i. e. such as havestamina and pistilla in the same flower, or males andfemales in the same bed.Monoecia, the 21st class, from Movos single, and oxia ahouse or habitation; because the male and female flowersgrow from one root. The flowers of this class are notreckoned hermaphrodites, because, though they havemale and female flowers in the same species, no singleflower has both the male and female parts together, as inG82 BOTthe preceding classes; for the flowers of this class,though growing from the same root, have only the malepart in one, and the female in the other flower, by whichthey are distinguished from hermaphrodite classes.Dioecia, the 22d class, fi. e. ) two habitations; andsignifies that the male flower grows from one plant, andthe female from another; which circumstance is thedifference between this and the preceding class.γαμοςPolygamia, the 23d class, from Tokus many, andyapos marriage, which signifies that this class produces,either upon the same or different plants, hermaphroditeflowers, and also flowers of one sex only, be it male orfemale; the latter of which receiving impregnationfrom, or giving it to the hermaphrodite flowers, as theirsex may happen to be , the parts essential to generationin the hermaphrodites, do not confine themselves to thecorresponding parts within the same flower, but becomeofpromiscuous use.and γάμοςCryptogamia, the 24th class, from apurros concealed,yaμos a marriage, i. e. concealed marriages, and isapplied to this class, because the plants belonging toit,either bear their flowers concealed within the fruit, orhave them so small as to be imperceptible.Thus ends the botanical kingdoms, and we must nextproceed to the tribes of which these kingdoms are composed, which receive the name ofORDERS, being that botanical division which leadsus a step nearer to the genus of plants. This secondstep of classification is taken from the female part ofplants, as the first was from the male parts.Hence the denominations of the first 13 classes oforders, are expressed by the term yon a wife, and thenumerals added to it, as monogynia, digynia, trigynia,tetragynia, pentagynia, hexagynia, heptagynia, octagy1best27SBOT 83-55halenichaneandis theandJuces.roditeale ofnation- theircration- to theDecomecealedand isng toit,fruit, orust nextre comch leadss secondof partassesofandthe¡gynia,Etagy

nia, enneagynia, docagynia, dodecagynia, icosagynia,tetradygynia, from one to 13 pistilla or female parts.When these female parts have no stalk or filament, asthe stamen or male part has, they are numbered by theirstigmata or tops, which, in that case, adhere to thecapsule, or husks, in the form of a small protuberance." The orders of the 14th class are derived from adifferent source. The plants belonging to it have theirseeds either inclosed in a capsule, or altogether uncovered.Hence they naturally admit of a division into the following orders, namely, gymnospermia, which comprehendssuch as have their seeds naked; and angiospermia,which comprehends such as have their seeds covered,or inclosed in a capsule.The 15th class is divided into two orders: such ashave a short siliqua or pod; and the siliquasa, or thosewhich have a longer siliqua.The orders of the 16th, 17th, 18th, and 20th classes,are taken from the number of stamina: as monedelphia,pentandria, decandria, poliandria.The 19th class consists of plants whose flowers arecompounded of a great number of small flowers inclosedin one common calyx. The orders of this class are,polygamia, æqualis, or such whose floscules are all furnished with stamina and pistils.The order ofthe 21st class, are partly taken from thenumber of stamina, and partly from the names andcharacters peculiar to some of the other classes, asmoncecia triandria, moncecia gynandria.The orders of the 22d class are founded upon thenumber, union, and situation, ofthe stamina in the maleflowers.The orders of the 23d class are taken from classicalcharacters, as polygamia moncécia, polygamia dicecia,and polygamia tricecia.84 BOTThe 24th class is divided into the four following orders1st. Filices, comprehending all plants that bear their seedsin the back or edges of the leaf, and those that are calledcapillary plants. 2d. Musci, which comprehends allthe moss kind. 3d. Algæ, including lichens, fuci, andmany others, whose parts of fructification are eitheraltogether invisible, or exceedingly obscure. 4th. Fungi,comprehending all the mushroom tribe. " Brit. Encyclo.To shorten this article, which I fear will exceed myprescribed bounds, I proceed next to give a concisedefinition ofthe genera of plants.The GENERA includes the various families of whichthe tribes or orders are composed, and leads us still to amore perfect view of the nature of plants.According to the sexual theory of Linnæus, theflower and fruit are the foundation of generic distinctions .These are generally composed of seven parts; the calyx,the corolla, the stamina, the pistillum, the pericarpium ,the semina, the receptaculum; and the presence orabsence, the number, figure, proportion, and situation,of the several parts, constitute the generic characters ofplants.1st. The CALYX , a cup (see plate of flowers facingthe article flower), is the termination of the outer barkof a plant. Its chief use is to inclose, support, andprotect the other parts offructification , or parts essentialto bearing fruit. When present, it is seated on the receptacle; is distinguished by its figure, the number,division, and shape of its leaves or segments; and bythe following names, according to the circumstanceswith which it is attended. When the calyx surroundsthe flower, it is termed perianthium: sometimes involucrum, a cover; amenthum, a thong or kat kin; spatha,a sheath; glume, a husk; calyptra, a veil or coveringvalva, infolding.BOT 857.کیri,le.nyisech3¡eS.X,n,orn.ofagrkndiale1,ܟܕ.'s28. The COROLLA, a wreath, or little crown, is thetermination of the inner bark of the plant, which accompanies the fructification in the form of leaves,variously covered. It is generally seated on the receptacle,sometimes on the calyx, serving as an inner work ofdefence to the part it incloses. -The leaves of which thecorolla are composed, are called petals, by the number,division, and shape, of which it is distinguished. Thereis an appendage to the petals, called the nectarium, (fromnectar, the fabled drink of the heathen gods) , and is thatpart which contains the honey, the food of bees, andother insects.3d. The stamina, (threads or chives, ) the male of theflower, proceeding from the wood of the plant, as wehave noticed before . The filament, from filum a thread;and the anthera, from a3os, anthos a flower, have beennoticed, because of its great utility in the fructification-See plates of Flowers.4th. The PISTILLUM, or female part of the flowerproceeding from the pith of the plant. It is that erectcolumn which is generally placed in the centre of aflower, amidst the stamina; and consists of three parts,the germen, the style, and the stigma.The germen, a bud, is the base of the pistillum supporting the style.The style from Gruλos, a column, is that part whichelevates the stigma from the germen, in order to receivethe influence ofthe stamina.The stigma, from Tuypa, a mark, is generallyplaced at the head of the style; but sometimes regularlydisposed along the side of it, and covered with a moistureto retain the pollen of the anthera.5th, The PERICARPIUM ( round the fruit) is the germen grown to maturity, and become a matrix, womb,or seed vessel.86 BOT6th, SEMINA, the seeds. Aseed is the essence ofthefruit of every vegetable, containing the rudiments of anew vegetable, which is fertilized by the sprinkling ofthe pollen.

7th. The RECEPTACULUM is the base which receives,supports, and connects the other parts of fructification.SPECIES, or individuals of families, are distinguishedbythe difference ofthe root, trunk, branches and leaves:yet all agreeing in the essential generic character, andare denoted by names expressive of the difference, orsome other circumstance, added to the generic character;as the difference of a family of children, who yet allhave the leading features of their parents.In order,therefore, to investigate the species, it is necessary tounderstand those differences, and be acquainted with thenames by which they are expressed; as upon enteringinto a family of children that we were acquainted with,we should call them by their distinguishing name, fromsome mark of their countenance known to us, as well asfrom their size and age. The variety is an accidentalmixture of these individuals.The parts of a plant are,1. The root, the organ that nourishes the plant.2. The trunk or stalk, the organ that multiplies it.3. The branches, or divisions and sub-divisions ofthe stalk.4. The petioles, or stalks that support the leaves.5. The penduncles, or stalks that support the fructification.6. The leaves, which are the organs of motion tothe plant.Ofwhich there are the following variety-see the plateBotany.BOT 87Ua5,ed20 EtChCOthingith,romIl asIotaofCtoNo. No.1. Orbicular, of a circu- 19. Hand shaped.lar form. 20. With winged clefts .2. Subrotund, almost cit- 21. With winged cleftscular. gaged.3. Ovate, orlike an oval. 22. Parted.4. Egg shaped.5. Oblong.6. Spear shaped.7. Strap shaped.8. Awl shaped.9. Kidney shaped.10. Heart shaped.11. Crescent shaped.12. Triangular.13. Arrow shaped.14. Halberd shaped.15. Divided or cleft.16. Composed of threelobes.17. Divided to the midrib.18. With five angles.23. Tooth-like.24. Indented.25. Serrated or sawed.26. Taper ending.27. Accutely notched.29. Wedge shaped.29. Wrinkled.30. Quinquangular.34. Tongue shaped.32. Scimetre shaped.33. Deltoid, like the oldGreek delta.34. Three sided.35. Channelled.36. Furrowed.37. Cylindrical.38. Finger shaped, of two.LEAVES as to determination, fig. 39.Inflected, or bent inwards, when the leaf is turnedupwards, toward the stem, as a.Erect, upright, when the angle they form with thestem is very small, as b.Expanding, patent, when they make an acute anglewith the stem, as c.Horizontal, when they stand at right angles with thestem, as d.Reclined, reflex, when they are bowed downward, sothat the apex or tip, is lower than the base, as e.Revolute, rolled back, and downwards, asf.88 . BOTBOTANY- BAY-WOOD. That there should be such avast quantity of different species of wood from thisisland is not surprising, when we consider its greatextent, which is estimated to exceed the whole continentof Europe. The whole length of this island runs abouttwo thousand miles from north-east to south-west; andreceives the name of NewSouth Wales from Capt. Cook.On this vast territory, Sir Joseph Banks, who accompanied the Captain, found an ample field for botanicalresearches; and in compliment to him, one part of itwas called Botany-Bay, which is the seat of our colony.All the specimens of wood imported from thence,that I have collected, are of a hardish texture, and someof it very ponderous; but as that island remains ingeneral still uncultivated, uncivilized, and in a greatmeasure unexplored, there are no materials to assist usin giving a botanical description of the woods; norscarcely any distinction of names, except those whichhave been suggested, either from the smell or particularfigure of various sorts of it. All that I can pretend todo, as to this wood, is to describe the colour and figureof such species as are adapted to cabinet work.At the time when Capt. Cook explored its coast in1770, they found only two kinds of trees useful as timber;the pine, and another, producing a kind of gum, whichafterwards, at the settlement of our colony by GovernorPhilips, was found to possess medical qualities, for theremoval of the dysentery, with which the first settlerswere afflicted, owing to their want of fresh provisions.Yet it appears, that the country adjacent to Botany- Bayproduces very many and large trees, requiring the workof 12 men of the colony for three or four days, to grubout of the earth so as to clear them away. At varioustimes since the first settlement, we have brought to England a variety of woods that have been acceptable inCBOT 89aiseatentboutandook.omnicalof itJony.ence,meinatSorchularid toiguret inber;vhichernorr thetlersons.BayrkbOrnamenting cabinet work-some of which I shallnotice, but with some doubt as to their being the produceof Botany-Bay or New South Wales. But if furthercertainty of information present itself, the result will befound under the article of Wood; where the most perfect lists of woods 1 am able to collect shall be inserted.I have been favoured with only four specimens of different species at present; one of which is of an olive hue,intermixed with faintly dark strokes, not much unlikesome of the Virginian walnut tree. The water colourswhich give this tint on white paper, is verditer greenand Venetian red . The grain is close and straight, andmay be used for small tables; but it would require verylively banding wood to set it off. Another of a dirtyorange hue, tolerably well figured, and a very finegrain, which might answer for some bandings, and inother cases for the body of a piece of furniture; it ismoderately hard in texture, and may be imitated incolour by Venetian red and gumbouge, more inclining tothe red.Athird sort is extremely beautiful, and nearly as hardas tulip wood. This wood is finely dappled with richentwining strokes, on a high flesh-coloured ground.Indian red, thinly washed on paper, will give the hue ofthe ground; to which, add a little lake and umber forthe dapple. The last of the four is nearly of the samefigure and texture, but having a darker ground; and thesame kind of dapple, inclining more to a deep brown .It is not so hard as the preceding sort, but being of adarker and more strongly contrasted figure, it will makehandsome cross banding. The common name for allthese, is Botany- Bay wood; but as they are now described,may be thus distinguished-the olive-the orange-theflesh-and brown Botany-bay wood. There are agreater number of non-descripts, of a hard, plain,90 BOXstraight-gained quality, which, like other very hardwoods, run small in the log, only 10 or 12 inches indiameter.BOTTLE-CASE, any kind of case made to receive abottle or bottles. The difference between a bottle caseand some other pieces of cabinet work made for winebottles, seems, strictly speaking, to be only, in that theformer, are made more exactly to the shape and size ofa certain number of square bottles, merely for convenience but the latter, which are called cellarets, winecisterns, or sarcophagus, which are not made strictlyto the dimensions of the bottles, but large enough tohold six, eight, or ten round wine bottles, and havean ornamental appearance. See the article CELLARETand SARCOPHAGUS.BOX, in its most common acceptation, denotes a smallchest or coffer for holding any thing.10BOX TREE, xa, dense or close, which is well knownthis wood is . The box tree is a genus of the order oftetrandria, belonging to the monoecia or 21st class ofof plants. There is but one species of it evergreen;which there are three varieties-1 . the common box tree-2. the narrow-leaved box tree-3. the dwarf boxBox is well known in its dwarf state, and as tree.a shrub about 3 feet in height; it becomes, however,when left to itself, a tree, 12 or 15 feet high, with atrunk equalling the human thigh in thickness, coveredwith a rugged, greyish bark; that of the branches, yellowish. The wood is of yellow colour, of an evenclose grain, very hard and ponderous. It is the onlyone of the European woods that will sink in water.The leaves are ovate in the common sort; hard,smooth, glassy; very dark green above,, pale greenunderneath; and sometimes resembling those of themyrtle in shape. The box tree is a native of most partsBRA 911aseineheOFcnivineChytoe1waer ofss of


treeboxnd aswever,ith aoveredyelevenonlydenhertsof Europe, and in some parts of England , for whichthere is a hill, very noted in Surry, called Box Hill.The English wood is esteemed inferior to that whichcomes from the Levant; but the American box is preferable to it.The use of box is almost universal. " It may bepropagated by cuttings, which are planted in autumn ina shady border, observing to keep them watered till theyhave taken root; when they may be transplanted intonurseries in October. It may be also propagated bylaying down the branches, or from seeds, which shouldbe sown soon after they are ripe, in a shady border."Wheeler's Dictionary.BRACE. In architecture, is to denote a piece of timber,framed with bevel joints. Its use is to keep the buildingfrom swerving either way. When braces are framedinto king posts , or principal rafters, they are calledstruts. Amongst chair-makers, the term brace is applied to those pieces which are lipped in at the anglesof the seat of a chair, to prevent the girth webbingfrom warping or straining the rails .BRACKET. Amongst joiners, are used at the ends of thesteps of staircases, seeming to support the tread of thestep, but are chiefly for ornament. There are alsoangle brackets in architecture, placed at the mitres forplastered coves in ceilings, &c. the curve of which mustbe drawn by ordinate lines, taken from the profile ofthecove. Brackets, amongst cabinet-makers, are used tosupport various pieces of furniture; in the place ofwhich, turned stump feet are sometimes used in moderncabinet-making; but, in my opinion, brackets musthave the preference in several cases, both for strengthand beauty. If thermed feet are substituted for them,they ought to spread well in the taper, otherwise theylook too feeble to support a massy piece of furniture.92 BRAWhen tapered feet, either square or turned, are introduced, the manner of fixing them ought to be carefully attended to, as otherwise they are very liable tobreak off.In plate 22, at No. 4, a method of fixing them isshewn, that will, it is presumed, be sufficient in pointof strength. Observe, the part a is mitered on lengthwise of the wood, separate from the part b; or it maybe half-lapped, and afterwards veneered; then let it bemortised, in the manner as shewn at d, through into thebottom of the carcase.Lastly, put a screw or two through each piece intothe bottom, and cut the tenons into the turned stumps,and glue them in; after which, shape out the work, &c.Method 2. Suppose that the stump feet, No. 6 , shewno part of a, as at No. 4, then take a piece of half-inchwainscot, 6 inches long, and as broad or a little morethan the square of the foot; bevel it each way, andglueing it on the underside of the bottom , put a doublemortice in it, and make the tenons and joints as shewnin fig. e.The scale of equal parts at No. 1 , are inches bywhich the proportions may be measured. As to anything farther respecting No. 2 and 3, it is unnecessary ,as the designs of themselves, shew to a workman, inwhat manner they must be executed.To find the lines for the true curve of any anglebracket, let fig. fbe the profile of the cove, and o,, itsprojection from the side wall, and p, q, the diagonal ofthe square ofthe projection: draw the ordinates 1,2,3,4,&c. at pleasure, as to their distance from each other;draw p, r, perpendicular to p, q, and all the other ordinates parallel to it. Lastly, take p, s, and place it on, ɲ, r;likewise 1 , 2, and 3, 4, and place them on their coincident ordinate; and so of all the rest, by which you ob30 CorThe ConClo&gandik, a"BRA 930!Tetonisintethmayit bethe0

reandublewnbyanyry,inletain correspondent points to the plan, which give thetrue contours of the angle brackets.Clock brackets are used to place small time pieces.upon, when there is no other convenient place: but ingood rooms, the chimney caps are made broad, of marble, and serve very advantageously to place a clock on.Sometimes they stand upon commodes, at the end ofthe room, facing the fire place; but when these conveniences are wanting, a bracket supplies their place.For this purpose, I have given three designs, whichwill be easily understood by the workman, without anyfurther illustration; especially as the parts in brass workare marked b.Brackets for lamps , are usually cast in brass, but aresometimes made of mahogany, and differ little fromclock brackets. The brackets employed for the supportof lamps, are fixed sometimes to the hand-rail of thestaircase by a clasp strap that screws to it; and theprojection of the bracket is towards the well of thestaircase. At other times, they fix against the wall ofthe staircase, high enough to clear the head of a passenger: these are fixed by a large patera, to which thebracket is fixed; and in which there are holes to receivestrong stucco nails, which drive into the wall. See twodesigns, plate 22.BRADS, a kind of nails used in buikding, which haveno spreading heads, as other nails have. There arevarious sorts of them-joiners-brads, flooring-brads ,batten-brads, bill-brads, or quarter heads.BRANCH. In botany, it denotes an arm of a tree, or apart, which sprouting out from the trunk, helps to formthe head or crown of it. Branches do not spring outof the mere surface of the trunk, but are deeply rootedtherein, so as not only to penetrate the cortical or94 BRAbarky substance, but also that of the wood, and evento the pith in some instances.Branches, amongst cabinet-makers, carvers, andbrass founders , generally apply to some shape of wood,brass or other metal, prepared to hold lights in. Theyreceive the appellation, both as issuing from the principalpart of the tripod, urn, or other stand, and also fromtheir being sometimes ornamented with various foliage,or leaves. See LIGHTS.BRASS, a most useful metal, made of copper and zinc.This composition was very early discovered; as we readof it in the 4th of Genesis-It is there said, that" Tubal-cain was the instructor of every artificer inbrass and iron." And it is disputed by the learned,which of the two metals was first worked.There appears something like providence in so very ancient aknowledge of these two most useful of all materials."The Ancient Britons, though acquainted from theremotest periods with the use of both these metals,remained long ignorant that they were to be obtainedin this island. Before this discovery, they imported alltheir brass and iron from the continent" -and they continued to do so after they knew it was to be obtained athome. In these days brass was cheaper than iron,owing to the great manufactories of it which were inFrance, from which source was derived a plentifulsupply.It appears that the very ancient armory of this andother nations, was made of brass, or ornamented withit.The Corinthian brass, famous in antiquity, was amixture of gold, silver, and copper. This compositionseems to have been consequent on the destruction andburning of Corinth by Mummius, when the prodigiousquantities of gold, silver and copper in that city, rananoB0202015་BRA 95ndod,TheySipal101iage,zinc.readarind.Pa als. the metals, tained ed all CO D. Iined n iron, verein lentiful is and with as ation and ious rantogether by the violence of the fire, and so formed thatfamous brass.Brass work isa material article in furniture, both forornament and use, and comprehendsa great variety ofarticles in locks, hinges, and handles

together with

curtain and sideboard rods, mouldings and fret' work.In the brass work adapted for cabinet work, the Frenchfar exceed this country

as well as in their manner of

gilding, stiled or-molu. The elegance of their furniturechiefly depends upon their superior brass work

I aminformed, however, that there are one or two Englishbrass founders in London, not much inferior to theFrench.Brass beads, and small lines of brass, are now muchin use in the English furniture, and looks very handsome in black rose and other dark wood grounds. Thelines are made of thin sheet brass, which is cut bygages, made by the cabinet-makers for that purpose.The brass beads are fixed to by sharp points soldered tothe inside of the bead, which drive into the wood towhich the beads are fixed.BRAZIL WOOD-Brasil or Brasiletto-An Americanwood, ofa red colour and very heavy

a genus of themonogynia order, belonging to the decandria class ofplants. The flower has five petals, with the lowestmore beautiful than the rest. Of this there are threespecies, the most remarkable of which is the grows naturally in the warmest parts of America,from whence the wood is imported for the dyers, whouse it much. This tree is in general small in the trunk

some of them only2 or3 inches diameter, and6 or8feet high

the branches are tender

, and full of smallprickles

the leaves pinnated. The colour produced

from this wood is greatly improved bya solution of tinin aqua regia. The second sort of brazil wood isa196 BRI •native of the same country with the first, but is of alarger size. It sends out many weak irregular branches,armed with short, strong, upright thorns. The leavesbranch out in the same manner as the first . Theseplants may be propagated from seeds, which should besown in small pots, filled with light rich earth, early inthe spring, and plunged into a bed of tanner's bark.Being tender, they require to be always kept in thestove, and to be treated in the same manner as otherexotics of that kind. British Encyclop.BREAK, in a bad sense, amongst designers and draughtsmen, is when the purity of a line is needlessly interrupted,by being broken into too many detached or smallerparts, and frequently destroys harmony in the composition, and consequently the beauty of the whole design. In a good sense it is taken to be a judiciousdivision of parts in a whole, by which a pleasingvariety is produced, without destroying breadth of parts,and boldness. In an architectural sense, it appliesto the projecting or receding parts of buildings, in whichcase the moulding appears broken, as they are continuedround the whole. Breaks, either in architecture orcabinet-making, may be proper, or improperly introduced,for the reasons now assigned, respecting painting or designing; when properly, they add greatly to the beautyof the whole.-See the article DESIGNING.BRICKS. Palladio calls bricks artificial stones, whichhe says, from their form, are called quadrilli, or bricks,which were in his time made of chalky, whitish, andsoft earth. These, he says, must be cleared from clayand sand. The earth must be opened in autumn, andbe tempered in the winter, and be made into bricks thesummer following. But, says he, if necessity obliges youto mould them in winter, you must cover them with drysand; and with straw, if you mould them in summer.1WL0040to52Ph→BRI 97ToSwesEsebeinark.theܗ SerSrts,ieschedΟΙed,Jety hPBricks are of very ancient invention, as appears fromsacred history

for the Tower of Babel was built with

them, which were made to an enormous size. TheGreeks used three kinds of bricks

the 1st

, didoron, meaning two palms in size

the 2d

, tetradoron, three palms

and pentadoron, that is, five palms or hands, each palmbeing nine inches in length

they therefore were

3 feet9inches long, and the two preceding in proportion

and their width was one foot. To each of these theyhad others half their size, that one might lap over theother, to strengthen the whole, and add beauty to thework. The Roman bricks were 18 inches long by 12broad, which, by our measure, would only be 17 by 11.Sir Henry Wotton speaks ofa sort of bricks used atVenice, of which stately columns were built. Theywere first formed intoa circular mould, and cut, beforethey were burnt, into four or more quarters or sides

afterwards, in laying, they were jointed so close, and thepoints concentered so exactly, that the pillars appearedone entire piece. The ordinary Paris brick is8 incheslong,4 broad, and2 thick, of French measure, whichmakes something more than our measure. The Romanbricks were dried to harden them, but not burnt. Palladio says they required two full years of drying, to bringthem into proper season for use. Bricks amongst usare various, according to their various forms, dimensions, uses, method of making,&c. The principal arecompass bricks, ofa circular form,walls.used in steyningConcave or hollow bricks, made to conveywater, by joining two halves together, each being hollowed about1 inch in diameter. Feather edge bricks,which are like common statute bricks, only thinner onone edge than the other, and used for penning up thebrick pannels in timber buildings. Cogging bricks areH198 BRIused for making the indented works under the coping ofwalls built with great bricks. Caping or coping bricks,formed on purpose for caping walls. Dutch and Flemishbricks, used to pave yards , stables, and for soap-boilers'vaults and cisterns. Clinkers, such bricks as are glazedby the heat of the fire in making. Great bricks, usedto build fence walls, are 12 inches long, 6 broad, and3 thick. Pilaster or buttress bricks, have a notch at oneend, half the breadth of the brick, with which to bindsuch work as is built with large bricks. And lastly,statute bricks, or small common bricks, which, whenburnt, must be 9 inches long, and 4 inches broad, and2 thick.BRIDGE. A well- known structure for the convenienceof passing over a river, marshy ground, or deep valley.Of the last kind there are two neat ones leading fromthe old to the new town of Edinburgh. In introducingthis term, it is not my intention to attempt to give anydirections concerning their erection or proportions , butmerely to present the reader with a concise view ofthevarious sorts that have been constructed: any thingmore would only be an improper intrusion on the limits.of this work; as it is evident, that bridge-building, practically considered, lies out of the way of both cabinetmakers and joiners; except garden bridges, which areeasily executed . To know, however, what has beendone relative to their various modes of construction, andpresent improvements, is a matter of importance to theenquiring mind, and may tend to enlarge the ideas of aworkman, respecting buildings of a more practicalnature, and with which he is more likely to be concerned. Ancient bridges seem to have been constructedmore for the accommodation of warriors, by which topass in great bodies to neighbouring countries, than forthe convenience of travellers, or the promotion of commy HCCra2011VAIA14BRI 99ofksish¡ers'izedased, andat onebindstly,hea


ey.omcinge anyns , butofthethilimipracabinerchars bees1, andto thePicalཏྟཾmerce. Hence Palladio speaks of a noted wooden bridge,which Cæsar, the Roman Emperor, erected over theRhine, when he determined to pass, with his army, overthat river into Germany. This they more commonlydid by a bridge of boats, which they linked together insuch a manner as to extend the whole width of rivers, soas that a body of men might quickly pass over. Thisnoted wooden bridge over the Rhine, was constructed bysimply driving large piles of wood, at a convenient distance, regularly disposed, over the river, inclining toeach at the top, in an angle of 20 or 25 degrees, whichwere secured, from side to side, in the width of thebridge, by strong tying bearers, over which beams werelaid, lapping past each other, and so continued repeatedlyto the whole width of the river. Others, in his time,were built without either piles or pillars, over narrowrivers of 100 or more feet, in such a way as to be bothdurable and safe. The invention of such bridges seemto have been suggested by the repeated consequences oftorrents of water, caused by excessive rains, so that thepiers or supports of bridges have been endangered bytrunks of trees, and other large substances, perhaps ice,hurled against them by the rapid motion of the waters.The chief strength of such bridges consisted in the manner of framing the side pieces, which served as a terracebattlement for the safety of passengers, as well as themain support to the whole. Their framing was madeto rise in a very faint curve, and kept to its place bylarge screw bolts, in the manner that our carpentersscrew up girders. At each side of the river they builtstrong buttresses of stone, on which the framing wasrested. Of the ancient Roman bridges, that built byTrajan, over the Danube, is allowed to be the mostmagnificent. It was composed of 20 arches, of 150 feetin height, and their opening between each pier about1

100 BRI1160 Roman feet, or about 150 of English measure

according to which measurement, it must have beenabove three times the length of Westminster bridge.In the year 1740, at Chauffhausen, in Switzerland,where the Rhine is exceedingly rapid, by the force ofwhose waters, several stone bridges had been sweptaway

it was proposed

, bya carpenter of Appenzel, toconstructa wooden bridge, of one arch only, to spanthis river, not less than 400 feet wide. To this man'sproposals, the magistrates objected, on the grounds ofits being impossible, or at least impracticable, to succeedwith one arch only


, consequently, this ingeniouscarpenter was obliged to submit to make use ofa middlepier of stone, which was left of one of the formerbridges. He began the work, and framed it in wood in soingeniousa manner, as to render it doubtful, to succeeding architects, whether the old stone pire were of anyreal use in supporting this new wooden bridge. The bridgewas compleated in three years, at the moderate expenceof 80001.; but has been entirely demolished by theFrench, in their late contests in that country.The most material improvement in the constructionof modern bridges, has very recently been introduced byR. Burdon, Esq. member of parliament for Durham,and which he has laudably applied to the erection of aniron bridge over the Wear, at Sunderland, which is composed only of one arch, 236 feet wide, and 94 feet high,from the surface of the water to the crown of the arch,which admits of ships of 200 or 300 tons, to passthrough it with their compleat masts up.The bridge consists of six ribs, of cast iron, placed at5 feet distance from each other

the spandrils are com

posed ofthe same metal in circles

and the ribs were put

together, over the water, in the short space of 10 days.The caraiage road over it is of timber planks, coverede.BRO 101cengerd,e ofSeptsparman':ds cཝོStcedaorridgexpenceby theuctiouced brDurban,›n ofanis comet highe arch,› passed atomPutLys.eredwith marle, limestone, and gravel, after laying on theplank a cement of tar and chalk. The whole width ofthis bridge is 32 feet; and on each side is a paved footway, having an iron palisade, with lamps at intervals.For this bridge a patent was granted in 1795.Two other inventions of iron bridges have obtainedpatents: one by John Nash, in 1797, which is constructed by a regular arch, composed of thin iron, eitherwrought, cast, framed, or put together, so as to formhollow bodies , masses, or cubes. The arch of thisbridge is formed by hollow frames or boxes, each boxconsisting of four sides and a bottom. The sides of thesehollow boxes form the arch joints of the bridge, andtend to the centre which strikes the arch . These boxesbeing joined side to side, extend, in length, the width ofthe bridge, and are filled up with sand, gravel, or anykind of materials, to make them solid.Athird improvement of bridges, is bythe invention ofMr. Jordan , of Shepton Mallet, in the county ofSomerset. The improvement proposed in this specification, is to take off the usual pressure of heavy arches,by suspending them to incumbent ones, which are tocarry the entire weight. But as this invention is complex, and far from being so self- evident as the two preceding ones, it cannot be described in few words; and,therefore, if the reader is concerned to know the particulars, he may consult the Patent Office in ChanceryLane.BRONZE. A compound of copper, tin, and zinc. Whenthese metals are united in due proportion, they are brittle,hard, and sonorous. Of this composition they makebells , cannons, and statues, but vary the proportion ofmetal suitable to each. It appears that a fifth partof tin with copper, will so impregnate four parts ofcopper with its particles, that the former colour will102 BROprevail over the latter, which proves that there is a totalchange in the size and disposition of the pores of thecompound metals . Hence, as the tin so effectuallydiffuses itself through all the substance of the copper, itprevents it from rusting, or covering with verdigrease;and this is one reason why it is used for the above purposes. It is particularly adapted to the construction ofevery article to be exposed to the weather. The greaterfusibility ofbronze than copper, is also an advantageousproperty, and much facilitates the casting of largeworksBRONZE also denotes a prepared colour, wherewith toimitate bronze. There are two sorts, the red bronze,and the yellow or golden. The latter is made solely ofcopper- dust, which must be the finest and brightest thatcan be got: the former is made of the same, with theaddition of a little quantity of red ochre well pulverized.Both these bronzes are laid on with varnish; and toprevent the work from turning of a greenish hue, it mustbe dried over a chafing dish as soon as bronzed.BROWN. One ofthe compound colours, mixed in varioustints between red and black . Water colour browns maybe compounded of burnt Roman ochre, a little , and lake. A darker brown of Nottingham ochre,lake, and lamp black. A reddish brown may be formedof Indian red, a very little lamp or ivory black, and adegree of white flake.Burnt umber is an excellent colour for hair brown;bistre brown is of a yellow cast. See BISTRE. In oilpainting, Brown is a principal colour in painting backgrounds, but requires to be mixed with various degrees ofwhite, black, Indian red, lake, and Prussian blue.Spanish brown, for common oil painting, is a mostuseful colour. It is an earth dug out of the ground, andis much in use amongst painters, as a cheap priming196820CBUF 103totalof thetualiper, iTea see purtion cgreatetagelargch::nzy{theth theverize!and, itmusAvarTOUOwnsittle laram ochree formk, andsbrowaIni·badeesofmosd, aimingancolour. If it be freed from gravelly parts, to which it issubject, it not only grinds easy, but lays on pleasantly.The coarsest part of Spanish brown may do for primingtimber work, as railing, gates, and farm-house doorsand window shuts. But I recommend a little whitelead to be mixed with it, for the preservation of the wood,and for the purpose of binding the Spanish brown moreeffectually. To finish the above kind of work, a secondor third coat, of the finest part of the Spanish brown,should be used, with a little lead, Venetian red, andlamp black, in case it require to be well done; and ifthe brown is wanted to be a bright one, let the Venetianred be prevalent in the mixture.BUFFET. Anciently, an apartment separated from therest of the room by small pillars or balusters. Theiruse was for placing china and glass ware, with otherarticles of a similar nature. In houses of persons ofdistinction, in France, the Buffet is a detached room,decorated with pictures suitable to the use of suchappartments, as fountains, cisterns, vases, &c. Theseancient buffets seem to be in some measure supersededby the use of modern sideboards , but not altogether, aschina is seldom , if ever, placed upon them: and wetherefore think, that a buffet may, with some propriety,be restored to modern use, and prove ornamental to abreakfast room, answering as the repository of a teaequipage. Under this idea, we have given a design ofone intended to be executed in the following style. Seethe annexed plate, the lower part of which is to beinclosed with doors, having silk curtains, with workedbrass or wire before them. The upright border on thetop of the lower part, is of brass, together with thoseround the china shelves. These shelves are supportedat each end with four brass columns, made very light.The lights on each side are of brass, and may be unt

104 BUIscrewed, and taken away occasionally. As these buffetswould suit well to be placed one on each side of the fireplace ofa breakfast room, they might very convenientlyhold such branches, with the addition of one on thetop, which may be screwed into a socket; or asmall figure holding a light might be placed upon it.Under the cornice is a Gothic drapery, and fringe aboveit; and as for the other parts, they are sufficientlyintelligent by the design itself, especially as there is aplan subjoined.BUILDING, in general, is the erection of habitations:but is sometimes used in a more comprehensive sense,and denotes the rearing up ofany kind of edifice or superstructure.1st. Our manner of building at present, is much superior to that of our ancestors in this island, who paid littleregard to a proper portion of light, in any of theirapartments, so that their stair-cases were like deadpassages, without so much as a borrowed light; andtheir rooms very contracted and low, with but littlelight comparatively with our modern structures. Ofthe truth of these remarks, several parts of the city ofLondon bear witness to this day, both in the plan of thestreets, and the structure of the houses, which wouldseem to have been originally designed to exclude bothlight and air. The same may be observed of othercities, and which could only originate in the mercenaryand contracted minds of the citizens.The Greeks and Romans were particular in thechoice of their situation , which they judged of by theprinciples of philosophy, and therefore avoided to buildnear marshy grounds or fens, chusing a place to buildon, which most favoured a wholesome air, and thatwould welcome the chearing beams of the sun, andscreen from the bitter blasts of winter. Good pasturage,EBUI 105affers


ientlyon the

or a

pon it.e abovefficientlyhere is arationssense,uper.jupelittlei theire deadht;andbut littlees. Ofe city ofan of thech wouldude bothof otherrcenaryin thethe oyBuildbuildthatandage,water, wood, and fuel, are essential properties in a wellsituated house.2d. The next thing in building, is to lay the foundation in a proper manner. For this purpose, the qualitiesof the ground for a considerable depth, must be carefully looked into. The best foundation is that whichconsists of gravel or stone; but in order to knowwhether the inferior strata are sufficient for the supportof the building, it has by some architects been thoughtadvisable, first to sink wells at some small distance fromthe place of the intended building; so that by attendingto what is thrown up in digging these, the builder willbe a judge of the strata which offer for a foundation:for though stony or gravelly strata be good foundations,yet these are not without exceptions, because of theirbeing accompanied sometimes with hollow places. Toguard against which, Palladio advises to throw downgreat weights on the ground, and to observe whetherthe ground thus tried, sound hollow, or shakes . Hethinks too, that by beating a drum, the skilful ear insuch sounds, will be able to distinguish a false from asolid foundation. But if the strata of stone and gravelbemixed with a solid substance of earth between them,there needs no further enquiry.The other matters which may occur for a foundation,are clay, sand, common earth, and rotten boggy ground.It has been observed, that clay will both raise and sink afoundation, in different cases; yet it possesses a soliditythat, in general, may be depended upon. The marshy,boggy ground, is, of all others, the most difficult tobuild upon: yet, by proper management, even greatbuildings may be erected with safety in such cases, bymeans of piles, which sometimes prove the most secure foundations, notwithstanding the other disadvantages. Foundations near the edge of waters, require toIT106 BUIMbe sounded to the very bottom , as many shocking accidents have happened from ground being undermined byrivers.3d. Another very material thing in building, is a careful and judicious attention to proper drains, for keepingthe foundation dry, and carrying off waters that wouldstagnate, and prove pernicious to the health of theinhabitants. For want of such drains, several houses, incountry towns, are rendered unwholesome; for duringwet weather, the damp will rise on the walls to a considerable height, and often penetrate through the floors.All drains ought to be arched over at the top, and aremost conveniently made of brick. According to theirdifferent sizes, the following proportions of height andthickness maybe observed . Ifthe drain be 18 inches wide,the height of the walls may be 1 foot, and their thickness9 inches: the bottom may be paved of brick flat wise, andthe arch turned 4 inches thick. If the drain be 22 incheswide, the side walls are then to be 15 inches in height,and the rest constructed as before. A drain of a yardwide should have the same height, and the arch turnedover it ought to be 9 inches thick. Drains should alsobe covered in such a manner as they may be easily gotat to clean them. It must also be considered that watercollected in drains, is always loaded with a vast quantityofsediment, which, by its continual falling to the bottom,will be apt to choak up the drain, especially at thoseplaces where there happen to be angles in the course.To prevent this, certain cavities must be disposed atproper distances from each other. Into these the sediment will be collected, and they are, for that reason,called sess-pools. Where the water enters the drain,there should always be a sess-pool, which will preventmuch ofthe sediment from entering into the drain at all.In many cases they are, however, not wanted- where thepneTU464COOTSOBUI 107!water is not collected in great quantities, nor passesthrough dirty places before it enters the drain.4th. In laying the foundation, its face must be madeperfectly level and smooth, and on which some architects recommend a covering of oak plank for the firstcourse, afterwards stone laid with exact care. Thestone is laid on the oak plank without mortar, as ittends to rot the wood. If the materials for the foundation be only of brick, which will do very well for lightbuildings, they should be laid very regularly, correctly,and with a moderate quantity of lime, that the bricksmay sooner unite, and the building be less liable to sinkor give way, than it would with a large quantity ofmortar. It is very improper to fill up a foundation withloose stones or bricks thrown in at random, which willgreatly endanger the whole superstructure. If thefoundation be laid with stones only, care should be takento place the stones as they lie in the quarry; for if theyare otherwise laid, they will be more liable to split.Where the foundation of a principal wall is laid uponpiles, it will be necessary to pile the foundations of partition walls, though not so strongly.The thickness of foundation walls, ought, in general,to be double of that which they are to support: and thesealso, to save expence, are diminished in regular gradation to the highest floor.5th. After the walls are finished, the roof is the nextconsideration; the weight of which must be proportionedto the strength of the walls. It must be constructed topress equally upon the building; and the inner walls arejointly to bear a part of the whole. The floors of thesame story, should be all perfectly upon a level, not evena threshold rising above the rest; and if in any part thereis a room or closet whose floor is not level, it ought notIn old to be left so, but made equal with the rest.1B108 BUIfashioned houses, the floors vary sometimes a step ortwo in height, in which case a new floor should beformed over the old one, except the height of theceiling will not absolutely admit of it.In country houses, some floors are made of clay, oxblood, and a moderate portion of sharp sand. Thesethree ingredients are beaten thoroughly together, andwell spread, forming a good floor for lower rooms. Ingood houses, these sort of floors are made of plaster ofParis, beaten and sifted , and mixed with other ingredientsof a uniting quality. Such floors should be made in themiddle of summer, for the sake of drying more quickly.6th. The ornamental part of building requires greattaste and judgment, so as neither to be too sparing nortoo profuse.Something of sculpture is agreeable at the approachof a building, and at the entrance, with moderation. Inthe entrance hall, figures from the antique are beautiful,when employed to sustain or hold up lamps to lightpassengers in. A front door we conceive to be bestornamented by a doric column, without either base orplinth, with a plain shaft, one third of the height of theplinth from the ground, and the remaining two-thirdsfluted in the manner peculiar to that order. Niches arean agreeable ornament in walls, that would otherwiseappear dead and heavy. These niches are suitablereceptacles of statues in white marble; but if the nichesbe finished in white plaster, they ought to be colouredof a grey tint, to relieve the figure. Niches had theirorigin from the Pagan temples, in which were placedsuch statues as were expressive of the supposed attributesof the idol they worshipped. It is, doubtless, matter ofthankfulness, that we are so far enlightened by divinerevelation, as only to use such under the idea of innocentornaments.BUI 1091fSPaintings are a great ornament to edifices, but cannotbe included in the nature of building; we shall thereforeomit it here, and touch upon it under the articleFURNISH.7th. In building, a special regard ought to be paid tothe distribution of light, and the position of the severalappartments relative to the course of the sun; we meanin cases where there is an opportunity, and it is requiredto be observed; yet on all occasions, the article of lightis more or less necessary to be considered.The due proportion of light to a room, has an agreeable effect; for nothing in nature, that is the object ofsight, proves pleasant without it.The rule proposed by some architects, as to thequantity oflight to a room, is as follows. They multiplythe length and breadth of the room, and the product ofthese by the height, of which quantity they find thesquare root, and assign it for the proportion of lightrequired; so that a room shall neither be glaringly light,nor gloomily dull. This proportion amounts to nearlyone-fifth part of the whole front of a room to be appropriated for light; and, therefore, if it were 24 feetlong, and 14 feet wide, 3 windows, 3 feet 6 inches broad,by 7 feet high, would amount to that proportion. Threewindows of this size, would leave 2 feet of wall at eachend of the room, and four feet between each window,with 3 feet of wall above and below each. This, in myopinion, is a due proportion, especially for countryhouses, where the light has the freest access to eachaperture: but some situations in London would requireone-fourth part of a front wall for light, especially inadopting the present mode of bringing the drawing-roomwindows down to the floor, and in consideration of thedrapery that is now hung to them.8th. The proper distribution of rooms has, as we have110 BUInoticed, a relation to the course of the sun, to avoid toogreat heat in the summer, and intense cold in winter;and also that daily light may come in to suit the use ofthe different appartments. As the eastern sun oughttoregulate our time of rising in general, bed rooms areproperly on that side of a house. In this situation, a bedroom has early light without heat, which can be offensive to none but sluggards.A sitting room is well placed in the south for winteruse, as the sun will come in agreeably warm at themeridian. But in summer it may be inconveniently hot,which is sometimes avoided by having a middle roombetween the north and south of large houses, for it is ofsuch only we have an eye to, whose local circumstanceswill admit of such a variety.Drawing rooms and dining parlours are best situatedon the west, as they are generally used in the after partof the day; especially for summer use, as the decliningsun casts an agreeable shade upon objects, and producesa regaling sensation.Libraries may be on the east side, under the bedrooms; for every one will allow, that to rise with the sunis the best season to commence our studies .The north is most properly appropriated for butteries,pantries, and cellars , particularly in summer, when theheat of the sun would endanger every kind of provision.For other particulars relative to the ornamental part ofbuilding, whether external or internal , see ORDERS andORNAMENT. But it may be necessary to observe, thatthere are many laws enacted for the safety and regulationof buildings: If a house new built exceed the ancientfoundation, so as to hinder the light or air of anotherhouse, action lies against the builder. In London, aman may place ladders or poles upon the ground, orBUR 111against adjoining houses, for building his own, but hemay not break ground: and builders of houses ought tohave licence from the mayor and aldermen. The lawsfor regulating buildings, and preventing mischief byfire, in the cities of London and Westminster, and otherplaces within the weekly bills of mortality, are reducedinto one act, by statute 14 Geo. III. c. 78, dated fromthe 24th ofJune, 1774: which act has been publishedat full length by I, and J. Taylor, No. 56, High Holborn, to which the reader is referred for all the particulars respecting government restrictions in building,BUREAU, in French, is a small chest of drawers. InEngland it has generally been applied to common deskswith drawers under them, such as are made very frequently in country towns. They run from 3 to 4 feetlong, and have three heights of common drawers underthem , the upper one divided into two in length. Thedesk flap turns down to 30 inches perpendicular heightfrom the ground, or a little less, for sitting to write at,The inside of the desk part is filled up with smalldrawers, and holes for letters. These pieces of furnitureare nearly obsolete in London; at least they are soamongst fashionable people. I have, however, endeavoured to retrieve their obscurity, by adding to theman open book case, and modernizing the lower part, asin plate 23, where they are called Bureau Bookcase.This design is intended to be for the use of a lady;and should be executed in black rose wood, and brassornaments, to give it a proper appearance. The pillarswhich support the shelves are brass, and all the frets andborders round them, to keep in the books. The flap isintended to fall flush with the sloped ends, with a brassmoulding to hide the joints. The drawer in the frontrail is the only thing which needs to be employed insupporting the fall, though in the old way they have a112 BUTloper at each end, separated by a partition from thedrawer. The flap should be lined with green leather;and the shelf below has a rim round the back and ends,which are framed into the legs in three-quarter mahogany, veneered and rabetted to receive the shelf, towhich it is screwed; and observe, these rails are taperedfrom the rabbet to a quarter of an inch on the upperedge.BUST, or Busto, in sculpture, denotes the figure or portrait of a person in relievo, shewing only the head,shoulders , and stomach, the arms being lopped off. Thesepieces of sculpture are generally placed upon a pedestalor console.As the image of Mercury was, amongst the Athenians,frequently represented in this manner; the term hermes, inGreek, often signifies a bust.Busto, in painting, denotes a figure whose head andshoulders only appear.BUT-HINGE, so called, because they butt or stop againstsome substance of wood, at the edge of any thing towhich they are screwed..There are a great variety of but-hinges in the practiceof cabinet-making and joinery. Stop but-hinges are sonamed, because the door or top of any piece of workonly turns a little more than perpendicular to the edge orsurface on which they are set-if they are pressed furtherthe hinge will break.Rising but-hinges are such, as turn upon a screw intheir joint, and are used to doors, that as they openthey may clear a carpet, which otherwise they wouldrub against.Slip-off but-hinges are used in cases where the dooror window blind, to which they are screwed, are wantedto be taken off occasionally.Lap-over but- hinges are used to any top of a pieceIBUT 113he";S,toTedperDorad,ese=talS,inadofwork that requires it to be raised about seven-eighthsof an inch above the edge to which it is screwed, sothat another top may fall in between them.Desk but-hinges, are the same as those of the common sort, only made twice the breadth in the strap part.For any other kind of hinges , see HINGE.BUTLER. Some derive it from bouteiller, French, bateler,or boiller. The name anciently given to an officer inthe court of France, being the same as the great cupbearer of the present times. In the common acceptation of the word, it is an officer in the houses of princesand great men, whose principal business is to look afterthe wine, plate, &c.BUTLER'S TRAY. Used at a sideboard by the butler,who has the care of the liquor at a gentleman's table .These trays are made of mahogany; half inch Honduraswill do for the sides, but the bottoms ought always tobe made of Spanish, or other hard wood, otherwise theglasses and slop will leave such a print, on soft wood,as cannot easily be erased. Their size runs about 27 to30 inches the longest way, by 20 to 22 in width, havingone end made nearly open, for the convenience ofhaving easy access to the glasses. The sides are about34 inches deep, rounded at the top, scolloped down tothe narrow end, or front (it may be called, ) in the formof an ogee. Lastly, the sides have handle holes, about4 inches long, and cut 14 inch from the upper edge.For any other kind of tray, see TRAY.BUTTER-TREE is a native of Africa, found in greatabundance in the interior of that continent. This treevery much resembles the American oak; and the nut,from the kernel of which the butter is prepared, by boiling it in water, has somewhat the appearance of aSpanish olive. The kernel is enclosed, or envelloped,in a sweet pulp, under a thin green rind. It is saidI8$6"114 CABthat the butter made of this kernel, will keep a yearwithout salt; that it is whiter, firmer, and of a richerflavour, than the best butter made of cow's milk. Astothe nature of the wood, I find no information; but thecultivation, nurture, and produce of it, feems to be thechief object of African inland industry.BUTTERY. The room where provisions are laid up-All that need' cold or fresh air. It is supposed to befrom the French bouter, to place or lay up. Theposition of the buttery will be found to answer best onthe north side of any building. It is often placed on thetop of cellar stairs.BUTTRESS, or BUTMENT, is a prop, or wall built tosupport another wall, against which it is erected. Hencebuttresses are used against the angles of some ancientsteeples, and other buildings of stone. Those massybuildings of stone, built on each side of a river, againstwhich all the arches of a bridge press from the centreeach way, are properly termed butments, or buttresses.CCABIN, from chabin, Welsh, a cottage, a small room;?chamber in a ship. In ships of the line, the cabin forthe chiefofficer, is furnished with an open gallery at thestern, and a small one at each quarter. In small seaport towns, cabin building is generally the work ofjoiners, who consider it as a master piece to finish oneproperly: and before they can do this, it requires someexperience, as most of the work is under bevel lines.One great defect in cabin building, is not having thefloor perfectly even. I see no reason why they shouldnot, but what may be easily obviated.CAB 115ICABINET, from the French, a closet or small room.The celebrated Bacon thus directs in the furnishing of afavourite room; " at both corners of the further side,let there be two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved,richly arranged, glazed with crystaline glass, and a richcupola in the midst, and all other elegancies that maybe thought on."Cabinet is taken for a private room in which consultations are held.In an architectural sense, it signifies a retired placein fine buildings, set apart for writing, studying, orpreserving any thing that is precious. Hence it isapplied to those curious and neat pieces of furniture, usedby ladies, in which to preserve their trinkets, and othercurious matters.The cabinets of gentlemen, consist in ancient medals,manuscripts, and drawings, &c. with places fitted upfor some natural curiosities. These are the articles offurniture which first gave rise to the general termcabinet making, which has been, from the beginningof this century, considered as one of the leadingmechanical professions, in every polite nation inEurope.This appears to be strikingly instanced in France, atthe present time, in which, it appears, from unquestionable testimony, that cabinet work is more strikinglyimproved there, than any other branch of mechanicaltrade whatever yet I pretend not to say, that this is thesurest symptom of the future flourishing state of thatkingdom .

Since the happy return and settlement of peace between the two contending nations, some of our firstartists have visited France, who have uniformly declared,that the cabinet work is manufactured to the highestperfection in Paris. And, for this purpose, it appears116 CAB(government being so desirous that France shouldexcel all other nations in their taste of furniture, ) thatthey employ a superintender to give directions to themanufacturer, so that the work may not be executed ina poor style. Whether such an example ought to beimitated by us, I shall leave to the opinion of others;but it seems to me adapted to gain the point they havein view, namely, to make them famous, and render Paristhe first market of fashion in Europe. In obtaining ttheir wished-for reputation, London taste will graduallysink in the estimation of lovers of fine cabinet work;and, consequently, our noble houses must be presentlystored with Paris chairs, beds, &c. &c. This we mustbring upon ourselves, by foolishly staring after Frenchfashions, instead of exerting ourselves to improve ourown, by granting suitable encouragement to designersand artists, for that purpose. Instead of this, when ourtradesmen are desirous to draw the best customers totheir ware-rooms, they hasten over to Paris, or otherwise pretend to go there, plainly indicating either ourown defects in cabinet making, or extreme ignorance,that we must be pleased and attracted by the mere sound of French taste.To me there appears one obvious delusion, in thereports concerning French furniture, arising from thetemptation that every tradesman who has been at theexpence of a Paris journey, is under, to speak largelyof the great things that he has seen there; which, doubtless, gives him a superiority over his neighbour, whonever reached to the length of Dover. In consequenceof such stupidly absurd prejudices thus gendered, aclumsy three-footed stool from France, will be admiredby our connoisseurs, in preference to a first rate cabinetof English production . We poor Englishmen are hardlyable to judge of the due' projection of a torus, of thetal2002CAB 117"beauty of a simple curve, nor even of a right line,except we borrow these from a French plan!After all, however, I am of opinion, that if our noblemen and gentry would contribute as much to the encouragement of a national brass foundry, as they do tosome other institutions of less consequence, we mighthave as elegant brass work for cabinets, cast in London,as they have in Paris. It is in this article they excelus, and by which they set off cabinet work; which,without it, would not bear a comparison with ours,neither in design, nor neatness of execution.The quality of cabinet work is extremely variable inboth countries, arising chiefly from the abilities of theworkman, the directions given him, or the state of thewood which is used to work on: and hence it is difficultto ascertain, in many instances, the true value of furniture, by those who are strangers to the business. Onthis account, gentlemen often think themselves imposedupon in the high price they must give for a good article,in comparison with what the same piece of furniturenominally, may be bought for at some manufactories.If, however, any man sell trash for a high price, heought to be reprobated: yet such is the inconvenienceof keeping a large stock of seasoned wood, that itrequires a considerable property even to support but amoderately large manufactory, with all that variety ofdrywood, that is absolutely necessary; so that the pressingnecessities of some tradesmen, oblige them to work upwood unfit for use, and perfectly against the inclinationsof every honest man. But if those who have acquiredample fortunes from the profits of their business, vendunseasoned wood, to impose on the unwary gentleman,scarcely any degree of disgrace can be too severe forthem.As for the condition of those tradesmen who labour118 CABunder the heavy expences of a large family, as well asto struggle with the weight of supporting a make-shiftstock of wood, it is not impossible, but that a planmight be adopted to afford a proper relief, especially tothose of them known to be industrious and ingenious;by which, at a fair and moderate price, they might haveany quantity of all the various wood used in cabinetmaking, well seasoned. And we think that such a planof relief might be forwarded by noblemen and gentlemen, with great ease, and every way consistent withgood policy, industry, and a just reward to the ingeniousand otherwise praise-worthy cabinet maker.AA public wood-yard would not only be attended withsuch benefits, but would greatly contribute towards theimprovement of cabinet making in general, so that bysuch like institutions, in time, London might be a morefamous market for every species of cabinet work, thanParis now is. I mention these things with a view tonational credit, and the benefit of trade, and not own desire to recommend any extravagant steps inthe purchase of grand furniture; for I can assure thereader, though I am thus employed in racking my invention to design fine and pleasing cabinet work, I can bewell content to sit on a wooden bottom chair myself,provided I can but have common food and raimentwherewith to pass through life in peace.In plate 24, is a design for a cabinet intended for theuse of a lady. The component parts of this piece,will appear so clear to the workman, as to require butvery little to explain it. The round ends of the lowerpart, may be either formed of solid doors, veneered, andbanded, or of wire and silk, as those in the hollow ofthe front. The insides of the round ends, are for plaincupboards, with a single shelf in the middle. Withinthe front doors, may be some drawers at the bottom,.CAB 119and two sliding or moving shelves for books. Inathefrieze part, there may be drawers, one of which mayhave a small rising flap to write a note upon. If thecabinet be of black rose wood, the columns or legs ofthe cabinet ought to be carved and gilt.The openwings of the upper part, may be either cut out in woodglued up in thicknesses, in the manner of the fret workformerly used, or may be cast in brass. The tray tops onthe upper parts, ought decidedly to be in brass, both forstrength andbeauty; and observe, that the squares on, thetop recede from each other in front equal to the difference of their length at each end. The top ornament isentirely round, and fluted in some form, with a turnedball at the summit, the whole of which ornament issupposed to fill the area of the highest step, which issquare. The ornament at the top of the framing ofboth lower and upper doors, is intended to be a part ofthe framing, to be cut out in a light manner, and gilt,which will suit the wire work before the silk. Lastly,the ornament ofthe upper and lower friezes are supposedto be inlaid brass, if the commode be of real black rosewood; but if only painted, it must be in gilding,Plate 25, is another design, which, from the precedingdescription, may be more readily understood, though theshapes be varied, for all the parts are nearly for the sameuse as those in the other design.The middle part,however, being a suitable length and height, a lady mayuse the drawer in the frieze as a dressing convenience;for which reason a piece of glass is introduced in theback ofthe upper part, but which, independent of dressing, will not be improper as an ornament. Lastly,under both views, the light at each end will be admittedas a necessary addition.CABINET, in gardening, a little insulated building, inmanner ofa summer-house, built in any agreeable form,1120 CADand which should be open on all sides. Its situationought to be retired, and in which the free air may betaken, in hot weather, under cover.CABLE, in the ornamental part of architecture, is properly an inverted flute inserted between two fillets.When both cabling and fluting are introduced in theshaft of a column, or table leg, one-third of the lengthis assigned for the cabling, and two-thirds for the fluting.The term cable thus applied, originated, probably, fromthe inverted flute being carved so as to have the appearance of a cable rope. This sort of carved moulding isin use at this time, and has a good effect when neatlyexecuted. In plate 9, No. 5, is a carved torus or beadof this kind. The common cabling, however, as inserted between two fillets, is far from being in goodtaste; and in the purest times of ancient architecture,was only introduced in cases of necessity, to strengthenthe flutings of such works as were exposed to violence.In any column, it appears to me unchaste, and an undueinterruption of the fluting of the orders. Hence, thatpart of the column which formerly in England used tobe cabled, is, by modern architects, in cases of necessity,left quite plain, which, doubtless, is preferable. Butthe inexperienced reader is not to imagine, that there arethe same objections to reeding, which, in cabinet work,is a pleasing and very proper ornament. See REEDING.CABRIOLE, a French easy chair-from the name of theperson who invented or introduced them. See pl. 8 , No. 1 .CADDY, from Cadus, or cad. an ancient measure forwine. This word is now applied to various kinds oftea chests, of square, octagon and circular shapes.CADENE. One of the kind ofEuropeans import from the Levant.sort of all; and are sold by thetwo piastres per carpet. " Brit. Encyclop.carpets which theThey are the worstpiece, from one toCAL 1211 •CADUCEUS. A rod entwined at one end by two serpents, in the form of two semi- circles. It was theattribute of Mercury, and was given him, as the storygoes, by Apollo, in return for the lyre. This caducéushad also a pair of wings. This rod, according topoetical fiction, is said to perform wonders, as layingmen asleep, and even raising the dead. By the twoserpents, is represented prudence or wisdom; and bythe wings, diligence. When the caduceus is foundupon medals, it is a common emblem of peace, prosperity, and good conduct. The ambassadors of Rome,when sent to treat of peace, carried in their hands agolden caduceus, whence these ambassadors were calledcaduciators; as those sent to declare war, were calledfeciales.CAISSON. Awooden frame or chest used in laying thefoundation of a bridge. By such caissons, were thepiers of Westminster bridge built. The method is tofill the caissons with so much of the builded pier as itwill float with, and then swim it to the proper place,where the pier thus built, is to find a foundation.When it is fixed over the proper place, they make thebed of the river as clear as they can of loose sand, andhaving built as much more of the pier as will sink it,it then settles down to the bottom.CALAMANCO. A sort of woollen stuff manufacturedin England and Brabant. It has a fine gloss, andis checquered in the warp, whence the checks only appear on the right side. Some calamancos are quiteplain, others have broad stripes adorned with flowers,some with broad stripes quite plain, and others watered.CALIDUCT, in ancient architecture, pipes or canals disposed along the walls of houses or apartments, by whichto convey heat to any part of the building, from onecommon furnace. Something ofthis nature is, on someoccasions, used by the moderns.122 CAM!CALKING. A term used amongst artists, to denotedrawings done by tracing from some print or design,by rubbing it on the back part with red or black chalk,which being laid on a sheet of clean paper, and tracedover with a point made on purpose, leaves an impressionofthe print, or original design: and if such calking betaken to a copper-plate printer, to make it pass throughthe rolling-press, the strokes of the red chalk will noteasily rub off,CALLIOPE, in the Pagan mythology, is the muse thatpresides over elegance and heroic verse. The name, inGreek, signifies sweetness of voice. In painting, this

muse is represented with a coronet of gold upon her

head; and, on her left arm, garlands of bay leaves, tobestow upon poots as a reward; and, in her right hand,three books, with the names of the famous poets, Homer,Virgil, and Ovid.CALLIPERS, or CALLIBER-COMPASSES, are those madewith arched legs, to take the diameter of round or swelling bodies-chiefly used by turners.CAMBLET, or CHAMBLET, a stuff sometimes of wool,silk, and sometimes hair, especially that of goats, withwool or silk. In some the warp is silk and wooltwisted together, and the woof of hair. The true ororiental camblet, is made of the pure hair of a sort ofgoat frequent about Angora, and which makes theriches of that city.We have no camblets made in Europe of the goat'shair alone; even at Brussels they find it necessary toadd a mixture of woollen thread. England, France,Holland, and Flanders, are the chief places of thismanufacture. Brussels exceeds them all in the beautyand quality ofits camblets: those of England are reputedthe second. Figured camblets are those of one colour,whereon are stamped various figures, flowers, foliage,&c. and by means of hot irons, which are a kind of67CAM 123moulds, passed, together with the stuff, under a press.These are chiefly brought from Amiens, in Flanders.The commerce of these was anciently much more considerable than at present.Watered camblets, are those which after weavingreceive a certain preparation with water, and are afterwards passed under a hot-press, which gives them asmoothness and lustre.Waved camblets, are those whereon waves are impressed, as on tabbies, by means of a callender, underwhich they are passed and repassed several times.Brit. Encyclop.CAMP. The ground on which an army pitch theirtents. In encampments, persons of the highest distinctionare obliged to accommodate themselves to such temporary circumstances, which encampments are ever subjectto. Hence every article of an absolutely necessary kind,must be made very portable, both for package, and thatsuch utensils may not retard a rapid movement, eitherafter or from the enemy.The articles of cabinet work used in such services,are, therefore, each of them required to be folded in themost compact manner that can be devised; yet this isto be done in such a way as, that when they are openedout, they will answer their intended purpose. And it isto be observed, that most of the things which are of thisnature, will also suit a cabin or sea voyage.There are therefore camp or field bedsteads, campchairs, desks, stools, and tables. Of camp or field bedsteads there are a great variety, which we need notto mention, as they have all folding tester laths, eitherhexagonal or elliptical shaped, and hinged so as to foldclose together. In size they run about 6 feet long, and3 feet 6 or 9 inches in width, and between 5 feet 6 inchesto 6 feet high, to the crown of the tester. These may124 CAMbe considered for domestic use, and suit for low rooms,either for servants or children to sleep upon; and theyreceive this name on account of their being similar insize and shape to those really used in camps; one ofwhich I shall describe as in plate 15, which is made tofold close together, so that a case of about 15 inchessquare, and 3 feet 8 inches long, will hold both theframe and tester lath. The pillars are framed fast intothe head and foot rail d, and the sides bo, are in threelengths, and hinged in the middle, on the outside, asshewn in the design . The length e, is about 6 inches,framed fast into the head pillar and to this length e, isf hinged, on the inside, with the same kind of hinge.'The same thing is done on the other side; but observe,the length e must be at the opposite angle of the bedframe, in order that the frames may receive each otherwhen they are folded in. To understand which, supposeb to move round to c, as described by the dotted curveline. Then the joint f follows, and the side lays closeto b. Atthe same time o falls to d, and h against o , asmust be obvious by a little reflection. The pillars haveeach of them two rule joints, one for the part of itabove the seat of the bed, and the other for the stumppart below it. And thus the pillars will fold upon eachother, and the stumps turn up to the under side of therail; and observe, when the stump is turned down, aswhen the bed is in use, there is an iron hook and eyeto keep it from turning from its place at k.The tester rail is hinged in three parts; and there aretwo laths across to keep them firm, as also in the bedframe, morticed in below the sacking, and which aremade hollow to clear it, and to slip in with the hand atpleasure. I have shewn a part of the sacking only, thatthe hinging of the frame might be seen.In plate &, is a camp table, which consists of two1CAM 125flaps, about 14 inches wide each, and 2 feet 8 inches inlength, of inch Honduras, hinged at the under side, asthe design shews. The triangular legs which supportit, are fixed in the centre, the same as a fishing stool, bymeans of an iron triangle, with three screw pins andnuts, as at A, to which is fixed a screw foot of iron at b.So that when the legs of the table are put to their place,at 1 , 2 , 3, where there are thin iron plates with holes inthem, let in even with the table top, which receives theiron pins at the end of the legs, then by turning thescrew footb round, it works in the nut o, and pressing thecentre A further from o, the legs 1 , 2, 3, are contractedinwards, consequently the flaps are kept up, and securedto the legs at the same time. These tables are bothsimple, and will bear any degree of hardship.Camp chair, No. 7, plate 8, folds up, and the back,foot, and stump of the elbow, are hinged to the side rail,and the back, feet, and seat, are stayed with girthwebbing, so that the whole will draw together, and lieflat. Some cover the seats with leather, but it is notso soon dry as webbing, which, therefore, is most approved of. There are other camp tables and chairs , butthose now described, seem to me the best adapted to thepurpose ofany that I have seen.The trussel camp table is framed together in the sameway as we have described the seat of the camp chair tobe, No. 7. The top is one entire piece, 30 inches longby 20 broad; and being hinged at one side with swanneck hinges, as fig. 9, the top easily turns over upon thetrussel, and may be fastened with a hook and eye.There are camp chairs made of mahogany, with theback framed to some simple pattern, but having the siderails so hinged as to admit the front to lay close to theback frame. The seats are formed of webbing, andwhen used, may have a cushion laid over it . For the126 CANofficer's tent, and what relates to it, see TENT, andplate 78.CANE. See BAMBOO. Canes from Bengal, are supposed the most beautiful which are brought into Europe;some of which are so fine, that they may be workedinto various useful vessels, which, when properlyvarnished and lacquered, will hold liquor as well asglass; and are used in India instead of it.Caning cabinet work is now more in use than it wasever known to be at any former period. About 30years since, it was gone quite out of fashion, partlyowing to the imperfect manner in which it was executed.But on the revival of japanning furniture, it began to bebrought gradually into use, and to a state of improvement, so that at present it is introduced into severalpieces offurniture, which it was not a few years past, asthe ends of beds, framed in mahogany, and then caned,for the purpose of keeping in the bed clothes. Sometimes the bottoms of beds are caned. Small bordersround the backs of mahogany parlour chairs, whichlook neat. Bed steps are caned: and any thing wherelightness, elasticity, cleanness, and durability, ought tobe combined.The quality of caning is various. The commonestkind is of one skain only, called by caners bead work,and runs open: others of it is of two skains, and iscloser and firmer. The best work is termed bordering,and is of three skains, some of which is done veryfine and close, with the skains less than a sixteenthbroad, so that it is worked as fine, comparatively, assome canvass.The cane used for the best purposes , is of a fine lightstraw colour, and this, indeed, makes the most agreeablecontrast to almost every colour it is joined with. Themore yellow kind is generally as strong and durableCAN 127but that which has lost either the white straw, orshining yellow colour, ought to be rejected, as havingbeen damaged by salt water, or other accident, in itsimportation.CANOPY, in architecture and sculpture, a magnificentkind of decoration, serving to cover or crown anything, as altars, thrones, tribunals, pulpits, chairs, orthe like. This term has rather a curious derivationfrom xwww↓, a gnat; whence tov, a net spread overa bedtokeep offthe gnats. Canopies, amongst us, aregenerally used as a covering or tester, for French or sofabeds: and are often of a spherical figure, or otherwise ofa bell shape. They are certainly a handsome ornamentto a bed, when they are executed in a tastety manner.The Roman grandees had their canopies, or spreadveils, called thensa, over their chairs: the like were alsoin temples over the statues of the idols.CANTERBURY is the name of the metropolis of Kent;but has of late years been applied to some pieces ofcabinet work, because, as the story goes, the bishop ofthat see first gave orders for these pieces. One piece isa small music stand, with two or three hollow toppedpartitions, framed in light slips of mahogany, about three inches apart from each other, and about 8 inches deep,for holding music books. These have sometimes asmall drawer, 3 inches deep, and the whole length of it,which is 18 inches; its width 12 inches, and the wholeheight 20 inches. The legs are made of 1 mahogany,turned or plain, tapered, with castors, and are adapted torun in under a piano-forte. The other piece whichreceives this epithet, is a supper tray, made to stand bya table at supper, with a circular end, and three partitions cross wise, to hold knives, forks, and plates, atthat end, which is made circular on purpose. See plate26, and TRAY,128 CARI·CAP, amongst cabinet-makers, is generally applied to abrass ornament which screws on bed pillars, by whichthe bed screw holes are covered. *Cap, is also used as a contraction of capital.CAPITAL, from the Latin caput, the head, is used onvarious occasions, to express the relation of a head,chief, or principal thing: thus, in architecture, it is theuppermost part of a column or pilaster, serving as thehead or crowning, and placed immediately over theshaft, and under the entablature.The capital of a column is properly that whose planis round: but the capital of a pilaster has its plan squareor rectilenial. The capital of a column is an essentialpart of an order, and is varied according to the characterof each. The ornamental capitals are, the Ionic,Corinthian, and Composite; and the plain, are theTuscan and Doric; which see under these articles.An angular capital, is a capital which bears the returnof the entablature at the corner of a building. Thecapital of a balluster, is that part which crowns it: andthe capital of a triglyph, is the plat-band over it, whichVitruvius calls tænia. See the upper fillet, plate 11 ,No. 6.CARCASE, amongst joiners, is the external shell of ahouse, or the skeleton of the whole frame, includingroof, partitions, floors, &c. before any part of it belathed or plastered. The reason why this distinction isnoticeable, is , that they sometimes take the carcase of ahouse at so much per square.Carcase, amongst cabinet-makers, generally applies tothe rough cases of drawers or book cases, before theyare veneered, or have any moulding upon them; or inmeasuring the carcase, it signifies the dimensions of apiece of furniture without the projections of mouldings.CARD-TABLE. A piece of furniture oftener used thanCAR 129to good purpose. In the manufacturing of them, thereis frequently much trouble to make them stand true inthe upper top; to effect which, various methods havebeen studied by cabinet makers. Some swell the upper tops, by damping them before they are veneered,supposing that the ground will shrink in due proportionwith the veneer, so as to keep all straight. This, however, often fails, if the top imbibe much of the wet, foras it is so much thicker than the veneer, it takes longertime to dry it, and the veneer being dried first, andlosing its power, the ground work will draw the topround on the upper side. On the other hand, if theground be quite dry, and the wood of a soft nature, andcare be not taken to shrink the veneer between hotcauls, previous to its being glued down, the top willmost likely dish on the upper side. And it should beparticularly noticed, that the top ought not to be left toolong in the cauls, for that will help to draw it hollow. Itis most adviseable for the workman to take the top soonout, and lay the veneer side of it down on the ground, that the underside being exposed to the air, may draw theNo wood will stand so well for veneered side round.these tops,seasoned as hard, straight-grained mahogany, well , andjointed in 34 inch widths; and to be careful notto have curled veneers, but well dried, to agree withtheground work; and being well sized with glue, it maybe laid with the hammer with as much safety as in acaul, and sometimes more so; because as soon as they arelaid inthisway, theunderside maybeturnedupwards, andtheveneeredsideplacedso as to excludetheair fromit.Oflate, however, a thoughthasstruckme,faultyor shakenveneerswerecutinto3 feetthatifany lengths, and as many ofthem glued together as to be aproper thickness for the ground of a card table top,they afterwards may be cut down to 3 widths, andK130 CAR1jointed again as solid wood. This thought entirelyoriginates with myself, but I am strongly persuaded thatit will answer; for as in this method the wood is gluedtwo ways, so the spring of the grain must be cut off,and the whole rendered stiff by so many glueings.CARE, in painting, is represented by a grave comelywoman she is winged, and holds two hour glasses; acock at her heels, and the sun rising from the ocean.Her handsomeness denotes her taking time by the forelock, and stopping all things: her wings denote the quickness of her thoughts in the exercise of care, or the swiftness oftime, which she is anxious about; and the glassesand sun shew that care and solitude are never weary.CARICATURE, in painting, denotes the concealment ofreal beauties, and the exaggeration of blemishes, but stillso as to preserve a resemblance ofthe object.CARMINE is a powder of a very beautiful red colour;or rather a fine bright crimson, inclining to a scarlet,when it is of a good quality. It being, in some degree,opaque, and in some transparent, it will work both inoil and water. There are various kinds of it preparedby the chemists, but that which is the deepest scarlet isbest, for if it be pale, it is adulterated by some sort ofwhite. It is esteemed the best crimson colour for standing in water.Portrait painters use a mixture of carmine and whiteflake, forthe lips and cheeks. It is one of the finishingcolours, and should never be used in the first painting,but laid upon the finishing colours without mixing withany other. The very high price of it makes it sparinglyused by painters, who instead of it use fine lake.CARNATION (colour) amongst painters, is understoodof all the parts of a picture which represent flesh, orwhich are naked, and without drapery. The variouscolouring for carnations may be produced by takingCAR 131more or less red, blue, yellow, or brown ochre, whetherfor the first colouring or for the finishing. The colouring for women, should have a blue tinge; for children,more red; and for men, it should incline to a yellowishhue, and more so , if to represent an old person.CARPENTER. Some derive it from the Latin carpentum , a car or cart, other from the French charpente,which denotes timber. Both these derivations may beincluded, and it will amount to this, that a carpenter isone who uses timber to make cars or carriages with.The term is applied to persons who build ships , particularly in country sea-port towns, where it is understood of no other; for those engaged inthe framing ofroofs and floors , &c. are all termed joiners . In Londonthere is another distinction between such as frame roofsand floors, from those who make doors, shutters, windows, &c.—the former are carpenters, and the latterjoiners .Carpenters' work which is measureable, are roofing,flooring, and partitioning, which are measured by thesquare containsof 10 feet long, and 10 broad, so that one square 100 square feet. Therefore if a floor be 30 feet long, by20 broad, these being multiplied together, theproduct will be 600 feet, or six squares, and so of anyquantity; for by cutting off two figures to theotherright oftheproduct, theleftarethesquares, andthelightthefeet.Thusif a roomorflooringbefect. in.*50352501506 long, by 8 broad.33 416 81800 0 content 18 squares,132 CARThejoiners' work is more by the run measure of somany feet in length only, as cornices, doors, and cases,window frames, gutterings, &c .For the various prices of the above work, see theBuilder's Price Book, published by J. Taylor, Holborn.CARPET. A sort ofcovering of stuff, or other materials,wrought with a needle on a loom. Carpets of variousmanufactories, have been a leading article of a wellfurnished house, for some years past.I cannot, from present information, find the æra inwhich carpeting was first invented: but from some citations of Shakespear, they seem to have been in use atthat time.The Persian and Turkey carpets, are those mostesteemed. The Parisian carpets are a tolerable imitation of these. But besides the Persian, Turkey, andParisian carpets, there are the following sorts, whichhave their names from the places where they are manufactured; asBrussels carpet, the metropolis of the dukedom ofBrabant.Kidderminster-a town in Worcestershire.Wilton-a town in Wiltshire,Axbridge-in Somersetshire.Venetian carpet, generally striped. AndScots carpet, which is one of the most inferiorkind.To most of the best kind of carpets, there are suitableborders in narrow widths. The stair carpets are, halfyard, half ell , and three quarters wide.In cutting out carpets, the upholsterers clear the roomof all the furniture, and having caused it to be dustedout, they proceed to line out the border with a chalk.line, and marking the mitres correctly in the angles ofthe room, and, round the fire-place in particular, as inCAR 133this part any defects are most noticeable. They thenproceed to cut the mitres of the carpet border, beginningat the fire-place, and endeavouring, as correctly aspossible, to match the pattern at each mitre: and inorder to do this, they must sometimes cut more or lessof the border to waste. In this manner they proceed,tacking it down, in a temporary manner, as they go on.They then take a length of the body carpet, and tacking it up to the border at one end, they take the strainer,and draw it to the other, and tack it again, taking care,as they go on, to match the pattern, which sometimesvaries in the whole length, for which there is noremedy, but by changing the lengths in such a manneras to bring them tolerably near in matching. Lastly,if the widths do not answer in number, it then becomesnecessary to draw them in at that side of the room where it is least seen;and this must be done so as to makethe contracted widths match, that there may be nothingoffensive in the appearance of the whole. That theymay not misplace any of the lengths or parts of the border,they where they take sealing thread, and tack them together,think it necessary, in which state they are takento the shop and completed.of the roomIfacarpetbecutoutathome,aplanmustbeacuratelytakenonpaper, withallthesizesofbreaks,doorways,andwindows,&c.whichmustbetransferredtosomeconvenientroomathome, byachalklineandsquare, andthenmarkingofftheborder,andproceeding as before described.Inlayingdowna carpet, theygenerallybeginwiththefire-placefirst, andhavingtackedandsecuredthis,theystrainhereandthere, soastobringitgraduallytoo,tilltheygetthewholestrainedcloseroundtheroom.Every person employed in taking the plan of a room134 CAR ·for a carpet, ought to know as much of plain geometryas to enable him to raise a perpendicular at the end ofany given line; and to know that an angle of 45 degreesis a true mitre line; to draw an equilateral triangle, andknowthat any side of it is equal to the side of a hexagoninscribed in a circle, whose radii or semi-diameter, isequal to the side of the triangle; that when there arebow windows in any room, how to find the true curveof the arch, whether circular or elliptical. For whichsee GEOMETRY.CARTOON. A design in painting, made on strongpaper, to be transferred on a fresh plastered wall, to bepainted in Fresco. This is performed by calking. SeeCALKING.It is also used for a design coloured, for working inmosaic tapestry. The word is from the Italian cartoni,a large paper, denoting many sheets of paper pasted oncanvas, on which large designs are made, whethercoloured or with chalks only.CARTOUCHE, in architecture and sculpture, an ornament representing a scrole of paper. It is usually a flatmember with wavings, to represent some inscription,device, cipher, or ornament of armoury. These are inarchitecture much the same as medallions. In a moregeneral sense, it is any piece of carved work whose useis to receive a motto or inscription .CARVER. A cutter of wood in the form of figures, orother devices, in ornaments and enrichments of mouldings. This ingenious art, appears to be of great antiquity. It seems to be prior to statuary and painting." And the cedar of the house within was carvedwith knobs, and open flowers: all was cedar, there wasno stone seen. " 1 Kings vi. 18. Nor do we read of anypainting; for in this sacred edifice , the carving wasoverlaid with gold. So that carving and gilding are not111CAR 135"only of the most ancient, but the most honourableorigin. We have already considered the foundation ofthis art under the article BOASTING, which see. Butunder the notion of a carver, both boasting and finishingare included. An adept in carving, is no mean person;and in reality requires more to qualify him thoroughly,than is generally apprehended; although many in thisprofession, as in all others, content themselves to knowverylittle . A complete master in carving, ought to beacquainted with architecture, perspective, and, in somedegree, with botany; nor should he be ignorant of thetrue effect of painting, nor of the structure of the humanbody; for, unquestionably, each of these sciences havesomething to do with carving. To these should be added an acquaintance with the antique ornaments .These, indeed, he is principally concerned with in manybranches of carving; and by a competent acquaintancewith which, it is, that the French carvers exceed the English, when they have practised in this country forsometime. Figures, foliage, and flowers, are the threegreat subjects of carving; which, in the finishing, requireastrengththese or delicacy suited to the height or distance of objects from the eye. In the proper effect ofcarving, much depends on a due degree of boldness, or tenderness, answering to local circumstances. It requires some command of the mind, for the carver towork so as to suit considerable height or distance; inwhich case, his eye, in working at so short a distance,must not govern him, which it is apt to do; but his judgment must take the lead, and constantly suggest tohim the folly of finishing, in a tender manner, thoseflowers, and foliage, &c. which are only to be viewed at a distance.The style of carving, at this time, is much after theantiques, which is doubtless the most commendable.136 CARYet some of the lighter branches of carving, are greatlyaffected bythe present introduction of so many speciesof brass lights from France.There are, strictly speaking, four classes of carvers .1st. One for architectural work, consisting of theornamental capitals of the orders, chimney pieces, andmouldings. 2d. One for internal decorations in furniture, consisting of pier glasses, window and bed cornices, &c. connected with gilding in burnished goldand mat. 3d. One for chair work, consisting of flatwater, and strap leaf work, scrolls, and running moulding, whether for japanning or gilding, applied to chairs,sophas, couches, &c. 4th. One for ship work, consisting much in massy figures for the heads, and boldfoliage for the quarters and sterns of ships. Yet thereare to be found persons, though rarely, of such universalgenius in this ingenious art, who are capable of undertaking the four branches. Having possessed a strong attachment and inclination for carving, in my youth, I wasnecessarily induced to make attempts in this art, and onsucceeding in some degree, I was employed in the countryoccasionally in it, and therefore, from some experience,I make some remarks on the practice. 1st. Thatthe work should be glued down by paper, and afterwardsboasted, (see BOASTING ) by which the general reliefof the whole is produced. Then 2dly. It should betaken off, and cleared behind of superfluous wood, andagain glued down with paper in a very slight manner;that being finished, it may easily be taken off withoutinjury. 3dly. That in the general style of finishing,to study nature, whether animate or inanimate, bywhich it will be observed, that all niggling and choppinginto small parts, must be avoided, except in a fewparticular parts. 4thly. That the outline is the principal feature of good carving; and that on all occasions,atStCAR 137every other thing must, if necessary, be sacrificed forits preservation, particularly in bold works. Hence;in the carving ofmoulding, the outline, profile, or contour, must not be destroyed by the relief of the carving,which ought to be so studied as to agree with it. Lastly,To preserve breadth in carving, as it is done in goodpainting; and not to muscularize nor fibrate too much,nor yet to leave the foliage bare, nor the figures like astuffed sack.CARYATIDES. Besides columns and pilasters, it is sometimes customary to employ representations of humanfigures, by which to support entablatures in buildings.The male figures are called Persians, and the femaleCaryatides or Carians.InThe Persians are so called from a victory gained overthe Persians by Pausanias, who having brought homespoils and trophies to the Athenians, they fixed upon Persianfigures for those which should support entablatures, andthus kept in mind, that there were once Persian slavesin Athens. To represent these conquered peoplein the lowest state possible, they loaded them with the heaviest entablature, that is of the Doric order.process oftime, however, other figures besides those ofPersians, were introduced, and other entablatures put overthem, but the name was still retained.The properCaryatides,are women dressed in long robes, after theAsiatic manner; and the crigin of the device was as follows. The Carians had been long at war with theAthenians, but being at length totally vanquished, their wives were led away captives; and to perpetuate theof this event, trophies were erected, in whichfigures of women dressed in the the Caryatic manner,were used to support entablatures like the Persians: andthe other female figures were afterwards used in the samemanner; the name of Caryatides was always retained.memory138 CASThe ancients made frequent use of Persians and Caryatides, and took pleasure in varying their forms in numerous ways, There are some instances of these inmodern architecture, but they ought not to be introducedexcept under cautious rules . Hence all indecent attitudes, distorted features, and monsterous productions,ought to be avoided, of which there are many examplesin Gothic buildings. On the contrary, the attitudes.should be simple and graceful, the countenance alwayspleasing, though varied, and strongly marked, agreeableto the nature ofthe object represented. The Caryatides,or female figures, should never much exceed the human.size: but the Persians, or male figures, may be of anysize, and the larger the more striking to the view, as theyare intended to surprize and command awe. They areused with propriety in arsenals, galleries of armour, and

such like buildings, but in nothing where delicacy is

required.Their entablature ought to be the Doric, and bearthe same proportion to the figures as they would to- columns of the same height. The Caryatides shouldhave their entablature of the Ionic or Corinthian order,bearing a like proportion to these as their columns wouldrequire.CASING, amongst plaisterers, is the laying on mortarover the frame of a building, or any timber work, which,whilst the plaister is wet, they joint by a ruler, that itmay have the appearance of stone.CASTER. Of this useful article in brass work, there area great variety, generally distinguished by the followingnames: Plate casters, which screw on to the end of anyleg. Square and round socket casters, from about halfan inch to an inch and half, or more, at times . Clawcasters, whose sockets are square, but fixed on to thewheel in an horizontal position, for pillar and clawCAT 139tables. Casters for bed pillars are of four or five sorts.1st. Two and three wheel plate iron casters, and thesame in brass, excepting the plate that screws on, whichis always iron. These casters require the bed pillar to beturned hollow at the bottom, like a box, to receive theplate and wheel of the caster, that it may only riseabout half an inch above the bottom of the pillarto which they are screwed, except the bottom beplinthed after the most common method, by mitring atorus round, which is then put low enough to receive thecaster. 24. Square socket casters, about 23 inches at thetop, tapering to suit the therm ofthe pillar on to whichthey are let and screwed to, the same as a table caster.3d. The common box wood casters, of two sizes, thesmallest for field bedsteads, and the largest for commonbeech four-post bedsteads. 4th. Large French casters,for the largest and best beds, the wheel of which isfixed to a bar of iron , which is made with transversestraps at each end, by which the caster is screwed to theunder side of the rails of the bed. Lastly, there is a casterlately introduced, which seems to have nothing in itobjectionable but the appearance of the bottom, whichmust be round, though the socket be square. In anyother respect, it seems to possess some advantages, particularly in strength , as the wheel is nearly perpendicularto the socket, and is supported by a small roller, whichruns round with it. These casters will therefore beproper for heavy furniture, such as field beds, or largelibrary and dining tables , with tapered legs , &c.CATHETUS-In geometry and architecture. In geometry, it is a line or radius falling perpendicularly uponanother line or surface; thus the cathetus of a rightangled triangle, are the two sides that include the triangle.In architecture, it is a line drawn from the under side ofthe cymatium of the Ionic capital, to the centre of the140 CEDThe length of the cathetus is 15See VOLUTE.eye of the volute.minutes.CAVITO. The word is Italian, and signifies the sameas hollow. In architecture, a concave moulding containing a quadrant of a circle.CAUL, in anatomy, a membrane in the abdomen orbelly, covering the greatest part of the guts; sometimescalled reticulum, because of its resemblance to a netspread over any thing. From this term is derived caulamongst cabinet makers, which is used to lay down.veneers with. The caul is made out of solid wood,shaped to the surface to be veneered, and being wellheated, and afterwards oiled or greased, it is screwed tothe veneer, and by its heat sends out the glue, so thatthe veneer lies close to the ground, Sometimes thinwainscot is used for cauls, and by heat made to bend toa crooked surface. In general, cauls of 1 inch deal,sloted through at each end with quarter wainscot areused for card table tops: but it may be doubted whetherit is always the best method.CAULICOLES, in architecture, are eight small branchesor stalks, which rise under the volutes of the Corinthiancapital; which see at a a, plate 34.CEDAR, or JUNIPER. The character of this tree is agenus of the order of monodelphia of the dioceia, or23d class of plants. According to the Linnæan system,there are nine species of the cedar tree. The first andsecond species are natives of Spain; the third of Franceand Siberia; the fourth and fifth in South America; thesixth in Italy-Mounts Olympus and Ararat; theseventh in Virginia and Carolina; the 8th is a low shrubthat grows wild in the north of Europe; and the ninthgrows naturally in the southern parts of it. The SouthAmerican cedars grow to a very large size in theirnative country, some of them to the height of 80 feet orupwards, but are too tender to live in the open air of1CEI 141this country. Perhaps this species was the cedrus magnaofthe ancients, or the great cedar; and probably that ofmount, Lebanon, mentioned in scripture, and chieflyused in the temple of Solomon. The cedar which isused by cabinet makers, is imported, in general, fromthe West India islands, and is of an agreeable smell;but seldom comes to us in trees larger than a foot in diameter.There is a common kind of cedar, in colour muchlike dark mahogany. This we suppose to be of thefirst and second species, which grows in Spain; fortheir ships of war are sometimes made of it. The smellof this wood is rather offensive; but it does very wellfor the bottoms and backs of common drawer work,particularly for bottoms, as it comes cheap, and oftenbroad enough to do without jointing. Some call thisHavannah cedar, from a West India island ofthat name,where, probably, some of it may grow. See PINUS.CEILING, in architecture, the top or roof of a room; oracovering of plaster over laths nailed on the bottom ofjoists, that bear the floor of the upper room; or onmere ceiling joists where there is no room above. Plastered ceilings are supposed to be more common inBritain than in other countries. The manner of finishing ceilings has been various, at different times, in this country. A sort of very heavy ornamented plasterwork, was formerly introduced, together with pannelled work, in heavy mouldings. Within about 30 yearssince, this kind of ceiling work has been composed in amuch lighter style , and variegated with painted pannels,often from the Heathen mythology, or other poeticalsubjects. At present some of the most elegant roomshave no plastered ornaments in their ceilings, but arepainted to imitate an open sky, with some faint scatterings ofclouds.142 CEMCELLARET, amongst cabinet makers, denotes a convenience for wine, or a wine cistern. A cellaret sideboard, denotes that it has a place at one end, in whichto hold bottles of wine, and at the other sometimes aplain drawer for plate, and sometimes lined with lead, towash glasses in. The cellaret drawer, ought not to beless than 13 inches deep, in the clear inside measure.They are usually made to hold nine bottles, and sometimes 12, in extraordinary large sideboard tables.The best cellaret drawers are made with an insidecase to rise out of the drawer, in which are the partitions for the bottles of wine. These partitions arebest made of tough thin wainscot, and half lappedtogether, of stuff about 3½ inches wide, and being fitinto the case, they are not finally fixed till they returnfrom the tinman, whose business it is to lead both these.The bottom and the sides of the inner case, are leaded alittle higher up than the partitions. Observe, whenthe inner case is put into the cellaret drawer, to lift itout by, there is a square piece cut out of the drawerside, dove-tail wise, which being glued unto the sidesof the inner case, serve to raise it out. But that thefingers may come at it, the sides of the drawer arescooped out by a gouge, under the edge of these thumbpieces.CEMENT, in a general sense, is any glutinous substancecapable of uniting and keeping things together in closecohesion. In this sense the word comprehends mortar,solder, glue, &c. but has been generally restrained to thecomposition used for holding together broken glass,china, and earthen ware. For this purpose, the juice ofgarlic is recommended as proper; but should be in caseswhere not much strength, but neatness is required, as itleaves no mark. But the following cements are preferable, and, in general, may be depended upon for strength.CEM 143•Quick lime and the white of an egg, mixed together,and expeditiously used, will answer. Some recommenda mixture of quick lime and cheese. The cheese mustbe shaved thin, and stirred with boiling water, which is.thereby changed into a tenacious slime, which does notmingle with the water. This slime being laid upon ahot stone, and mixed with a proper quantity of quicklime, into the consistence of paste. This compositiondries in two or three days, and will resist water. -Someuse white lead, red lead, quick lime, and green sandarach,of each half an ounce, and mix all these with the glare.offour eggs.Cement used amongst builders, is of two kinds, hotand cold. The hot cement is made of rosin, bees' wax,brick dust, and chalk, boiled together. The bricks tobe cemented, are first heated, and then the cement ispoured on, and the bricks rubbed against each other,the same as a joiner or cabinet maker rubs his gluedjoints of wood. The cold cement is that which wasbefore described; but the hot is most generally used.Cement, amongst cabinet makers, is a composition ofbees wax, black rosin, red lead, Venetian red, a littleyellow ochre, and Spanish brown, to imitate the colourof mahogany with, and by which to fill up any smallhole. But I recommend a much preferable cement,where great nicety is required, which is as follows;take red lead or Venetian red, Spanish brown, a littlelake and yellow, so as to match the mahogany, whichgrind upon a stone with spirits of turpentine, very stiff,as thick as paste; then take as much turpentine varnishas will barely soften it, when it will become more fluid ,which if it exceed in degree, may be easily remedied, byletting it lay on the stone till it dry to the consistence ofputty, at which time it must be applied to the hole to becemented, otherwise it will turn too hard for use, and144 CENmust be softened again. This cement, after standing aday or two, will bear a polish with the wood. If, however, it should be required to dry quicker, along with theturpentine varnish add a small quantity of white spiritvarnish, or melt a little black rosin into the turpentinevarnish. In this way, any coloured cement may bemade, that will infallibly answer the purpose, if dulymixed.CENTAURS, in mythology, a kind of fabulous monsters,half men, and half horses.CENTRE, or CENTER, is a point equally distant fromthe extremities of a line, figure, or body. It is formedfrom the Greek word xvτpov, a point.The centre of a circle is that point from which linesbeing drawn to the circumference, are equal.Centre of a parallelogram, or poligonal figure, is thepoint wherein its diagonals intersect.In an ellipsis, the intersection of the transverse andconjugate diameter, is its centre.Centre, in a mechanical sense, is a point within abody, through which, if a plane pass, the segment oneach side will equiponderate; that is, neither of them canmove the other.Centre, in perspective, is a point in the picture produced by a line drawn perpendicular to the eye, andintersecting the plane of the picture. In plate 1 , fig. 5,s is the centre of the perspective plane, and all lineswhich originally are perpendicular to it, vanish into s ,the centre of the picture. Thus the lines 1 , 3, 2, 0,being perpendicular to the ground line or the intersection of the plane of the picture, with the groundplane, which in effect is the same, the lines 1, 3, 2, 0,vanish into s, the centre; which is further illustrated inthe small treatise of perspective, under the article PERSPECTIVE .CHA 14511edes 11d11"1CENTRAL. For central, centrifugal, and centripetalforces, see MECHANICS.CHAIR. From the Greek xapa, cathedra, ancientlyseat, a chair, a desk, a pulpit to declaim in, or read lectures out of. It is still applied to the place whenceprofessors and regents in universities, deliver theirlectures; thus we say, the professor's chair, the doctor'schair.The word was applied to an ivory seat placed on acar, wherein were seated the prime magistrates ofRome, and those to whom the honour of a triumph hadbeen granted.From this term cathedra, comes our cathedralchurches, being the sees or seats ofbishops.The term chair applies to all the variety of seats usedfor domestic purposes, and obtain names answering totheir appropriate design, whether for furnishing particular rooms, or for our accommodation in cases of easeor convenience. Hence we have a variety of armchairs for ease, see plate 8; and for particular rooms, asdrawing room chairs, parlour chairs, lodging room orbed room chairs, child's chair, hall chairs, porter's chairs,kitchen chairs, and sick-bed chairs; which see underthese articles.Chair-making is a branch generally confined to itself;as those who professedly work at it, seldom engage tomake cabinet furniture. In the country manufactoriesit is otherwise; yet even these pay some regard to keeping their workmen constantly at the chair, or to thecabinet work. The two branches seem evidently torequire different talents in workmen, in order to become proficients. In the chair branch it requires aparticular turn in the handling of shapes, to make themagreeable and easy: and the only branch of drawingadapted to assist such, is that of ornaments in general.L "146 CHA1It is very remarkable, the difference of some chairs ofprecisely the same pattern, when executed by differentchair makers, arising chiefly in the want of taste concerning the beauty of an outline, of which we judge bythe eye, more than the rigid rules of geometry. Drawing, in perspective, seems more proper for those whokeep to the cabinet branch, which enables them moreaccurately to judge of a sketch given them to work by,and of the effect of the whole. A good cabinet makeris distinguishable by the neatness of his lines , crossbanding, and drawer work. In both, one sure sign ofa bad workman, is the ill condition in which his toolsare in.1The kinds of mahogany employed in chair making,ought to be Spanish or Cuba, of a clean straight grain.Wood of this quality will rub bright, and keep cleanerthan any Honduras wood. Yet there is wood of thelast quality, if properly selected for chair making, towhich there can be no material objection; and wherelightness is preferred, as is sometimes the case, it willdemand the preference.It appears from some of the latest specimens ofFrench chairs, some of which we have been favouredwith a view of, that they follow the antique taste, andintroduce into their arms and legs, various heads ofanimals; and that mahogany is the chief wood used intheir best chairs, into which they bring in portions ofornamental brass; and, in my opinion, not without aproper effect, when due restraint is laid on the quantity.CHAMBER, in building, from the Greek xapapa, vaultor curve; the term chamber being originally confinedto places arched over, though now it is used indefinitelyfor rooms with either arched or straight ceilings. Seefurther particulars under ROOM.CHANCEL, from cancelli, lattices or cross bars, whereCHE 147with the chancels were anciently encompassed, as theynow are with rails . The chancel is that part of thechoir of a church, between the altar or commu: iontable, and the ballustrade or rail that incloses it, wherethe minister is placed at the celebration of the Lord'sSupper.CHANNEL, in architecture, is used to denote that partof the Ionic capital which lies under the abacus, andcontinues to the eye of the volute,Channel of the triglyph, in the Doric order, is inwidth equal to two-twelfths of the whole triglyph, andits depth is half the width; the sides of the channels dotherefore incline to each other in an angle of 45°. SeeTRIGLYPH, in plate 11 , No. 6.CHARITY is represented, in painting, by a woman all inred, a flame on the crown of her head, with an infantsucking on her left arm, and two others standing up,one of which is embraced with the right. The red andflame denote the fervency of charity, and its activity;the three children shew the triple power of charity;forfaith and hope, without charity, will signify nothing.CHASTITY is represented, in painting, by a modestfaced female, holding a whip for self chastisement. Sheis clothed in white raiment, and on her girdle is written ,castigo corpus meum, I chastise my body. At her feetlies a conquered cupid with his broken bow.CHESNUT-TREE. Linnæus reckons two species ofthisplant. 1st. Esculus, with seven stamina in the flower, orthe common horse chesnut. The 2d, with eight staminain the flower, or the scarlet horse chesnut. The common horse chesnut is a native of Asia, and was formerlyThe in great esteem , being usually planted in avenues .scarlet horse chesnut grows naturally in Carolina andthe Brazils. The common chesnut bears a pleasantflower. In France it is used much as an ornamental148 CHItree in their walks; and was brought into Europe fromTurkey, and has been raised from nuts brought fromthence, which grow well with us, and in time to largetrees, full of boughs and branches, green leaved, andstreaked on the edges, with threads in the middle,which, in their native soil, turn to chesnuts, but rarelydo so with us.In Turkey, the horses are sometimes fed with thenuts as a remedy for certain disorders, particularly forsuch as have coughs, or are broken winded; hence theepithet horse chesnut.This tree is reckoned a good fence for other trees,against the effects of blasting weather, as it repels it insome degree; and will therefore keep plantations fromthe injuries of the severest frosts. Its branches spreadwide, and form a pleasant shelter; but it seems to havesome disagreeable influence on grass, as no cattle willfeed under it. It has been formerly much used amongstjoiners and carpenters; and it is said, that some of themost ancient houses in London were built with it.CHIMNEY, " in architecture, a particular part of ahouse where the fire is made, having a tube or funnel tocarry off the smoke. The word chimney comes fromthe French cheminée, and that from the Latin caminata,a chamber wherein is a chimney: caminata fromcaminus, and that from the Greek xavos, a chimney;ofxaw, I burn." Brit. Encyclop.It is the opinion of some architects, that the generalreason why chimnies smoke, is their being built toowide at bottom, so that when there is any considerablepressure of air, or gusts of wind downwards, therebeing nothing to resist it, the room is consequentlyfilled with smoke. The observation is grounded uponthe following principle, i. e. that the rarefied air, by theheat of the fire being forced up the chimney by the+CHI 149בי240VCpressure of the condensed air, the smoke ascends, butgradually weakens as it goes up; and if so, it is selfevident, that to prevent smoking, the funnel should notbe too long, and rather narrower at the bottom than thetop, so that after rising past the narrow part by the forceof the air it may be free in its passage as it ascends.And bythe chimney being thus gathered in alittle above.the fire place, it seems probable that the smoke requiresadditional spring or power to rise.The publishers of the British Encyclopædia say, thatthis method of building chimnies has proved effectual ,after all others have failed; and that in a house placedin the worst situation possibly, namely, under a highmountain to the southward, from which strong blastsblow down upon it. In this situation a vent was carriedup without angles, as perpendicular as possible, and wasmade about 3 or 4 inches wider at top than at the bottom;the funnel was gathered in a throat directly above thefire place, and so widening upwards. Since that timethe house has not only ceased to smoke, but, when thedoors are open, the draught is so strong, that it willcarry a piece of paper out at the chimney head.CHIMNEY GLASS . This is a piece of household embellishment that has of late years been much in requisition; and certainly they are a pleasing ornament toelegant rooms. They are generally measured to take inthe whole of the opening of the chimney, between thepilasters ofthe jambs, so that the pilaster of the chimneyglass may come as near as possible in a line with them.It always looks the neatest to bring the plate as near tothe marble cap as can be admitted of; and for this purposea narrow slip only is screwed on to the blind frame,which a glass of a large size must always have, otherwise it will be in an unsafe state. To this narrow slip,a gilt moulding is fixed by means of gilt screws, or150 CINneedle points: but in some instances, the plate is incontact with the marble cap, which, by reflection, appears twice the width .In elegant rooms, the chimney glass is usually carriedto the under side of the cornice of the ceiling; but toreduce the expence of the plate, sometimes a broadishpannel is introduced at the top of the glass, with afrieze and cornice above all, included in the frame ofthe glass -see plate 50.The most generally approved pilasters for chimneyand pier glasses, are those of 3, 5 , or 7 reeds, workedbold; but which, in my opinion, still look better bybeing parted with a ground one-third of the width ofthe reed, which may be matted to relieve the burnishedreeds. It is not unusual to have a twisting branch offlowers, or a ribband round the reeds rising upwards, andterminating in some sort of Composite, Corinthian, orIonic capital. The pannel above the glass, is sometimes made quite plain, and covered with silk as a groundfor drapery, tacked under the cornice of the glass , tomatch that of the windows. For other particularsrespecting glass, and glass fixing , see the article GLASS.CHISSEL. An instrument much in use amongst cabinetmakers, joiners, and stone masons. The generalnames of which are the following; forming chissel,paring chissel, mortise chissel, ripping chissel, skuechissel, blunt chissel, for breaking walls, and variousiron chissels for stone and sculpture work. Observe,for all stone and sculpture chissels , the steel should bein the centre, as also in the skue sort, used for carving,but all the others have their steel on the front side.CHORD, in geometry, is a right line drawn from one part ofan arch ofa circle to another: hence the chord of an archis a line drawn to its extremity, as 1 , 2, in fig. 7, plate 1 .CINCTURE, in architecture, a ring or list at the top14CLA 15121shedanardel Cooand bottom of the shaft of a column, separating theshaft at one end from the base, and at the other fromthe capital. See COLUMN and APOPHYGE.CIRCLE, in geometry, a plain figure bounded by oneline, called the circumference, unto which all linesdrawn from the centre are of equal length . SeeGEOMETRY.CIRCUS. A large building, either round or oval,anciently used for exhibitions to the people. TheRoman circus was a large place or square, arched atone end, encompassed with porticos, and furnished withrows of seats ascending over each other.This term is applied to modern buildings, when theplan of the street or pile of houses is circular.CISTERN. See CELLARET.CITRON TREE. An American tree, the wood ofwhich is called by the natives candle wood; becausebeing cut into splinters, it burns like a candle. Thetree is frequent in the Leeward islands , and grows to aconsiderable size; the leaves are like those of the baytree, but of a finer green: the flower is sweet, and much like those of the orange. The trunk is so likethe yellow saunders in colour, that it was taken to bethe same tree; but after being imported, the differencewas discovered; the saunders being of a sweet scent,and but moderately heavy, and resinous; but the citronwood considerably heavy, very oily, and of a strongsmell. It is adapted for turnery wood, being hard, anda beautiful brown by age.CLAMP, in cabinet making and joinery, a slip or scantling of wood tenoned or ploughed on to the ends oftable tops, or sliders in drawers, or on the ends ofdoors. In circular doors for commodes, &c . about2 feet in length, or more, to be veneered, the clamps.are usually jointed square on to the end, and glued, and152 CLIafterwards doueled or pinned. In some cases it is noteasy to determine when clamping will answer a goodpurpose, as it sometimes does injury; frequently so incard table tops, for if the wood shrink, they are sure toput the top in winding, and if so, it can never return toa true state .Clamping is useful in small upright doors, where theair surrounds them pretty equal on both sides, being notconfined, and when there is no great draught of veneer,so that the clamps may always have the ballancingpower; but in all cases of horizontal work, where theair is confined to the upperside, and there is a greatwidth of veneer to draw, then it is improper to dependon clamping. In such circumstances, the only securityis a dry ground of hard wood, and a judicious temperingofthe veneer to suit it.CLARO-OBSCURO, or CLAIR OBSCURE, in painting,is the art of distributing to advantage the lights andshadows of a piece, relative both to the relief of the eye,and the effect of the whole piece. Thus, when apainter gives his figures a strong relievo, and frees themfrom the ground, and from each other, by the management of light and shade, he may be said to understandthe clair obscure. See more on this subject in painting.Clair obscure is also used to signify a design consisting only of two colours, usually of black and white;or it is a design washed only with one colour, theshadows being of a dusky brown colour, and the lightsheightened with white. The word clair is taken forthose parts of a picture which reflect the most light, andcomprehends the luminous colours . By obscure is meantnot only all its shades, but also all the colours that aredusky.CLIO. One of the muses, supposed to be the inventressof history. In painting she is represented with a coronetCOL 153ofbays, holding in her right hand a trumpet, in her lefthand a book, upon which may be written Historia.COLLARINO. The neck of the capital, being 10minutes in height, both in the Tuscan and in the Doric,which are the only columns which have the collarino.COLONNADE. A peristile of a circular figure, or aseries of columns disposed in a circle. A polystylecolonnade, is that whose number of columns is too greatto be taken in by the eye at a single view.COLOUR, philosophically defined, is not inherent inbodies, but is generated in the faculty of sight, by meansof direct or reflected light, and by the disposition ofsurfaces and substances to reflect or refract those rays oflight to our eye, by which we have the power of perceiving objects in such a mode as we pronounce them tobe, of a red, yellow, or any other colour. If thisdefinition be accurate, all sensation of colours depends onlight, the modification of matter, the state and structureof the eye hence, if the eye be affected with thejaundice, every object will appear to be tinged with moreor less yellow and if the object be composed in afigure of various surfaces, those which present themselves most perpendicularly to the sun's rays, will belightest; and those most remote, or hid from them,will approach to darkness or blackness: but withdrawall light, and we immediately lose all perception ofcolour, and are only sensible of its privation, which isdarkness. To me, therefore, it appears conclusive,that colour is not a property in matter, but only apower, and that the agents of such power are the eye,the light, and the various modifications of the particles of matter of which all bodies are composed. Onthis subject we have most elegantly exprest the opinionof Dr. Youngin the followinglines:154 COL" The senses, which inherit earth and heaven,Enjoy the various riches nature yields:Far nobler! give the riches they enjoy,Give taste to fruits; and harmony to groves.The radiant beams to gold, and gold's bright sire,Take in, at once, the landscape of the worldAt a small inlet, which a grain might close,And halfcreate the wond'rous world they sec.But for the magic organ's powerful charm,Earth were a rude, uncoloured, chaos still.-Objects are but th ' occasion: ours th ' exploit.Ours are the cloth, the pencil, and the paint,Which Nature's admirable picture draws;And beauty creation's ample dome.Like Milton's Eve, when gazing on the lake,Man makes the matchless image, man admires."•In confirmatiom of this opinion, it may be observed ,that if we artfully vary the medium through which wesee it, and we may make the surface of any body whatever, assume, in appearance, any colour we please; andthat in the most rapid succession, and in every mode ofpossible diversity -a certain sign that colour is onlya sensible quality, and not a real property of matter.For those substances which are disposed to reflect theoriginal colours, and which are used in painting, werefer to the term PAINTING.COLUMN, in architecture, is the principal part of thewhole order of any building. A complete column contains three principal parts, i.e. the pedestal, shaft, or body,and the entablature. Again, each of these are also subdivided into three, which will make nine smaller parts,which are again divided into the several members or mouldings of which the entire order is composed. Thus inthe Tuscan column, plate 30, the whole height is tobe divided into five equal parts, one of which is for thepedestal; see the scale 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, on the extremity ofCOL 155the right side of the plate. Again , the remaining fourparts are to be divided into five equal parts, one of whichis for the entablature, and the remaining four for thebody of the column, including base and capital; see thesecond scale. Lastly, the four parts are then to bedivided into seven equal parts, one of which is for thelower or inferior diameter; see the third scale.The module, or largest diameter of the column, mustthen be divided into six equal parts, as shewn in theplate, each of which is again divided into 10, making inthe whole 60 minutes, by which to proportion therespective members of each larger part. By this scaleit is evident, that any part from 1 to 60, may be taken,or even a half part, by placing the compass in themiddle between any two lines. For observe, that thediagonal lines from 5 divide the sixth part of the moduleinto 10 equal parts; and if 12 be wanted, it is only toplace the compass foot on the third line from the bottomor line 8, and extending it from the upright line 20, tothe diagonal line; and if 12 are wanted, the compass,must, in the same manner, be applied between the lines 7and 8: and so of any other.In proceeding to draw the Tuscan column geometrically, raise a perpendicular line for the centre, and, aswe noticed before, of the pedestal consisting of threeparts; begin with its plinth, for the height of whichtake from the module 32 minutes, see fig. 2, and laythem upon the perpendicular line. In the same mannermust all the numbers be placed as marked on the plate;only observe, that the number for the heights are readperpendicularly, and for the projections horizontally.Next lay on 11 minutes for the base, including an ogee,and 2 fillets of 2 minutes each, and the ogee 7 minutes.The second part of the pedestal is the dado or die, forwhich lay on 71. The third part is the cornice, for156 COLwhich is to be laid on 16 minutes, to be sub-divided asexpressed by the figures; 5 for the cima reversa , 84 forthe corona, and 24 for the fillet, which completes thepedestal, which in all contains 131 minutes, or a fractionmore than the fifth of the whole height.Next proceed with the column, which includes, 1st.A base, which is 30 minutes. 2d. The shaft, which issix diameters. 3d. The capital, which is 30 minutes;so that the whole column contains 420 minutes.Lastly, proceed with the entablature, which containsthree parts. 1st. The architrave, which is 30 minutes.2d. The frieze, 30 minutes . And 3d. The cornice,45 minutes, which make 105; and by adding theminutes ofthePedestalThe columnThe entablature· - -· ·131420105the entire Tuscan ordercontains656 minutes in height.To draw the projections of the orders .From the perpendicular line, place on 30 minutescach way, for the lower diameter, and for the upper one25 each way, so that the shaft will diminish 10 minutes.From the perpendicular lines which determine thesediameters, are placed all the projections of the members,except those of the pedestal, which are laid on from theline of the die or dado, projecting 10 minutes on each sidemore than the column, which makes the dado in width.80 minutes, being 10 more than its height. Andobserve, that the plinth of the base is in a line withthe dado, which includes the projection of the base.The projection of the pedestal cornice is 11 minutes,and the lowest plinth the same.COL,the5C}15,For the projections of the capital and entablature, seethe large profile on the left, where the heights are alsoplaced, which will be easily understood after what hathbeen said on the other parts. It may, however, be necessary to notice, that the cornice projects equal withits height, 45 minutes, and the height of the capital 30,exclusive ofthe sincture and astragal below the collarino.Observe, the collarino, or neck of the capital , is 10minutes in all the orders.To diminish the shaft of the column, divide the shaftinto three equal parts, and take two of these, and dividethem into four equal parts, as shewn at figure A. Turn anarch at 1 , 2, 3, 4, equal to the lower diameter. Take25 minutes, or half of the upper diameter, and place itat 1 , and divide 1 , 4, into four equal parts, through whichdraw parallel lines, as the figure shews. Take No 1,and place it at diameter 1; and take No. 2, and place itat diameter 2; and so of the No. 3, which give thediminution, by tracing through each point, by means ofa flexible ruler that will bend to each point: but in alarge work, the two-thirds of the shaft might be dividedinto eight equal parts, ifthe portion of the circle whichmakes the difference between the upper and lowerdiameter, be also divided into eight parts, by which eightdiameters would be obtained, which would render thediminution more perfect. In the same manner mustall the other columns be managed, both in the method ofdrawing and diminishing them, so that nothing moreneeds be said on the subject, under the other columns.To represent the Tuscan column in perspective,requires some skill in that art. If, therefore, the readerbe not already acquainted with the general rules of thisbranch of drawing, he should first attend to the articleperspective, otherwise it will be in vain to attempt it.In giving the following instructions for drawing the preenJ158 COLfive orders of columns in perspective, it is taken forgranted that the learner is acquainted with the elementarypart of the subject; and, therefore, after carefully inspecting the plate, he will only want a few hints toassist him in such a representation . If, however, hehas never drawn the orders geometrically, this shouldfirst be done, as we have now directed in the Tuscan,otherwise the nature of the returns, and profiles of themouldings, will not be represented in perspective as theyought to be.The learner being thus prepared, let him proceed bydetermining the height of his drawing, and making thesame scales as are shewn in the plate; and having madethe module, take 25 minutes, and lay on each side No. 1at the top, as at 0,2, then take 45, and lay on each sideas 8,7, which will give the whole projection of theentablature. Consider then the height of the horizon,and the length of the distance, which should be considerable, to prevent a distorted appearance, then havingfixed upon these as at s, d, draw from 8 , 7, to s, thecentre or point of sight, and then from 7, to d, thedistance which, cutting the visual 8, s gives the square ofthe entablature. From 7 let fall a perpendicular to g,on the base line, and from g direct a line to the distance,which will be the diagonal of the square of the plinth.Then from No. 1 , at the top, let fall a perpendicular tothe base line, which gives the centre of the plinth, fromwhich, each way, 30 minutes must be laid for the underdiameters of the shaft, and then 10 minutes more oneach side for the base, as is expressed, by the concentric circles on the plinth, the smallest of which beingthe shaft, and the largest the base. From the exmust be laid on 11 minutes eachsquare of the lowest plinth, andshews the difference between it and the whole entablatremities of this base,way, which give the

COL 15912.Deէ:


the 534ScetoDولOffDAingex.achandblature above, as from k to g, so that the plinth recedes sofar from the base line. The numbers 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, atthe top, are the several projections of the cornice, asspecified on the large profile, which are all to cut thediagonal tending from 7 to the distance, by being drawnto the centre of the picture at s . Proceed, lastly, toplace all the heights upon the perpendicular 7, g. Asfrom g to ƒis the height of the pedestal, and from ƒtodof the plinth ofthe base; and a, b, c, d, e, are the placesof diminution, as shewn at fig. A. Then frome lay on30 minutes for the capital, the next 30 minutes for thearchitrave, the next 30 for the frieze, and lastly , 45 forthe cornices, all which lines must be drawn to thedistance, which will find the squares of their projections,by cutting their corresponding visuals drawn from theprojections placed at 3 , 4, 5 , 6 , 7, at the top. In thesame manner must the height of each fillet and moulding be placed, and drawn to the distance. For thecircular mouldings of the base and capital, nothing canbe done more than finding the perspective squares inwhich they may be inscribed, and then traced round bythe eye, as the learner is supposed to be acquainted withputting a circle in perspective, and of which we havegiven a hint at the lower plinth, by dividing the lowersemi-diameter of the shaft into seven equal parts, two ofwhich are taken as at 2, and a line is drawn to thepoint of sight, cutting the diagonal h at the point throughwhich the curve is to pass.. If after proceeding, thelearner should find himself baffled by a multiplicity oflines, it will be best to finish by parts at a time, andrub out the pencil lines that are not wanted for theoutline ofthe column, and then to proceed again.And though such a representation of the Tuscancolumn will, to a learner, prove difficult at best, yet the160 COLmethod here exhibited, is the most simple of any haveyet seen.And to relieve his thoughts after the preceding drydetail of parts in drawing, it may be proper to touch onthe antiquity, character, and use, of the Tuscan order,which will tend to complete his ideas of this column.And in order to keep the architectural part of this workas much together as possible, and to occupy as small aportion of these pages as can be dispensed with, Ishall in this place include an account of the other fourorders, and afterwards give short directions for drawingthem, but which will be much shortened, as what hathalready been observed of the Tuscan order, will apply toevery other, so that by inspecting the plates, nothingmore will be requisite in drawing them either geometrically or perspectively, excepting in some trifling thingspeculiar to each column ofthe orders, excepting, indeed,what relates to an oblique view of the Ionic.The Tuscan order then, according to Palladio, who isgenerally allowed to be the most competent judge ofancient architecture, was first invented in Tuscany, aconsiderable part or province in Italy, from whence ithad its name. In point of antiquity it is inferior to thethree Grecian orders, as well as in beauty. Vitruvius,however, who wrote on ancient architecture, in thereign of Titus, the Roman emperor, about the 80thyear of our Lord, mentions this column under the title ofthe rustic order, but which then, he says, had not thelaws of its symmetry settled; or it is taken , I believe, bysome to be spoken of the Doric in its original state:but it seems to me, that there is no material differencebetween the Doric and the Tuscan orders in thisrespect , though the Tuscan did not receive its name,nor arrive at its state of perfection , till the Lydians outof Asia, who formed a colony in Tuscany, first introCOL 1611T.•mentsively.duced it. It is commonly believed amongst architects,that the orders were gradually enriched from the firstperiod oftheir invention, which had their origin from themanner of building the ancient huts by trunks of trees,with their branches laid transversewise, on which toform a roof or covering. Under this view it is naturalto suppose that the Tuscan was the first order, beingmost like the proportion of the trunk of a tree, and resembling it most in point of simplicity. Its being calledthe Tuscan order is not a sufficient argument against theremoteness of its antiquity, as it is easy to conceive itpossible, nay, probable, that in its original state it existedprior to the Doric; though it did not receive a provincial name till after times, or posterior to the three regular Grecian orders. And as Vitruvius speaks of a state ofrudeness in which the Doric was previous to its being asettled order, it is very consistent to infer, that the Doricwas fashioned from what we now call the Tuscan; asit appears to be a fact, that the Ionic was an improveof the Doric, and so of the other orders succesHencethe Tuscan is the most simple ofall the orders,and is most generally executed without those decorationswhich give such grace and beauty to the others; yet inthat Tuscan column, built at Rome in memory of thegreat Trogan, it is carried to a degree of enrichmentequal to any other. There is no regular profile established in this order by the ancients. Those of Palladioand Vignol are esteemed the most characteristic of theorder; and for which reason, that which is here presented is a compound of both.This order is generally used for country buildings,gates, farm-houses, warehouses, and in all situationswhere simplicity and strength are required. If, says Palladio, a work is to be composed of this plain order, theM162 COLinter columniation may be very wide for the admissionof carts and other country conveniencies, and to renderthe work less expensive. For this purpose he assignsfour diameters of the lower part of the shaft for the spacebetween each column, denominated areostyle, which isthe largest ofany allowed by the ancients.OF THE DORIC ORDER.This order was used in the most ancient temples, andwas, as Palladio affirms, invented by the Dorians, a Grecian people. It has no particular base assigned to it by architects, it being always executed without any in the ancient temples. The moderns have however added oneto it, generally the attic, and sometimes one of a moresimple structure, consisting of two toruses. See Nos.2, 3, plate 11. It is next in strength to the Tuscan;and being of a grave and robust figure, is styled in figurative language the Herculian order. Its triglyphs aresupposed to represent the ends of joists, and the mutulesin the cornice, the ends of rafters.In rich compositions , both ancient and modern, thesuffit of the mutules and that of the coronas are frequently ornamented; the former with conical drops,the latter with roses in lozenge compartments, Theseornaments should be wrought in the solid, both of themutules and coronas, without any projection beyondthem; but in the exterior part of buildings these ornaments are often omitted. The metopes in the friezeshould be perfectly square, and may be adorned with different ornaments suitable to the character of the buildingin which it is employed.The ancients used frequently to enrich the metopes ofthis order with ox skulls and pateras alternately, but otherornaments may with propriety be introduced both inpublic and private buildings. In the former, crests andThMpKCOL 163SC75badges of dignity, heads, vases, or pateras encircled withoak or laurel leaves; and in the former, whatever seemscharacteristic of the nature and use of the building maybe employed; particularly cherubs, doves, garlands ofpalm and olive, and other devices of moral virtue, whenthe structure is for religious purposes.The shaft or fust ofthe columns of this order is sometimes adorned with 20 or 24 shallow flutings, the centreofwhose curviture is found by taking the width of theflute, and with it turning two arches, and the point of intersection will be the centre ofthe flute.As the Doric order is sometimes appropriated for internal decorations of works, the order in this case mayhave a module added to its height. And this may bedone without increasing the proportion of the capital orentablature. In general, however, this order ought tobe employed in large and massy buildings; such as thegates of cities, towers and fortresses, where no great delicacy ofornament is necessary, but where shelter is requisite, as frontispieces for doors, because of the projection ofits entablature, which is much more than any ofthe other orders. The intercolumniation of this order isby Vitruvius termed diastylas, or somewhat less thanthree ofthe lower diameters of the shaft, which is otherwise termed by some architects ditriglyph; because fromthe centre of two columns, placed at two and threefourths diameters from each other, two triglyphs willcome in at 45 minutes distant from each other. Butsometimes the intercolumniation is monotriglyph, having only one between each column, and then the columns are only at a distance equal to one and one-halfdiameters. And it must be observed, that a triglyph isalways placed over the centre of each column. Thissometimes occasions a difficulty in the placing ofthe columns in some works where the length of the entablature164 COLwill not divide according to these rules. But whatevervariation be necessary, it must not be in respect of thetriglyphs being over the centre of each column. It mustbe in the metopes or spaces between each triglyph,which may be enlarged or contracted so as not to beobserved.For the proportions of this order see the plate, whereobserve, that there are three scales by which to proportion the entire column as in the Tuscan, with this difference, that is, the addition of one diameter in the column including base and capital. The Ionic has its scaledivided the same way, allowing nine diameters; but observe, that the Corinthian and Composite, after dividingthe whole height into five equal parts, and taking onefor the height of the pedestal, the four remaining partsare to be divided into six equal parts, one of which is forthe entablature, and the five remaining for the column,which being divided into ten, one is given for the lowerdiameter. According to these proportions the threeprincipal parts of each order will contain the followingminutes.The Doric. Ionic.149 161480 540120 108Entire order 749 809 900Corin. Comp.180 180600 600120 120PedestalColumnEntablature900OF THE IONIC ORDER.This order, in point of delicacy, comes in due place.It is considered as the female order, being more slenderthan the Doric. Palladio says, it owes its original toIonia, an Asiatic or Grecian province. Of this order àmost celebrated temple was erected at Ephesus to Diana;and, as some think, by the Amazons, or female warriorsCOL 165in that city; who, after having conquered many nations,they, in honour to their female deity their patroness,built, or caused to be built this magnificent temple in theIonic order. The ornaments of this order are truly elegant and chaste, being in a style of composition betweenthe grave Doric and the rich Corinthian orders. Beinghowever inclined to gravity, it may be properly employedin courts of justice, in libraries and colleges, and in allplaces that belong to arts and letters . The most ancient Ionic order is the most beautiful, having no astragal at the collarino to interrupt the the outlines of thefust or shaft, which seem to terminate in the pleasingturn of the volute. Herein I must differ from someof our present architects, who consider the astragal asan additional beauty. To me it seems entirely to destroy the effect of the capital, and has scarcely any respectable precedent, except in one found in the ruins ofAthens, published by our countryman Mr. Stuart. Palladio assigns a circular frieze to this order, but is veryproperly rejected by Vignolo and other respectable architects, as bordering upon a repetition of the contourof the volute, and thereby injuring the simplicity of theprofile ofthe whole entablature. As this order admits ofelegance and dignity, the mouldings are sometimes enriched, and the freize with foliage and other suitable ornaments; but in general the mouldings only are enriched,as appears from most of the ancient specimens of thisorder. The shaft is sometimes fluted with 24 flutes,proportioned the same as the Corinthian, three parts to aflute and one to the fillet, and the depth of the flutesomewhat less than half its width. The intercolumniation is after the different styles or modes of the Doric orCorinthian orders. For describing the Ionic volute, seeVOLUTE, and under which article all the ornamental capitals are duly explained,166 COLOF THE CORINTHIAN ORDER.The Corinthian is the last of the Grecian orders , andis certainly the summit of all that can possibly be attained in architecture, in point of delicacy and beauty. Ifthe Ionic may be termed a sedate matron in decent attire,this order certainly may be compared to a genteel lady inher richest apparel. This order was the production ofthe city of Corinth , when the arts had arrived at theirmost finished state in that, of all other cities of the Grecian districts, the most opulent. Whenthe ambitious eyeof Rome could no longer bear to view the increasingglory of this renowned seat of Grecian ingenuity, shesent her powerful army under the direction of LuciusMumius, and in one day laid waste the works of morethan nine ages from the period of its first foundation.Ofthe Corinthian order the Composite is an imitation,made by the Roman artists , doubtless with a view to excel the Corinthians after they had destroyed their city,that they might obtain that renown of which they hadattempted to deprive those Grecians . But though theysucceeded by the force of arms, they did not equal themin the composition of their order, for at best it is but astolen piece, composed of the Grecian, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. As it has no beauty peculiar to itself,but only borrowed from these, it can hardly be considered as a distinct order, and therefore I shall not speakof it under a distinct paragraph, but in general observe,that the proportions are the same with the Corinthian;but being not confined to any established rule as theother orders are, it is sometimes made more slender thanthe Corinthian, by adding a diameter to its height. Thevariations ofthe capitals are not only observable in theplates, but are particularly noticed under the article VoLUTE, which see . With respect to the invention oftheCorinthian capital, which has given this order so muchthe advantage over the others, and by which it has justlyCOL 167"obtained its celebrity, Vitruvius ascribes it to Callimachus, a sculptor at Corinth, who having seen an acanthus growing up the side of a basket with a tile laid overit; the leaves were turned downwards by the projectionofthe tile, which being minutely observed by this ingenious artist, he was struck with the idea of forming itinto a capital, which he applied to the Corinthiancolumn. The ancients employed this order in temples dedicated to Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, and wherevermagnificence was required. It is also proper for palaces, public squares, in the richest apartments of youngladies, and in other situations of gaiety.For the names of each member of the orders, seeMOULDINGS, and in drawing the columns geometrically,observe what has already been said on drawing the Tuscan order; and with respect to what remains to be noticed on their perspective representation, I proceed withthe Doric column; which, for the sake of variety andthe learner's practice in perspective, is here representedon three steps, by which the ancients used in general toascend to those temples composed of this order. First,for the representation of the steps , let a 7, be the extentofthe first step, and 6, 5, 4, the breadth of the steps, andhaving made the module as at No. 4, let o be the centreofthe column, and 1 , 2 equal to the module, or 60 min.2, 3, is the projection of the base, and 3, 4 of the plinthand cornice of the pedestal. From b draw a line to dthedistance, which will be the diagonal of all the squares onthe ground plane; therefore, proceed to draw visuals tos the centre from the several parts now placed upon theground line a, b, and they will cut at c, d, e, f, g, h, fromwhich intersections raise perpendiculars at pleasure .Draw then the perpendicular scale line at b, continuedthe whole height of the column to t, on which must beplaced the several heights ofthe members, beginning first圈168 COLwiththe heights of the steps at 8, 9, 10, from which direct lines to d, the distance, and the perpendiculars already drawn will be cut in their proper points for theangles of the steps, as must be apparent to the learner, ifhe has duly attended to the perspective of the Tuscanorder. From 10 to m is the height of the pedestal, n to:ofthe capital, to q of the architrave, q tor of thefrieze, and r tot of the cornice, which are severallydrawn to d the distance, together with the members,which are to be intersected from the projections laid onz, t, by drawing them to s, as directed in the Tuscanorder. The mutules with the caping or small mouldingwhich miters round them, will occasion the most troubleto the learner, with which probably he will be baffled atfirst, but he must persevere in the contest till he obtainthe conquest. The width ofthe mutule is 30 min. whichbeing laid on from 11 to 12, draw the visuals to s thecentre, and on the line already found for the facia,against which they are placed, these visuals must stop,which will give the place of the mutules. To make thiseasily understood, at No. 3 the figure shews the abovelines, which being properly conceived nothing further isrequisite for drawing the modillon of the Corinthian order; therefore observe, that the space 1 , 2 , is 30 minutesfor the mutule, and o, 3, of the upper diameter of the column, and the line 4, 8, or from 0 to 4 is 114 minutesprojection from the column for the facia ofthe cornice,against which the mutules are placed, as may be seen bythe large profile. Therefore the line 4 , 8, tending to thepoint of sights, cutting the diagonal tending to d, givesthe point at 8 for the perspective facia: draw then 9, 10,parallel, and you have the seat or place of the mutule,from which points let fall perpendiculars. From 5 to 6on the perpendicular line is 20 minutes, fromthe top ofthe cornice to the under side of the corona, thereforeCOL 169draw 6 to d, the distance, which will cut the perpendicular line 8, giving the depth of the facia; draw then perpendiculars from 9, 10, which give the exact place ofthe mutule on the front; then for the projection of themutule nothing more is wanted but to draw from d thedistance to b. Lastly, for the mutules on the return.draw the line 6, 11 , and the parallel 11 , 13 , 15 , andfrom 15 to the distance, which cuts at 12 and consequently gives the width of the mutule, from which thaton the left return is found at once by parallel lines. AtNo. 4 isthe method of finding the place of the flutes, bydividing the quarter of the lower and upper diameter into6 equal parts, as there are no fillets in this order. Butobserve, ifthe perspective of a column be very large, theplace ofthe flutes should be found by first drawing thesimi-circle in perspective, on a separate paper, and findingthe flutes upon the perspective curve, and then transferthem to the columns. In small representations, I meansuch as are three times the size of those in the plate, it isnot requisite, only to observe carefully which is the perspective centre of the column; for on the centre must beplaced the first flute, which must be observed in all theorders. 4The Ionic order is exhibited under an oblique viewfor the sake of variety, and to give the learner as muchinformation as I could on the subject; but I take it forgranted, that he is already acquainted with the nature ofoblique perspective, at least in plain figures, otherwise Idespair of succeeding in my description of the lines.Consider then A, B, the base line, and o, F, a perpen=dicular line, passing through the centre of the picture idraw the vanishing line v, m, which will cut the perpendicular 6, F, in the center or point of sight, which inthis example is behind the shaft of the column. Fromthis centre lay on the distance, which exceeds the bounds170 COLof the plate, but which may be found by the line h, i,being produced till it cut the perpendicular o, F; fromwhich point of distance draw the line w, perpendicular,to h, i. These two lines being produced till they cutthe vanishing line v, m, give the vanishing points of thesides of the pedestal and cornice; and as the line F, v,passes through the diagonal of the square of the cornice:hence it is the vanishing point ofall the miters, and hasthe same effect in finding the projections of the mouldings, as the line tending to the distance has in parallelrepresentations, as shewn in the Doric. The point m isthe distance ofthe vanishing point, found by the line w,on the left hand. Bythis point m the several widths areto be determined by lines cutting visuals tending to theseveral vanishing points. In this manner the drawingboard must be prepared before we can proceed. Thenfrom the module take 44 minutes, the whole projectionofthe cornice, and place it from F to 11 , on the line 8 G,take also 50 minutes for the upper diameter of the column, and place it from 11 to 9, and from 9 take again44 min. and place to 8 , and do the same to the otherhand, and draw to the vanishing points each way fromF. Then draw lines from the several projections laidon before to m, which will cut the vanishing lines fromF proportionally, from which draw lines tending to theright hand vanishing point, and they will cut the diagonal line F. v, in the points required. In like mannerproceed with the pedestal, and observe that 0, 2 , is thedifference between the projection of the cornice and theplinth of the pedestal; 2, 3, 4, are for the dado andplinth; and in like manner must the projections of theseveral mouldings be laid on, and lines drawn to the distance point m, on the left hand, which fall upon the capital of the profile, will cut 0, 1, from which points direct lines to the vanishing point as before, which willCOM 171cut the diagonal line o, v, in the several points of projection for the shaft, plinth, and dado. Lastly, upono, F, lay on the several heights, and draw all of themtov, which will find the perspective heights of each partand members of parts . The small scale t, s, by the valute is drawn from the perpendicular o, F, the same asany other part, by which it is easy to perceive how itmust be drawn in every part, which it is needless to enter upon after what hath been said, and particularly asunderthe term volute, we have given the three capitals ofthese orders at large with their perspective lines. To dowhich I have been encouraged from the consideration,that the capitals cannot so well be understood by thelearner as by a perspective' view, which presents moreof the parts to observation than in any other mode ofdrawing, as is evident from the whole order being thusrepresented, though under much disadvantage, on account of the small scale from which they are drawn;and as in the Corinthian and Composite orders there isnothing but the capitals which require more than whatwe have already said under the preceding orders, weneed only refer the learner to the plates, and to the capitals under the term VOLUTE.Lastly; observe, that the manner of diminishing andfluting the columns of every order are the same, exceptin the fluting of the Doric, in which there is sometimesleft a very small fillet for strength, but generally arebrought upto a point, for which reason they have theshallow curviture peculiar to this order.COMB-TRAY, in cabinet making, is a tray of a smallsize, made of mahogany, and used in a lady's dressingtable. The best way of making these is to make ablock of deal or beach beveled to the side of the inended comb-tray, then let the sides of the tray be mitered upto this block at the corner, and keyed. For finding the172 COMangle or mitre of any thing of this nature, independent ofa block. See GEOMETRY.COMMODE, from the French, and signifies a woman'shead dress. In cabinet making it applies to pieces offurniture, chiefly for ornament, to stand under a glass ina drawing room, such as are in plates 35 and 36. It issometimes used more agreeably to its derivation, and signifies such commodes as are used by ladies to dress at, inwhich there is a drawer fitted up with suitable conveniencies for the purpose, as in plate 41 -see DressingCommode, and Dressing Sofa Table. The commode inplate 35 is adapted to stand under a large glass, either ina pier or at the end of a room. The ornaments in thetop and at the bottom frieze are brass inlaid, which ona dark ground will have a good effect. The upper friezeis of cross banding, and is formed into drawers, or itmay be without, as is commonly the case when suchcommodes are used chiefly as ornaments; and under thisidea it is sufficient to fit up the inside with plain shelves.The doors may be framed, firſt square, and corner piecesput in after of thin mahogany, and then the hollows mitered round of the same stuff afterwards, and veneered and cross banded. The trelies work before thesilk curtains is of brass, either of wrought wire or cutfrom sheet brass, and halflapped in the intersections, andsoldered. As to any other part of this design it mustto the the workman be quite intelligible. In plate 36,the commode may stand at the end or side of a roomwhere there is no glass , it being of itself more lofty inappearance by means ofthe centre glass . The projecting piers at each end have their backs of face glass,which produces a brilliant effect by reflecting any thingthat is placed before it, as the flower pot on theright. The manner of fixing the glass in the centre isby a brass pattera, to which the circular brass rod isCOM 173Joined, and screwed to the ends of the piers at each end;and through the centre of the circular glass frame is ascrew, which passes through the brass rod, and is thenscrewed bya nut. The glass thus fixed will turn to anyposition that may be required. The fret work at thebottom is of brass, with the rim round the top. Thefrieze may be formed into drawers or not, as noticed inthe other, and the inside of the piers on the top may behtted up as shewn on the right side. The small columns at the angles of the piers are an imitation ofthelonic, and finish with a round ball at the top. Thetops ofthe piers are formed first by a cove mitered round,on which is placed the figure of a pyramid. For anyother particulars the design itself is sufficient.COMPARTMENT. The different divisions of a picture,or pannels in a ceiling.COMPASSION, in painting, is represented by a womanholding a pelican's nest in her left hand, who piercingher breast seems to suckle her young ones with herblood. She extends her hands in a compassionate manner to beftow charity to the indigent. The pelican isthe true emblem of compassion, for she is said never tostir from her young, and when her nourishment fails,she feeds them with her blood.COMPLEMENT, in geometry, is what remains of thequadrant of a circle or 90° after any certain arch hathbeen taken away from it; therefore, if the arch takenaway be 40°, the complement is 50°.COMPOSITE denotes something compounded or madeup of several things, so as to form one whole properlyunited together. Thus it is applied to the fifth order ofarchitecture, as being composed from the other orders .COMPOSITION, in a general sense, is the uniting of orputting together several parts forming or producing anentire piece. Thus it is applied to designing in general,174 CONand denotes, if a good composition, the proper choiceand harmony of the parts of which it is composed . SeeDRAWING and PAINTING.CONCAVE. A term commonly applied to sphericalglasses, ground hollow.CONCENTRIC, something that has the same commoncentre with another. Circles that are drawn from onecentre, but of different radii, are said to be concentriccircles.CONCLAVE, a closet or inner chamber.CONCORD, in painting is represented by a grave beautiful lady in an antique dress , holding in her right hand abason with a heart and pomegranate in it, and a garlandofflowers and fruit on her head, and in her left hand asceptre; on the top of which are various flowers andfruits . The heart and pomegranate denote concord, forthe seeds ofthe pomegranate will unite together, thoughthey be separated from the root.CONDUIT, canals or pipes for the conveyance of wateror other fluid matter.CONE, in geometry is a solid figure, having a circlefor its base, and its top terminated in a point called itsvertex .CONFIGURATION. The outward figure which boundsbodies, and gives them their external appearance; beingthat which in a great measure constitutes the specificdifference between them.CONGE, in architecture is a moulding in form of a quarter round, or cavetto, serving to separate two membersfrom each other, as the apophyge, which is situated between the shaft and scincture, but joins them together.CONTACT, is when one line, plane, or body is made totouch another; and the parts that do thus touch arecalled the points or places of contact.CONTENT, in geometry, is the aræ or quantity of matter or space included in certain bounds, as the content ofCON 173a board signifies its superficial measurement in feet andinches.CONTOUR. The outlines, or that which terminatesand defines a figure. A great part of the skill ofa painter consists in the management of the contour, or the linear part of a design; without this, all the other excellencies in painting are destroyed and of no effect. Thisconsideration evidently points out the necessity of training up youth to correct drawing of every branch; as noone can possibly attain the perfection of painting, without being skilled in four or five branches of fundamentaldrawing, i. e. architecture, perspective, landscape, andfigures.CONTRAST, opposition in colour, shape or situation.In cabinet making it may be used to denote the agreeable distinction of figure produced by different colouredwoods joined to each other in banding or pannelling.Sometimes the contrast of bandings may be too strongfor the ground veneer to which the banding is joined;in which case the beauty of the veneer will be partlylost, because the eye will be most attracted by the banding, owing to its excessive contrast of colour to the bodyofthe work. Suppose the ground work to be a delicate,pale, and richly figured satin wood, and there be joinedto it a broad black wood border or broad band, with theaddition of another equally broad of white holly, the experiment would prove, that the fine satin wood veneerwould lose a considerable part of its beauty by it. Somedegree of this excessive contrast is admissible with safetywhen the ground veneer is less delicate, or poor faultywood; for then, as we have noticed, the eye will bedrawn to the banding and taken off the poor wood, andconsequently proves favourable to the work. Poorwood, doubtless, is least deserving of much banding, butstands most in need of it. On the other hand, the con176 CONtrast produced by banding may, and is as frequently,too weak for the ground veneer, in which case considerable expence proves of no use. This is always the casewhen poor tulip wood, or even the best of it, is joined tomahogany, for it turns by the air nearly to a mahoganycolour. To produce an agreeable contrast in crossbanding, it will require different bandings to the differentqualities ofwood of the same species. In light colouredmahogany, of a soft quality, and liable to change dark,strong coloured kingwood will produce and keep up tothe end a proper contrast. If it be dark hard wood, notso subject to turn, a fair coloured East or West Indiasatin wood will keep a pleasing contrast. Dark red andlight yellow will always harmonize, and a small quantityof black and a red ground will also appear agreeable, andso will a little black and a yellow ground. With respectto agreeable contrast in banding, it is also necessary toadjust its width in a suitable proportion to the colour anddimensions of the ground work; for if the banding incolour be not strongly opposed to the ground veneer, inthis case it should be used broader, though it be but asmall ground. But if it be a very striking contrast, thewidth ofthe banding ought to be reduced in proportion.In cases, however, where there is an extensive ground,such as in loo tables, the cross banding will bear bothgreat width and strength of contrast. These observations will convince the intelligent cabinet maker, that theharmony of contrast in cabinet making is of some consequence, as well as in the art of painting. Which leadsme to observe, that in this fine art, it consists in the difference ofposition, attitude, and the colouring of figures,with the disposition of the whole piece, so as to avoid similar angles, parallel lines, a sameness of position, or aheaviness in grouping.COP 177Thus, when in a group of three figures, one is shewnbefore, another behind, and a third sideways, there issaid to be a contrast; and the contrast is not only to beobserved in the position of several figures, but also in thatof the several members of the same figure; for if theright arm advance the farthest, the right leg is to behindmost; and if the eye be directed one way, the armis to go the contrary. In this fine art the contrast mayalso be too strong, and to such a degree as to borderupon distortion; and therefore excessive contrast `mustbe avoided; and particularly in the colouring of figuresin their different groups, where the difference or opposition in them should not be too sudden, but communicatemutually, or seem to do so, a mixture of each by reflection.CONVERSATION, signifies a discourse or interlocutionbetween two or amongst more persons. The manner ofconversing amongst some of the highest circles of company, on some occasions, is copied from the French, bylounging upon a chair. Hence we have the term conversation chairs, which is peculiarly adapted for thiskind of idle position, as I venture to call it, which is byno means calculated to excite the best of conversation.As, however, these chairs give scope for variety, wehavehere given a design of one-see plate 27. And it shouldbe observed, that they are made extraordinary long between back and front, for the purpose of space for thefashionable posture; and also that they are narrow infront and back, as an accommodation to this mode ofconversing.COPAL " is a gum of the resinous kind, brought from NewSpain, being the concrete juice of a tree which grows inthese parts. It comes to us in irregular masses, someof which are transparent, and of different shades, as tocolour, from a yellow to a deep brown. Some piecesN178 CORare whitish and transparent. It hath neither the solubility in water common to gums, nor in spirit of winecommon to resins, at least in any considerable degree.By these properties it resembles amber; which hasinduced some to think it a mineral bitumen, resemblingthat substance. In distillation it yields an oil, whichlike mineral petrolea is indissoluble in spirit of wine.Copal itself is soluble in the essential oils , particularly inthat of lavender, but not easily in the expressed ones.It may, however, be dissolved in linseed oil by digestions,with a heat very little less than is sufficient to boil ordecompose the oil. This solution, diluted with spirit ofturpentine, forms a beautiful and transparent varnish,which when properly applied, and slowly dried, is veryhard and durable. This varnish is applied to snuff-boxes,tea-boards, and other utensils. It preserves and giveslustre to painting, and greatly restores decayed colour ofold pictures, by filling up the cracks, and rendering thesurfaces capable of reflecting light in a more uniformmanner." Brit. Encyclop.CORIDOR, in architecture, is used for a gallery or longisle around a building, leading to several chambers at adistance from each other, sometimes wholly inclosed, andsometimes open on one side. Some architects use theword to denote a place inclosed round with balusters atthe top of a building. It is, however, more decidedly toto be understood of a long passage, narrow hall , or entrance leading to principál apartments, and which require a seat sometimes for persons waiting. Such seatsshould be made narrow and long to agree with their situation, and may be properly termed Coridor Stools.CORK. The bark of a tree of the same name, whichsome botanists reckon to be a species of the oak, ofwhich, according to Linnæus, there are fourteen. Itgrows in the coldest parts of Biscay, in the north of40COR 1793@CI:De퍼50%amisbodgolaTIESuniorDersused,2Use700008ichch sls.ak,CD.rthEngland, in Italy, and the south-west part of France. Itwill grow in any kind of ground, dry heath, and stonyor rocky mountains, where for want of depth of earththe roots will rise above the surface. To take off thebark, they make an incision from the top to the bottomof the tree, and at each extremity another round it, perpendicular to the first. When the bark is stripped fromthe tree, which does not therefore die, the bark is piledup in a pond or ditch, and pressed down with heavystones to flatten it, and reduce it into tables, whence it istaken to be dried, and afterwards put up in bales for carriage. If care be not taken to strip off the bark, it splitsand peals off of itself, being pushed up by another bark,formed underneath . The Spaniards burn cork to makethat kind of light black we call Spanish black, used bypainters. The Egyptians, it is said, made coffins of cork,which,beinglined with a resinous composition , preserveddead bodies uncorrupted. The Spaniards line stone wallswith it, which not only renders them very warm, butcorrects the moisture of the air. The wood of cork-treeisnot only fit for turning, but may be applied to some purposes in building CORNICE.. Fromcoronis, a crown. In architecturethecornice is the highestor crowningmemberof thecolumn.abovetheIn the entire order there are two cornices, one dadoofthepedestal, andthatwhichfinishestheentablature. Incabinetwork, cornicesarenowmademuchlighterthanformerly, towhichalterationI feelnoobjection ,astheydonotcomestrictlyundertherulesofarchitecture

butifsomepartsofcabinetworkwerebroughtmore subject to its laws, it would appear more attracting.UnderthearticleMOULDINGSaregivensomedesignsformoderncornices, whichsee, andforwindow cornicesseeWINDOW.180 COTCOROMANDEL WOOD, is a foreign wood lately introduced into England, and is much in use amongst cabinet makers for banding. It resembles black rose wood,but is intermingled with light stripes, which produce agood effect in banding. Wash a little paper with a littleIndian red and lake, and after it is dry, mix lake and Indian ink together, with a small quantity of dark brown,with which it may be nearly imitated.In texture it is close, and in weight about equal toblack rose wood.This valuable wood has its name from the placewhence it is imported. Coromandel, which lies on theeaftern coaft of the Peninsula, on this side ofthe Gangesin Asia, and is divided from Malabar by inaccessablemountains. And as excessive heat seems to give birthto that rich variety of woods which we have the pleasure of seeing imported, doubtless Coromandel, if fullyexplored, would send us many more; as it seems excessive heat reigns in this vast tract from the beginning ofMayto the end of October.COTT, a sort of bed used at sea, and formed of canvas,sewed together in the shape of a chest, and is about 6feet long, 2 feet broad, and 1 foot decp. The bottom ismade of a wood frame, and ftrained with canvas; thewhole being suspended by cords to some of the beams ofthe ship; it swings, and gives way to the motion of thesca.From these sea Cotts we have derived the notion ofswinging cribs or cradles for children. - See CRIB.COTTAGE, " is properly a little house for habitationwithout lands belonging to it. Stat . 4, Edw. I. But bya later ftatute, 31 Eliz . c. 7, no man may build a cottage unless he lay four acres of land thereto, except it bein market towns or cities, or within a mile of the sea, orfor the habitation of labourers in mines, sailors, foresters,COT 18111"Arthlea કે . ces ut 6de IS C4 .0 9.5beOf55,shepherds,&c. and cottages erected by order of jufticesof the peace, for poor impotent people, are excepted outof the ftatute. The four acres of land to make ita cottage within the law are to be freehold, and land of inheritance

and four acres holden by

a copy, or for lifeor lives, or for any number of years, will not be suf cient to make a lawful cottage. " Brit. EncyclopCOTTON.Asoft downy subftance from the cottontree. Cotton is separated fromthe seeds of the plant by a mill, and then spun and prepared for all sorts of fineworks, as ſtockings, waistcoats, quilts, tapeſtry, curtains. With cotton they also make muslin, and sometimes it is mixed with wool, sometimes with silk, andeven with gold itself. The finest sorts come from Bengal and the coast of Coromandel. It is imported to usin wool and in thread

the finest of which is to be dis

tinguished by its whiteness, dryness, and even spinning.Printed cotton furniture or hangings for beds have beenvaried to almost an infinite number of patterns, and it is difficult to fix upon the most approved or fashionableIn the quality of printing, however, there is anessential difference, as some printed cottons will waſh well,and others will not. This is owing to the mannerof fixing the colours after they are printed, as well as to theircomposition before they are printed.ones. Thedrugswhichareusedinthefatsforfixingthecoloursofthebestcottonsareexpensive,andconsequentlycannotbeaffordedinthelowpricedprints.Thegreensinprintedcottonsaremostliabletofailofanyothercolour,asIbelieve,fromtheinformationofonethatwasconcernedinamanufactoryofthiskind,thatnowillcomposition infalliblyofagreenhathyetbeendiscoveredthatstand.The.bestofthiscolourforftandingisthatwhichuponthewrongsideappearsblue,orotherwiseyellow,notgreenitself."182 COUCOUCH, from coucher, French, to lie down on a place ofrepose. Hence we have seats and beds that bear thisname. -See plate 48, 49, and the article GRECIAN.Couch-beds are made sometimes with fixed and sometimes with loose testers. When they are made with loosetesters, the pillars screw off from each corner of thecouch, and the tester lath folds together, so that thewhole may be inclosed within the seat of the couch,which is made hollow for the purpose-See plate 15.To give more breadth to the bedding, they are sometimesmade with a board, hinged to fold in or out. When out,there are a couple of feet to support it, made either toscrew off or fold in with the board; and the whole being covered with a cotton case, it appears simply a couchor sofa.Couch in painting, denotes a lay, or impression ofcolour, whether in oil or water, wherewith the painter covers his canvas, wall, wainscot, or other matter to bepainted.Paintings are covered with a couch of varnish. Acanvas to be painted must have two couches of size before the colours be laid on.COVERLET, from the French, couvrelit andCOUNTERPANE, S counterpoint,the utmost of the bed clothes; that under which all therest are concealed. The counterpane is a coverlet woven in squares, according to this derivation; of whichthere are many made of cotton.White cotton counterpanes of different qualities measure from 7 to 16 quarters.Coverlets, more vulgarly coverlids, are of the following description, measuring from 5 to 9 quarters, variousftripes.From 6 to 10 quarters black weft diapers .Worsted red weft ditto of the same size .CRI 183

  • 8-24 1.

R410DUofcerh.zed34EThکارAnd of the above mentioned sizes there are also double black and red weft diapers.Also there are silk coverlets, bordered and fringed, asis shewn in the French bed, plate 13. AndDiamond or Brussels coverlets. These articles, together with quilts, blankets, &c. of various sizes, maybe purchased at Mr. Carpenter's, Ironmonger-Lane,Cheapfide, who was kind enough to furnish me withthis account of Counterpanes . -See also QUILT.CRADLE, a movable bed for infants. -See CRIB .CRAMP, amongst cabinet makers, is an iron tool aboutfour feet long, with a screw at one end, and a movableshoulder or arm at the other, by which mortice and tework is forced up close. It seems to be so called,because of its likeness to the shape of those cramp ironsused by masons for binding stones together.CRESCENT, shaped like the new moon.CRIB, the rack or manger of a stable, or the stall or cabinof an ox. It is used for any small habitation, as a cotnontage.Underthenotionof a rack, we presume, thisnamecribto havebeengiventotheswingingbeds, latelycontrivedtolullinfantstosleepwith, a designofwhichisgiveninHolinshadeplate18.Thoughtheyaremadebya Mr.ofKing- street, Drury-lane, ina plainerstyle,tocomeless expensivethanthiswoulddo.Insteadof adomeheusesa plainwaggontop. Themannerofhangingthemisbya clockspring, asat A whichhooksonto B, whichisanironcenterscrewedtothestandard.Thisspringgivesa continuedmotiontothecribafterit isonce seta going.Heinformsme, thatina littletimehewillbeabletomakeonetomovebyitselfforonehourandanhalf.Themannerofframingsuchcribswillappearclearbyinspectingtheplate


itmay be necessary to observe, that the turned rail which184 CULbinds the standards together at the bottom must be secured to them by screws and nuts, in the manner oflarge beds. The dome must be made very light, andscrewed to an arch ofthe same radius, made separatefrom it first, and having fixed this arch on the top partof the rail of the crib, the dome must be secured to it.And the workmen may observe, that the standard at Bis not quite the full size, but nearly. The claws andstandards require to be of 14 inch stuff.CRIMSON, one of the seven red colours used by dyers.CUBA WOOD. A kind of mahogany somewhat harderthan Honduras wood, but of no figure in the grain . Itis inferior to Spanish wood, though probably the Cubaand Spanish mahogany are the same, as the island ofCuba is a Spanish colony, and was first discovered byColumbus, a Spanish navigator, in 1492. That, however, which is generally distinguished by Spanish mahogany is finer than what is called Cuba, which is pale,straight grained, and some of it only a baftard kind ofmahogany.It is generally used for chair wood, for which some ofit will do very well.CUBE, in geometry, is a regular or solid body consistingof 6 equal square sides, and at right angles to each other.Geometricians suppose it to be generated by the motion ofa square plane along a straight line equal to oneof its sides, and at right angles to it; whence it followsthat the planes of all sections, parallel to the base, aresquares equal to it, and consequently to one another.To find the content of a cube, multiply the side of thecube into itself, and that product again by the side, andthe last product will be the solid content.CUBICLE, a bed-chamber.CULINARY, of or belonging to the kitchen .1CUR 185127P.Dd015aha!pakme etstingtherCC: 13 33CUPBOARD, a case with shelves, in which victuals orearthenware is placed.In cabinet making, however, the term is used withoutregard to this definition, and is generally applied to anylittle division of a piece of furniture which is inclosed bya door, whether such parts be fitted up with shelves or not.CUPOLA, a spherical vault or dome top.CURRICLE, a chaise oftwo wheels, drawn bytwo horses.This word is introduced on account of the chairs socalled in plate 6, which are so easily understood by therequire no explanation; and as I have been informed, ' have already been executed since theplate was published .workman astoThat on the left side may be 32 inches high in theback, and to slope a little lower to the front of the arm,and inthefront 2 feet over all.Theotherdesignis notmorethan28 incheshigh, andshouldbemadenarrowinfront


thedepthfromback tofrontshouldnot be lessthanthan2 feet.CURTAIN, a clothcontractedor expandedat pleasure

andthis is doneby meansof ringsfastenedto thecurtain,andthelathatpassing times, whether along a rod for. windows But curtains or bedsare, andfixed drawtoupbypullies, or otherwisetieupwithtasselsandlines.Atpresentthe mostapprovedwayofmanagingwindowcurtainsis to makethemdrawfromthecentretoeachside ofthewindow, by drawinga linewhichis fixedto apully rack, andcommunicatesto therodfixedto theunderside ofthewindowlathwithhooks


thatthecurtainsmay lap over each other in the centre, the rod is madeintwoparts, shootingpasteachotherabouttwoorthreeinches.Theserodsarefrequentlymadeofsaunwood,andsecuredwithbrasshoopsat eachend, havingineachrodthreepullies, asinplate39


sketchis presentedfortheuseofsuchcountryuphol186 CYLfterers as may not underſtand this method, which by inspecting the plate muft appear clear to them.CUSHION, a pillow for the seat, a soft pad placed upon achair. Amongst upholsterers there are various kinds;some for sofa seats, made to fit the seat in one length,some for backs of sofas and couches in two or threelengths, and for the ends. Cushions are also much inuse for the seats of cane chairs. Cushions are stuffedwith hair in a canvas case, and are then quilted or tieddown, and have loose cases into which they slip.CYLINDER, in geometry, a solid body supposed to begenerated bythe rotation of a parallelogram-See GEOMETRY. And to put a cylinder in perspective, see PERSPECTIVE.CYLINDER BOOKCASE. See plate 37. This designto a workman will need little or no description, and anygentleman may see the use of it. I took the idea of itfrom one I have seen executed by Mr. John Somerville,Chancery-Lane, and if it be a little improved, that is allI claim in this piece. The cylinder rises from the frontupwards, and there is a slider to come forward as usual.The wings ofthe upper part are for large volumes, astheir depth from back to front will receive them. Thelower middle part consists of plain drawers. The lowerwings are here divided into two parts, the upper for cupboards and the right hand lower part into plain drawers,and left open as a closet.The Sisters Cylinder Bookcase, plate 38, is intendedfor the use of two ladies, who both may write and readat it together. The upper part is fitted up for books allround; but in order to receive the depth of the bookson each front, the ends must be made sham books, asfar from the fronts as to receive the depth of a small volume. See the sizes of books under the article BookCASE. From these backs must be a partition, whichCYL 187will part the shelves the other way, so that each bookcase front wise, will hold two depths of books, allowingfor each in the clear 5 inches, which is as much as isrequired for a volume of 7 , or crown octavos, whichthese bookcases are intended for, and are the size chieflyusedby youngladies.Theworkman will observe, by the geometrical elevation, that the cylinder is nearly a sini-circle, and thattherefore it passes downwards below the writing slidersand 2; but he must observe, that the cylinder isto be as much less than a simi- circle as the thicknessof the sliders, otherwise the cylinder would not fall down enoughto let the slider come over it; for it openson one side, as the right hand lady is supposed to havedone, and she has pushed it down to the opposite side,where her sister is represented to be writing; and theright hand sister is about to write herself, and is there fore lettingdown the narrow quadrant front, by relievingthe thumbspring with the left hand, and with the rightpressing downthe front. And the workman will further observe, that without this narrow front, expressed at 3,there wouldnot be sufficient width in the two sliders for writing at; and he will readily see that when these fronts areturned up, that they do not stand upright asin the wards,thatwhenthe slidersarepushedhome, theymayclear the cylinder, as expressedby thelines 1 , 4,2, 5. Alsoit mustbe noticed, that thereare threecirclestodescribe the cylinderby; the 1st is for the grooveinwhich it runs, the 2d is to denoteits thickness, and the3dthe case, whichhidesthecylinderwhenit is down,andwhenup to give it a completeappearance.The nestofdrawersintheinside, bythisplan, iswhollylaid openwhenthecylinderisdown, andthe188 CYMcarcase of the small drawers will therefore have the bestappearance to have an arch top, as expressed by thecurve line at o. For every other part the design of itselfwill be sufficient; it may be noticed, however, that thelock of this cylinder is in the frieze part under the slider;and the link plate upon the edge of the cylinder, which,to draw it a by, must have also two flush plate rings.CYLINDERWRITING TABLE. In plate 39, is acylinder without a bookcase, which is for a lady to writeat. This cylinder is only a quadrant, i . e. that part of itwhich moves is so. But as it is intended, like the preceding one, to stand in the centre of a room, it is madeto appear alike on each side. Therefore the cylinder isparted in two at the top, and the front one falls down tolet the slider come forward. The lock of this tableis in the edge of the cylinder; and when it is downto its place, there are two flush plate rings let into itby whichit is to be raised up; and the link plates beingon the edge of the back cylinder, they meet togetherand lock at the top.The brass rod extending to the two ends ofthe cylinder,are for a candle branch, as is represented. This branch,if required, may be taken off occasionally, by unscrewing the nut at each end of the rod.{6.Lastly. The circular flaps at each end are made tocoincide with the lower part of the cylinder ends, whichare made to receive them; so that when they are letdown they appear to be the ends themselves. They aresupported by brass joints in the form of a bracket, madefor the purpose, and must be let into the end to keepclear of the flap when it is let down. The other partsofthe design are obvious to the workman, and thereforerequires no further notice.CYMATIUM, xupaltor, a little wave; a member ofthecornice, and generally the highest, and is waved, byCYM 1894BPe18VntabdoממוbeingetindeCrewde20orebeing first round and then hollow. It is otherwise calledcimarecta, in distinction from cimareversa, which beginsits wave or swell from the top, having its hollow downward. Workmen call it an ogee. The beauty of thismoulding lies partly in its projection, being equal to itsheight, and therefore answers to two perfect quadrantsof a circle convex and concave to each other.CYPRESS-TREE is of two sorts , the wild and the gardenone. The The cypress is a tall tree, and shoots forth fromits roots a straight stalk, divided into several branches that bear leaves very much indented, thick, and of abrownish green. At the ends of these branches growflowers like cat-tails , composed of several little straightleaves or scales, and barren. The wood of this tree isdurable, and has been known to last 600 years . Thetreein growing will bear any degree of severe weather, incasethey are not stripped of their branches. This timberis reckoned useful for chests, musical instruments, andas it resists the worm, and is not subject to putrefaction, because of the bitterness of its juice,and the unctious quality of its texture.says that thereare three species of the cypress tree; 1st.the commoncypress, with imbrocated or hollow edgedleaves and quadrangular branches; 2d. the cypress, withleaves on two sides the branches; 3d. with imbrocatedleaves and branches standing two ways.species is a native of Crete, and seldom produces goodIseeds in this country. The cones or cat-tail shapedflowers, should therefore be brought over entire fromthe place wherethey grow naturally, and the seeds takenout just before they are sown.otherutensils,Mr. WheelerThe firstseedsThe method to get thewillmake out, isthem to expose the cones to a gentle heat, which open and emit their seeds. This tree,though foundin most of our old gardens, is at presentlessregardedthan it deserves.190 . DAD?ty to a wilderness or clumps of ever- greens; but besidesthis, it ought to be cultivated on account of its valuablewood. The second species is a native of Virginia, Carolina, and other parts of North America, where it risesin watery places to the prodigious height of 70 feet andupwards, and several fathoms in circumference. The3d specie is also a native of North America. All thethree species are propagated from seeds, which shouldbe sown early in the spring on a bed of warm dry sandyearth, which should be levelled very smooth. If theweather prove warm and dry, it will be proper to waterthe bed, taking care not to wash the seeds out of theground. In about a month's time the plants will appearabove ground, which ought to be kept free of weeds.After remaining two years in this bed, they may betransplanted into a nursery.The best season for removing them is April, on a cloudy day that seems tothreaten rain; and in taking them out of the seed bed,the roots should be preserved entire, with a ball of earthto each plant. When they have been three or fouryears in the nursery, they may be planted out for good;and, ifdesigned for timber, the distance of 18 or 20 feetshould be allowed every way around them. They mustbe well watered at first to settle the earth to their roots,which ought to be frequently repeated if the weatherprove dry. Cypress nut is a very powerful astringentand balsamic. In diarrhoeas and dysenteries, there isscarce any simple medicine preferable to it. It is alsosaid to be a good febrifuge. Wheeler's Botanical Dict.DDADO. The square part of a pedeſtal, which lies between the plinth and cornice, sometimes called thedie.DEA 191CaརུTRFest-Yorms→d befemor krgood20 fe ABB$15shelThe dado of a room or staircase, is that part of thewall which is between the base and surbase.DAMASK, from Damascus , a very ancient city of Syria,in Asia, where it was first invented.It is a sort of silken stuff, having some parts raisedabove the ground, representing flowers or other figures.Damask should be made of dressed silks, both in warpandwoof.There is also a stuff in France called the caffart damask, made in imitation of the real, having woof ofhair, coarse silk, thread, wool, or cotton . Some havethe warp of silk andthe woof of thread; others are all thread or all wool .Damask is also a kindof wroughtlinen, madeinFlanders, and in somepartsinEngland


calledbecauseof its largeflowers, whichresemblesthoseof realdainask.Thiskindis chieflyusedfortableservice

buthangings theSyriandamask, for all kindsof dress, andvarious.Thereis also a veryfinesteel, calleddamask, fromDamascus, whereit is found.DANGER, inpainting, isrepresentedbya stripling,walkinginthefields,treadingupona snake, whichbiteshislegtheon his right side is a precipice, and a torrent on other; heleansonlyupona weakreed, andissurroundedwithlightningfromheaven.Hisyouthdenoteshisinexperience, bywhichheisendangeredinhispassagethroughthefloweryfieldoflife,offallingintosomesnare.Thereedshewsthefrailtyofourlife, bywhichitisincontinualdanger


thelightningfromheaven,thatwearesubjecttotheDivinedispleasurebyoursins.Thispieceoficonologywill, Ihope,serveasamorallessontounwaryyouth.DEAL,from Deel, Dutch, a part, quantity, or degreeof,more or less.Hence, fir or pine timber being cut intothin portions, they are called deals . -See BOARDS.192 DENDECAGON, in geometry, is a plain figure of ten sides,and as many angles; and if all the sides are equal, andall the angels, it is called a regular decagon, and may beinscribed within a circle.DECASTYLES. In ancient architecture , a building withan ordonance of ten columns in front, as that of the'Temple of Jupiter Olympius.DECEPTION-TABLE, is one made to imitate a pembroke table, but to answer the purpose ofa pot cupboard,other secret use , which we would hide from the or any eye of a stranger. In some situations the deceptionwill be most effectual, if the table be made exactly thesize of a common pembroke table with two flaps,having rule joints, whilst one of the flaps turns down,being hinged to a rail below, as shewn in plate 44, andsupported by a quadrant, and when up, kept to its placeby one or two thumb springs. If howeverthe deceptiontable be only for a pot cupboard, and to stand under asideboard with one side facing the room , or parallel tothe front of the sideboard, it need only to be about 14inches wide in the bed, and in length 31 or 32 inches.The depth of the cupboard 9 inches, so that the flapwill be 10 inches wide, the usual size of pembrobetables. And observe, this sort of deception table, needonly have a deal back-rail coloured, and not a mahoganyflap, as in the above described.DENTILS, from detalis, Latin, of or belonging to theteeth , and applied to a small ornament in architecture,because of their likeness to teeth. In the profiles of theIonic and Corinthian orders, they have a place in thecornice of the entablature, and the facia in which theyare placed is termed daticulus; or when cut in solidstone, the square ofwhich they are formed is so called .The width of the dentils are 5 minutes, and the openingbetween them half that space. And observe, that aDIA 193ten sides,qual, andd may beding withat of thea pemupboartfrom thedeceptionactly theo apss down.44, andits placedeceptiond underaarallel toabout 1 e32inches.the flappembrokeble, needahoganytotheitecture,s ofthein thech theysolidcalledbeningchat adentil is always placed upon the miter of the profile, andtherefore it hangs bythe upper end only.DESIGN. See DRAWING.DESK. See BUREAU. Desks, for compting-houses, aregenerally made double, with a flap on each side hingedto a square part at the top, where is frequently a brassrail, supported on pillars, to receive a book laid out ofhand. The inside of such desks are commonly fitted up withsquare holes for paper, and drawers for notes. Par ticularly it should be noticed, thatthe frame of a compting-house desk be of beech stained, andput togetherwithbed-screws that they may easily be taken to pieces . Theheight of such desks in front, including the frame, shouldbe 3 feet 5 or 6inches to the top of the flap, andthedepth of the desk, without the frame, 4 inches rising to 9 inthecentre.DIAGONAL, is a linein geometrywhichpassesthroughtheoppositeangleof anysquareor parallelogram, dividingtheminto two equalparts.Twodiagonalsof anysquareorparallellogramswillintersect eachotherin thecentre.gonal ofsides;thatis, it cannotbe so dividedintoequal partsastomake noremainderof a fraction, whenappliedto theThe diaasquare is in commensurate with one of itsside.Inperspective-thediagonalofeveryoriginalsquare,havingitssidesparallelandperpendiculartothepicture,and asinpasses or tends to the distance ofthe picture on the hori zontal line, and the intersecting diagonal to a point onthat line, equally distant from the centre of the picture;geometry, the intersecting diagonal always findsperspective centre: but if the sides of an originalsquare be oblique to the picture, the diagonal will vanish,or tend to a point in the centre of the two vanishingpoints of the sides of the square.theSee PERSPECTIVE.QA194 DINDIAMETER, in geometry, is a right line passing throughthe centre of a circle terminated by the circumference .The properties of the diameter areFirst, that it divides the circumference into three equalparts.Second, the diameter is the greatest of all the chords.Third, the ratio of the diameter to the circumferenceis 113 to 355, which is so near the truth as only to lose3 of one hundred millionth parts.The inferior diameter of a column is equal to 60minutes.The superior diameter-to 50 minutes .In perspective, the diameter of a circle is a line passingthrough the intersection ofthe diagonals of a square whichcircumscribes it.DIASTYLE. In ancient architecture, is when four diameters are allowed to the intercolumniation.DIMENSION, is the extension of a body considered asbeing capable of being measured.DIMINUTION. In architecture, is to give the regulargradation of the column from its inferior to its superiordiameter. See COLUMN.DINING-ROOM, is one of the principal apartments ofahouse, and ought always to be of a bold and an accommodating proportion . In noblemens' dining - rooms,when the windows are all on the side opposite to thefires , there may then be a recess at each end of theroom , in which a sideboard may stand, with columnsbefore it placed at the extremities, which produces avery august appearance, and renders the service considerably more easy at dinner than when there is but onefideboard. The furniture of a dining-room ought to behold, substantial, and magnificent, in proportion to itsdimensions. See FURNISH.DIN 195YoughIce.equalrds.reactoloseto 60ASSIwhicurderedregularopencifitsofICCCDTOOLSto theJuaces1203Icretobepatent.Dining- Room Chairs. See pl. 27, and the Curricles,pl. 6; and it is presumed that the right hand Herculaneum, pl. 7 , would suit some dining- rooms.DINING TABLE, of which there are various sorts nowin use, and some under the protection of his Majesty'sThe common useful dining tables are uponpillars and claws, generally four claws to cach pillar, withbrass casters. Adining table of this kind may be madeto any size, by having a sufficient quantity of pillar andclaw parts, for between each of these is a loose flap,fixed by means of iron straps and buttons, so that theyare easily taken off and put aside; and the beds may bejoined to each other with brass fork or strap fastenings.And as the iron strap hinges are made to turn upon a centre,they may be turned down within the edge of the flap,to prevent any inconvenience that might arise from theirprojecting beyond the edge-see pl . 44; where also theyoung workman should observe, that the method of adjusting the size of its block to that of the top, is fhewn:and he must take notice to fix the claws into the pillarsso asto come within the edge of the bed, that the joints maycometogether when the beds are fixed to each other without the flaps.Infig.1,plate44, let1 , 2, 3 , 4, bethespringoftheclawswhicharenotatrightanglestoeachother, becausethebedissupposedtobetoonarrowtoadmitofit;butbeingaconsiderablelength, itrequiresa clawofalargespring, whichifatrightanglesorsquaretoeachother, wouldexceedthewidthofthebed, asnoticeddrawlinesHavingthenfixedupontheplanoftheclaws,perpendicularfromthepoints2, 3; thenfromabove.thelineaandmakeb,theplace the height of the claw, with caster, topoftheblock24inchesfroma b.Thenon a perpendicularlinec d placesixfeetthelengthofthebed, andmakedeequale f andtheremains196 DIN .-will be the length of the block. These observationąproperly attended to, will prevent the workman frombeing sometimes under the necessity of moving the bedto one side of the centre of the pillar, to make the topclear the claw in cases where the size of the block hasnot been properly calculated. They will be particularlyuseful in large loo tables, where the greatest nicety isrequisite.The sizes of dining tables for certain numbers mayeasily be calculated, by allowing 2 feet to each personsitting at table; less than this cannot with comfort bedispensed with. A table 6 feet by 3, on a pillar andclaws, will admit of eight persons, one only at eachend, and three on each side. Bythe addition of anotherbed twelve, with four times the room in the centre fordishes; but if a third be joined, with the insertion oftwo flaps of 30 inches each, there will be agreeableroom for twenty persons. I do not, however, advise asingle dining table for eight persons only to be of theabove dimensions: it should rather be 5 feet by 4, atwhich two upon each side may sit; but if reduced to 4feet8 inches long, and 3 feet 10 wide, it will dine the samenumber, and take the same quantity of wood as a table6 feet by 3. The reasons for adding to the width , andreducing the length of a single pillar and claw diningtable, are obvious; for when they are but 3 feet wide,being occupied on both sides , there is no space left inthe centre for dishes, and in addition to which inconvenience, the want of space for the feet of those thatdine.These hints, it is presumed, will be sufficient to provethe necessity of nice calculations in the management ofdining tables, both for convenience and saving of mahogany, which is now so materially expensive. SeePATENT DINING TABLE.DOM 197tionFremTSO201eacthelDIPTERON. In ancient architecture, signified a templesurrounded with two rows of columns, forming a doubleportico, and sometimes termed the wings ofthe temple.DIRECTING PLANE. In perspective, is a plane passing perpendicularly through the eye of the observer andparallel to the plane of the picture.DIRECT RADIAL. In perspective, is an imaginaryray of light passing from the point of sight, or the eyeperpendicular to the picture; consequently is the shortestthat can be represented by a line. If a line be drawn.from the point of sight inclining in any degree from thecentre of the picture, it is said to represent an obliqueradial, or ray of light. From which theory we mayobserve, that the light of a picture ought to be strongestin the centre.DISTANCE. In perspective, is the space from the placeof the eye to the picture, found by a line drawn from theeye perpendicular to the picture; the intersection ofwhich is its centre. The distance ofthe picture, and ofsome vanishing lines, are however to be distinguished.The latter being governed by the angle, which an originalplane makes with the centre of the picture; for a line,from the eye, drawn perpendicular to the vanishing lineof that inclined plane, is called the distance of the saidvanishing line. See this further explained under PER GSPECTIVE.DISTEMPER. In painting, is a kind of size painting.See PAINTING.DODECAGON, a regular poligon of 12 equal sides andangles.DODECAHEDRON, is one of the regular bodies, comprehended under 12 equal sides, each of which is apentagode.DOME, a spherical roof. This term amongst upholsterers is used without regard to the difference of the plan,198 DOOwhen they apply it to the figure of a tester or roof of abed. They should, however, be distinguished by theirplans; as a hip-dome, signifies one raised from a squaretester lath; an octagon dome, from a tester lath of aregular octagon; a poligonal dome may signify at pleasure, that it is raised from a tester of more or less sidesthan eight, but not from four; and a spherical dome,whose plan is a circle. Concerning the sections of thesedomes, and of testers in general-see TESTER .DOOR. In architecture, is an aperture in the walls of abuilding, to give entrance into the front of it.It is an excellence in the art of building to have asfew doors as possible, and to avoid placing them too nearthe angles of a wall.In the internal ordonance of an house the doors shouldface each other if possible, and especially those at theextremities of a building, that the whole length of itmay be viewed at once.The general proportion of doors is to assign, at least,twice its width to the height; but in width should neverbe less than 3 feet, and from 3 to 4, according to themagnitude and grandeur of the buildings.In cabinet work these rules are not observable. Butno door ought tobe less than the diagonal of the squareof its width, except there be some absolute cause fordeparting from this rule. Doors are variously made bycabinet- makers; some are framed together, and havepannels ploughed in; and others are rabbeted in with abead mitered round to keep them in. Doors of a smallsize are glued up in the solid, and sometimes clamped,square, or mitered. In wardrobe doors, great careshould be taken to have the stuff dry, as they have aconsiderable draught in their shrinking, and are apt towarp the frames in a manner not easily repaired; toavoid which it is commendable to let the pannels stand aDOV 199?ofteanaout thof125.}pol2rea•to ·DAquarter of an inch within the frame, and fix them dry inby a bead. Round the inner edge of the door framesmay be a black line to cover the edge of the framestanding before the pannels, which, when polished withthe mahogany, looks well. The doors of wardrobes shouldbe left half an eighth of an inch over, i . e. on each side;as in time they will shrink, so as to require them to behinged further in, that the astragal may cover, whichought always to be brass in this piece of furniture.Doors for cabinets and commodes, are according tomodern taste, framed with a rabbet left, to which greenor other silk is fixed after they are wired by the personswho work it.Doors for bookcases- see plates 21 , 22. In the designs of plate 21 , there can be no difficulty in glazingany of those, except No. 5, which is done away whenit is observed that the middle part is divided by a bar intotwo, and the glass is intended to be fit square in behindthe diamond work, so that there will be no internal angle,which will never do for glass- cutting. In plate 22,No. 10, there will be an internal angle indeed, but it isso flat that I think it may be managed, or if not theglass may have a joint up the middle of the diamond.No. 12 must have the middle glass to run all the length,or otherwise a bar must be added to the centre.DOVE-TAILING. Amongst cabinet- makers is muchused, and is an art by which they join drawers of everydescription together in the neatest and most effectualmanner that can be devised.Dove-talling is distinguished by three classes .First, the common, shews the dove-tailing on oneside. The second is lap dove-tailing, which entirelyhides it, but shews a joint at the end of any thingas if veneered. The third is termed miter dove-tailing, which not only hides the dove-tailing, but brings200 DRAthe front and ends of any piece of work to a close jointin the angle as a plain miter does.DRAPERY, as used by artists , signifies the clothing of afigure, but by upholsterers is applied to the dressy partof beds and window curtains, and is suspended to thetester ofthe former, and the lath of the latter.In the art of painting good drapery is of great consesequence, and such it is in upholstery work; as thereseems to be no article in that branch more eagerlysought after. It has already been turned into so manyshapes, that it is become quite a difficult task to produceany thing novel. Under the term WINDOW CURTAIN, Ihave given some specimens, which are left to thejudgmentof the candid upholsterer to decide whether they be new.DRAWER. Amongst cabinet-makers, is used to denoteany kind of common chests, containing plain drawers.Drawers are always dove- tailed together, but are madesome have a muntin to variously in other respects:divide the bottom into two lengths, so that thinnerwainscot may serve, and to prevent the joints fromgiving way. Slips are sometimes glued on the insideof drawers, and plained to receive the bottom, whichis the best method for preventing drawer bottoms fromsplitting, as is too often the case when they are confinedby a rabbet, and the slip is glued down at the underside .Small drawers for secretaries and bureaus are bestmade by ploughing a dove-tail groove in their sides toreceive the bottom; there being an objection or twoagainst rabbeting them in; as in this way the drawerbottom frequently loosens and scrapes against the partition on which it runs; but in the dovetail grove, whichis performed by a plane, the bottom is secured fromfalling down, and is kept about the thickness of a shilling clear of the partition.DRA 201joint


martthemarydveIN,mernew.noteversnadenbnnel] 10 [idechDE1bes13:8=TOver1.chDIADRAWING. Strictly speaking, is the delineation of allmanner of objects, upon a plain surface by means oflines, suitable to the objects represented. The art ofdrawing is extensive, as it includes every thing of natureand art, and consequently requires long experience andstudy to be even a tolerable proficient in every branchof it. The branches of drawing connected with cabinetwork are geometrical, architectural, and perspectivedrawing, which see under DRAWING in Supplement.DRAWING-ROOM. The chief apartment of a noble,or genteel house, to which it is usual for company todraw to after dinner, and in which formal visits are paid.In these rooms the most elegant furniture is requisite,as they are for the reception of persons of the highestrank.JThe proportion of a good drawing-room should be inlength, at least, equal to the diagonal of the square of itswidth, and the height equal to its width. See FURNISH.The furniture used in a drawing-room are sofas, chairsto match, a commode, pier tables, elegant fire-screens,large glasses, figures with lights in their hands, andbronzes with lights on the cap of the chimney piece, oron the pier tables and commodes, and sometimes a mirrorwith lights fixed at the end of the room, or the side, asmaybest suit for the reflection or perspective representationofthe room, on the surface of the mirror. See MIRRORand FURNISH.DRAWING-ROOM CHAIRS, should always be theproduce of studied elegance, though it is extremelydifficult to attain to any thing really novel. If thosewho expect the purest novelty in such compositions,would but sit down and make a trial themselves, itwould teach them better how to exercise candour whenthey see designs of this kind.!202 DREHow far I have succeeded in my attempt of thiskind, in plates 45 and 46, I leave with the opinion ofreal judges.DRESSING CHEST. Is a small case of drawers, containing four drawers in height, the uppermost of whichis divided into conveniencies for dressing; hence thename dressing-chest. Or sometimes the top is hinged,and made to rise with a quadrant, and the dressing partis fixed in a well at the top, and not in the drawer; inwhich case, a glass is usually hinged to the under sideof the top, with a foot to keep it to any position; andthere is sometimes a knee hole in the front, but frequently none, when such dressing chests are used bypersons who stand to dress. But if they sit to dress,there must either be a dreffing drawer to draw out, or aknee hole in the front when the dressing part is in a wellunder the top.The dressing chest, if to use standing, may be 3 feethigh, and 3 feet 3 long, or 3 feet by 20 wide; but ifthere be a knee hole in the front, it must be from 3 feet 6to 4 feet long, and 32 inches high to the dressing partfor sitting.DRESSING TABLE. Is a table so constructed asto accommodate a gentleman or lady with conveniencies for dressing-see plate 40, which is for a lady,and is , I presume, so distinct in its parts, as to requireno explanation. To a country workman it may however be necessary to observe, that under the top is astrong rail not seen in the drawing, which is tenonedinto the two standards, binding them together. See X SOFA TABLE.DRESSING GLASS . Of this piece of furniture there arevarious species . Some are fixed to a box containingthree drawers, about 3 inches deep, standing either uponsmall brackets, or knobs for feet. The glass part isDUM 203suspended in the centre, between two upright or curvedstandards, and turns to any position. The sizes ofthese dressing boxes run from 22 to 28 inches in length;and when they are serpentine in front, they are in widthfrom 10 to 12 inches . -See also HORSE or SCREENDRESSING GLASSES, and the term GLASS, where wehave given the general size of glasses correctly, as manufactured at the British House, Blackfriars Bridge.DUMB-WAITER, amongst cabinet-makers, is a usefulpiece of furniture, to serve in some respects the place ofa waiter, whence it is so named. There are differentkinds of these waiters, but they are all made of mahogany, and are intended for the use of the dining parlour,on which to place glasses of wine, and plates, bothclean, and such as have been used. See plate 43. one partly from the French taste, on the top of which,where the glasses are represented, is a slab of thinmarble, which not only keeps cleaner, and looks neaterthan mahogany, but also tends to keep the wine cool,when a bottle for present use is placed upon it. Theshelves below are for plates and a knife tray. The holesfor the decanters have cases of tin fit into them, and arejapanned white, which shews through the front pannelin the rail, and makes it look lighter. N° 2. The topwaiter is for glasses, and a bottle, and the lower forplates, or decanters and tumbler glasses, and the drawersthat are shewn open, or partly drawn out, are forknives, and have a tin case to fit loose in, and japannedwhite; so have the plate trays within the ballusters. Theseare easily taken out, and may be cleaned and replacedwhen necessary. And the workman must observe, thatthe waiters turn round on the pillars; for the underpillar has a beech nut let into it , and the upper part of itscrews itself home into it, so as to admit the waiter toturn. The upper waiter is fixed to the pillar, by a round204 EBOblock at the underside screwed to it, which, having awasher turned into it, receives a screw head before theblock is fixed to, and then it screws into a nut as before.The plate trays ought to be 11 inches diameter in theclear, and the opening for the hand 4 inches.There is aturned astrigal for the top rail and the balluster.EEASEL pieces, amongst painters, such small pieces, eitherportraits or landscapes, as are painted on the easel, ì. ¿.the frames whereon the canvas is laid. They are thuscalled, to distinguish them from larger pictures drawn onwalls, ceilings, &c.EAVES, in architecture, the margin or edge of the roofof a house, being the lowest tiles, slates, or the like,that hang over the walls, to throw off water to a distancefrom the foundation.EBONY-WOOD, is of a hard and heavy quality, susceptable of a fine polish . There are divers kinds ofebony; the most common amongst us are black, red,and green, and are all of them the product of Madagascar, in the East Indies. The best ebony is of a jetblack, free of veins and rind. The trees of this woodare very bushy, its leaves are smooth, and of a fine green.Beneath its bark is a white blea about 2 inches thick;all beneath which, to the heart, is a deep green, approaching towards a black, though sometimes streakedwith yellow veins. The black ebony is not at presentso much in use as it formerly was, since there have beendiscovered so many ways of giving other hard woods ablack colour. Hence pear tree, and other close grainedwoods, have sometimes passed for ebony, by stainingELM 205ܐ،ܘchu20rolikeCeof1.Lansed1#62edogthem black. This some do by a few washes of a hot,decoction of galls, and when dry, adding writing ink,polishing it with a stiff brush, and a little hot wax.ECHINUS, in architecture, is the quarter round or ovaloin the Ionic, and Composite capitals, so called, Exivos,echinus, a chesnut, because the eggs usually cut intheechinus, seem to be enclosed in something, like achesnut cut open.ELLIPSIS, in geometry, is one of the conic sections,properly called an oval. Its figure is bounded by a regular curve line, returning into itself. The longestdiameter of an ellipsis, is called the transverse, and theshortest the conjugate.ELM. Of this useful wood there are said to be threespecies. The first, or common elm, is with leaves doublysawed, and unequal at the base. The second, withleaves equally sawed, and unequal at the base. The third,with leaves equally sawed, and equal at the base. Thefirst species is a native of this and most other countriesin Europe; the second grows naturally in Virginia; andthe third in Siberia.The elm tree, says Mr. Emmerick, " grows rapidly,and to a great size. It thrives in a wet soil, and may beproduced either from the seed or the plant. Its seed isripe in the latter end of July, or the beginning ofAugust;and if sown immediately, will raise a plant a foot highthe same year, which is the case with no other tree inEurope. "It is said to be useful in that part of mill work whichlies under water, for in this situation it hardens to a greatdegree. Either extreme wet or dryness seems to suit thiswood-but is fit for neither alternately. In the country,this wood, is used for chairs instead of beech.206 EYEEMBOSSING, in sculpture, is the cutting of works inrelievos. It is called embossing, particularly on accountof the sculptures rising above the surface whereon it iscut.ENDECAGON, a figure, in geometry, having elevenangles, and consequently as many sides.ENNEAGON, a figure of nine angles and sides.ENTABLATURE, in architecture, is that part of anorder which is above the capital, and consists , 1st . ofthe architrave; 2d. the frieze; and 3d. the cornice.For the proportions of the several entablatures of thefire orders, see plates 30, 31 , 32 , 33 , 34,EPICYCLOID, is a curve generated by the revolution ofa point of the periphery of a circle, along the convex orconcave surface of another circle.---EPISTYLE, in ancient architecture, a term used by theGreeks, for what we call architrave .EQUAL, is a term of relation between two or more bodiesofthe same magnitude, quantity or quality.Equal circles, are those whose diameters are equal,Equal angles, are those whose sides are inclined alike toeach other, or that are measured by similar parts of theircircles.EQUILATERAL, a term applied to any thing whosesides are equal; but is usually spoken of triangles, whosesides are all of an equal length.EUSTYLE, in architecture, a sort of building in whichthe pillars are placed at the most convenient distance onefrom another; the intercolumniations being just twodiameters and a quarter, except those in the centre ofthe front and flank, which are allowed three diameters.EYE, in architecture, signifies any round window madein the tympan of the pediment.EYE of the volute. See VOLUTE.EYE, in perspective, is the point of sight, or the pointDFEA 207in which the spectator views any object; from whichpoint, if a line be drawn perpendicular to the plane ofthe picture, the intersection of that line with the saidplane, is called the centre of the picture.FFABRIC, in general, denotes the structure or constructionof any thing; but particularly of buildings, as a church,hall, or house.FACIA, in architecture, is a broad flat member, commonly applied to the principal divisions of an architravę.The Corinthian architrave has three facias, and theComposite sometimes three, and at others two. TheIonic two facias, and the Doric and Tuscan one each.The term facia is also used amongst bedftead makers,to denote that part of the tester lath to which the bedcornice is fixed. The facia is usually made about 3 or2 inches wide, of thin deal. To the upper edge of this,is glued a slip of an inch broad, and a quarter thick.This being mitered round the tester, they fix the corniceto it with iron plates and buttons, so that the cornicemay easily be taken off at any time. As the facia thusmanaged, leaves a space between it and the cornice, itserves as a rabbet to which the valence is tacked..FEATHER, a general name for the covering of birds.Feathers make a considerable article in commerce,particularly those of the ostrich, heron, swan, peacock,goose, &c. for plumes, ornaments of the head, and forbeds. Geese are plucked in some parts of Great Britainfive times in a year, which in the cold season sometimesproves fatal to them.Those feathers which are brought from Somersetshireare esteemed the best, and those from Ireland the worst.208 FESEider-down is imported from Denmark; the ducks whichsupply it being inhabitants of Hudson's bay, Greenland.Ireland, and Norway. Our own islands west of Scatland breed numbers of these birds, which turn out a profitable branch of trade to the poor inhabitants, Hudson'sbay also furnishes us with feathers, supposed to be ofthe goose kind.Swan down is brought from Dantzic, whence also wehave large quantities of cock and hen feathers, whichare sometimes mixed with goose feathers, and baselysold for pure goose feathers,Several very imposing arts are practised by brokers anddealers in feathers, which the stranger and fair traderought to be aware of. The live feathers are the best andlightest, and which are of an elastic nature, so that a bedpressed down with the hand when filled with goodfeathers, will rise up to its place again.The method of curing feathers is to spread them operin a room exposed to the sun, and when they arethoroughly dried, to put them in bags, and beat themwith long poles to cleanse them from dirt, before theyare filled into the tick .--- See also FEATHER, in Supplement.FESTOON. In architecture, consists of a string offlowers, fruits, and leaves tied together, and increasingin substance towards the middle of the swag or festoon,They are chiefly used in friezes and other vacant places.Festoons seem to have had their origin fromthe practiceand customs of the pagans, who placed such clusters of flowers on or over the doors of their templesat the time of festivals, and also over the doors of theirprivate houses.Festoon window curtains, amongst upholsterers, arethose which draw up by pullies, and hang down in aswag. These curtains are still in use in bed rooms, notFIG 209withstanding the general introduction of the French rodcurtains in most genteel houses. A festoon windowcurtain, consists generally of three pulls, but when awindow is extensive they have four or five. According tothe number of pulls, so must the window lath be pullied.Such as have three they set out as follows: take 4 inchesand an half for the distance of the pullies off each endofthe lath, then find the centre, and put the pullies toone side; next to the draw end, equal to their width,that the lines which pass over them may be directed tothe right divisions of the curtain. At the draw end theremust be three pullies placed an inch and a half from theend. Towards the centre from these is a pully 4 inchesfrom the end, measuring from that side of the pullythrough which the line passes, and thus it must be clearthat there will be three pulls, and two of the lines will be4 inches off the end of the curtain, and the other in thecentre. If the lath have five pulls, then it will requirefour pullies more to be placed in equal divisions on thelength of the lath, and for these two there must be twoanswerable to them at the draw end, so that it will require five pullies in the width of the lath, fixed as before.FIELD BED. See CAMP BED, page 123.FIGURE, is the surface or terminating extremes of a body.In geometry there are rectilineal figures, Curvelial andmixed figures.In painting and drawing, the term generally appliesto representations of the human body. A correct knowledge of figure drawing is in some degree dependent uponskill in the anatomy of the human structure, particularly of the bones and muscles. On these the disposition of the contour depends, and therefore muſt beattended to by those who would sufficiently qualifyPFLOthemselves for figure drawing. See the term DRAWINGin Supplement.FIRE-SCREEN.FISHING-STOOL.See SCREENS.A kind of triangular seat whichfolds up, and is therefore portable, and used in angling.The legs of a fishing-stool are joined together in themanner of the camp table, plate 8; and when the legsare open, they are bound by girth-webbing, whichserves as a The spread of the seat is about seat.21014 inches, and one of the legs is longer than the othertwo, serving as a stick or handle to carry it by.FISHSKIN. The skin of dog- fish or sharks, used forcleaning up chair work, or in some parts of cabinetwork. It should never be used wet, or in a damp state,as it tends to bring offthe prickles of the skin, and consequently spoils it .FLOCK, a kind of wool, used by upholsterers for matetrasses.FLOOR. In architecture, is that part of a room whereonwe walk.Floors are of different sorts, some of earth, stone,and wood. Floors used in plain country-houses, aremade sometimes of a composition of lime and coal-ashes,with a quantity of loamy clay, mixed and temperedtogether with water. And after working it well together, it should lie a week or ten days, that it maymellow; after this it should be tempered over again,with as much water only as may render it tough byworking. Having done this, it is to be thrown up intoa heap again for a few days, and tempered again, asbefore, when it is used,The ground of the floor being levelled, lay on thiscomposition about 3 inches thick, smoothing it with atrowel; such floors should be laid in a hot season. OxFLO 211blood and fine clay tempered together as above, is alsorecommended by some as a durable floor for suchpurposes.Boarded floors should never be laid for good at first,and require to be of the best deals; and when a buildingis in contemplation these ought to be procured before anyother article, and should be plained over, and placed soas to dry. There are three methods by which floors arelaid. First, with plain jointed edges, and nailed down.Second, jointing and ploughing the edges to receive awainscot tongue about an inch broad, and a bare quarterthick, by which the dust is prevented from falling through,in cases where there is no cieling. These maybe nailedat every set board at the edge, so that no nails be seen.Third, when they are laid with douwells of oak- boardinto the edge, and every one set as they are laid. Inthis method the edge of the board may be fixed down tothe joints by dove-tail pieces of wainscot, let in half aninch on to the edge of the board, and rather more intojoists. This is a troublesome but most effectual method,and by a little practice may be done with greater facility,than is at first apprehended, The ancient floors of agood quality, were generally made of oak boards, andvery curiously laid, by forking the ends together in largefloors, where more than one length was wanted; suchfloors were frequently polished bright, and a baize thrownpartly over them to keep them clean, and to tread upon.But since the introduction of carpets, fitted all over thefloor of a room, the nicety of flooring anciently practisedin the best houses, is now laid aside.FLUTES, or fluting, amongst architects, cabinet makers,and upholsterers.In an architectural sense, it applies to the manner ofornamenting the shafts of columns.The Tuscan column is never fluted, and the Doric is212 FOOoften executed plain also; but in a full Doric Order, Itshould be fluted. The flutes of this order, are distinguished from all the other, by being shallow, and broughtnearly to a sharp edge, so that there is scarcely any fillet. The shaft contains twenty or twenty-five ofthese; and observe, that a flute must be in the centre ofthe shaft upon each quarter. The depth of the flute isfound by taking the width of it, with the compasses,and intersecting an arch, which will give the centre.To find the flutes for this order, describe a quadrant ofacircle, whose radius must be the simi-diameter oftheinferior diameter of the column. Divide it into twelveequal parts, and take one of these for half the flute inthe centre, on each quarter; then the remaining ten willbe for the five whole flutes, upon each quarter, exclusiveof the centre flutes, which make the whole numbertwenty-four."The fluitings of the other orders, are the same in number, but have a fillet between each one- third of theflute, and therefore the quadrant of the lower diametermust be divided into twenty-four equal parts, and a partand a half must be given to the half flute each way onthe centre, and then one for the fillet, and three for theflutes alternately; so that upon each quarter there willbe five whole flutes, and two halves, with six fillets.See FLUTE, in Supplement,FOLIAGE. - See FOLIAGE, in Supplement.FOLIATING looking glasses. -See LOOKING GLASS.FOOT-STOOL, a small stool to rest the foot upon.These are generally stuffed with hair, and covered withsome kind of needle-work. The frame of the stool issometimes oval, at others square, or of an octagonshape, with turned legs mostly, as these are lighter thanany other. The sizes are various; but the height of theframe, without the stuffing, runs about 6 or 6 inches,-FRE 213and the length from 9 to a foot, and from 7 to 8 incheswide.FOUNDATION. -See BUILDING.FOOT, in measure, makes 12 inches, according to thecommon way of dividing it. Probably the measure received this name from the foot of a stout man, which isabout a foot long. If our English foot be divided into1000, the French foot will be 1068, the Spanish 1001 ,the Venetian 1162, the Roman 967. A foot squarecontains 144 superficial inches, and a cubic foot 1728 ,the former being multiplied by 12.AFOUR-POST BED, is a name for all such as are usedin common lodging rooms, that have feet and head posts.See plate 17.FRENCH BED. see plate 18 , so named, not from havingever seen any of theirs shaped in this manner, but onaccount of its being after their style of dress.It would have been proper if I could have shewn ageometrical elevation of the end of this bed, for the sakeof illustrating the manner in which it should be framed;but being so confined in the small compass of this work,and the plates of this size being so expensive, the workman must be satisfied, with a description as plain as Ican make it. The tester of this bed is an arch somewhat less than a simicircle, but framed straight acrossthe head and feet by rails joining the two side arches, thesame as in a tent or field bedstead. This tester is thenfixed to the pillars by tenons, which have a screw letinto them, the same as in the bottom frame of a commonbed, the heads of which are easily covered by an ornament, as is the case at the bottom frame of this design,where the human head is planted on by means of akey, which fastens into a thin plate of iron, with a holeto receive it; and under the diamond ornament at the

  1. 214

FRItop of the pedestal, is another screw which enters intothe end framing, which must be made separate from thepedestals, that the foot and head may be stuffed, in themanner of the design, and put together at pleasure. Thecornice has a facia to which it is fixed by irons, andmay be taken off occasionally. And observe, that thecornice runs across both head and foot, and is fixed toit in the same manner as the arched cornices of thesides. The curtains are first tacked against the facia,which, for this purpose, forms two rabbets, one for thecurtains, and the other for the drapery.The curtains may either be drawn up by pullies, oronly tied to the top of the pedestals by lines and tassels.Lastly, the ground work of the valence is what theupholsterers term fluted, and afterwards the drapery isformed upon it, which, for sake of contrast, may beof a different colour. In this drapery I have the honorof pleasing the upholsterers, who consider it as quitenovel; ofwhich I have had repeated testimonies.FRESCO, a method of painting in relievo on walls, so asto endure the weather. -See PAINTING.FRET, in architecture, a kind of knot or ornament, consisting of two fillets variously interlaced.Frets are used to fill up and enrich flat empty spaces.Frets were much introduced into cabinet work anciently,but have been laid aside many years since. At present, however, we seem to incline to them again, butwith a material difference, the ancient frets being cut outof thin mahogany, and the modern cast in brass, whichis doubtless much to the advantage of the work, as theyare both durable and pleasing to the eye.FRINGE, an ornament of worked silk or worfied, muchin use amongst upholsterers, who introduce it occasionallyto bed furniture, and window curtains. The FrenchFUR 215have begun to use fringe at the bottom of their chairbacks. There is a kind of net fringe made in France,which looks well, somewhat like that in the Frenchbed.FRIZE, or frieze, in architecture, is a part of the entablature..The ancients called it Zeophorus wogopos, becauseit was usually enriched with figures of animals; and ourterm frieze has a similar origin, from Phrygio, an embroiderer being, commonly adorned with sculpturein basso relievo, imitating embroidery.FRIZE, also signifies, a kind of woollen cloth or ſtufffor winter wear, being frized or knapt on one side;whence probably it derived its name.FRONTISPIECE, in architecture, the principal face ofthe building.FRUSTRUM, in geometry, a piece cut off and separatedfrom a body. Thus the fruftrum of a pyramid, or cone,is a part or piece of it cut off, usually by a plane, parallel to the base.FURNISH, amongst cabinet makers and upholsterers, isgenerally applied to the act of supplying a house withsuitable furniture. When a house is said to be furnished,it conveys the idea of its being fitted up with every necessary, both useful and ornamental. In furnishing agood house for a person of rank, it requires some taſteand judgment, that each apartment may have suchpieces as is most agrecable to the appropriate use of theroom. And particular regard is to be paid to the qualityof those who order a house to be furnished, when suchorder is left to thejudgment ofthe upholsterers; and whenany gentleman is so vain and ambitious as to order thefurnishing of his house in a style superior to his fortune, and rank, it will be prudent in an upholsterer, by some216 FURgentle hints, to direct his choice to a more moderateplan.There is certainly something of sentiment expressedin the manner of furnishing a house, as well as in personal dress and equipage; particularly so in the appearanceof some apartments. And it is the business of an upholsterer not to recommend any thing that would offendthe known sentiments of his employer, when virtue andmorality are not the queftion, but mere indifferentopinion.But it is to be lamented, that both the pictures andprints of some gentlemen are but too sure indications oftheir looseness of principle; as to virtue and morality,though these ought to be the principal ornaments of human life, which in no character shines more becominglythan in the gentleman of rank.The kitchen, the hall, the dining parlour, the antiroom , the drawing room, the library, the breakfastroom, the music room, the gallery of paintings, thebed room and dressing apartments, ought to have theirproper suits of furniture, and to be finished in a style,that will at once shew, to a competent judge, the placethey are destined for.The library should be furnished in imitation of theantiques; and such prints as are hung in the walls oughtto be memorials of learning, and portraits of men ofscience and erudition.In the room or gallery of paintings, the best picturesshould be placed in the most favourable situation , for astill light, which should come from above, not in adiffuse, but collected manner, that it may give the trueeffect ofthe picture, as intended by the painter. And ifthe shadow of the picture be from the right hand, thelight should come to it from the left. The largest picgures should be placed so high only as to bring their1FUR 217fastthehatrrie,lacetheoughen dctureforat in 1De trueAndthest pictheir 5spectator centers nearly as may be perpendicular to the eye of the . If this be not duly observed, it will occasionadistortion ofthe piece. In cases where, for want of room, a picture is required to be more elevated than its naturalheight, the piece should be hung so as to inclineforward, by which means its centre will be broughtnearer to a perpendicular to the eye. In small paintings,the distortion, occasioned by an improper height, is notsotaken apparent; to remove the disadvantage, they are easily down to be viewed by hand. Observe, that pictures or prints, drawn to a high horizon, should beplaced low, and those which have a low horizon, high;and, as in such apartments, the paintings are the chiefobjects of the spectator's attention, there ought not to beanygaudy furniture to take off the eye, or destroyany of their effect . Hence, plain mahogany chairs ofan antique caft, having seats of mahogany will prove the moft suitable.Themusicroommaybeconductedin a moregayftyle;andthepaintingsorprintsofthemuses, andmafters ofmusic, mayconsistentlymakea partoffurnishing;and chairsandstoolsof a richervarietyofcoloursmay be admitted with propriety.Astheentranceorhallofanywellbuilthouseoughtalwaystobe expressiveofthedignityofitspossessor,sothefurnitureoughtalsotobedesignedinamanneradaptedtoinformthestrangerorvisitantwheretheyare,every andwhattheymayexpectonamoregeneralsurveyofapartment.ingto alltheprincipalapartments, it shouldbefurnishedAsthehall is a general, oroughttobea generalopensoasnotto bemiftakenforthemoftsuperbdivisionoftheftructure, orwheremoblerpersonwhoresidesinit.they may expect to meet theThe furniture of a218 FURhall should therefore be bold, massive, and simple. Yetnoble in appearance, and introductory to the reft .The dining parlour must be furnished with nothingtrifling, or which may seem unnecessary, it being appropriated for the chief repast, and should not be encumbered with any article that would seem to intrude onthe accommodation of the guests.The large sideboard, inclosed or surrounded with Ionicpillars; the handsome and extensive dining-table; therespectable and substantial looking chairs; the large faceglass; the family portraits; the marble fire-places; andthe Wilton carpet; are the furniture that should supplythe dining- room.The drawing-room is to concentrate the elegance ofthe whole house, and is the highest display of richnessof furniture. It being appropriated to the formal visitsofthe highest in rank, and nothing of a scientific natureshould be introduced to take up the attention of any individual, from the general conversation that takes placeon such occasions. Hence, the walls should be free ofpictures, the tables not lined with books, nor the anglesof the room filled with globes; as the design of suchmeetings are not that each visitant should turn to hisfavourite study, but to contribute his part towards theamusement of the whole company. The grandeur thenintroduced into the drawing-room is not to be considered,as the ostentatious parade of its proprietor, but therespect he pays to the rank of his visitants.The anti-room, is an introduction to the drawingroom, and partakes of the elegance of the apartment towhich it leads, serving as a place of repose before thegeneral intercourse be effected in the whole company.Here may be placed a number of sofas of a second orderwiih a piano-forte or harp, and other matters of amusement till the whole of the company be collected.FUS 219ceaanglSUCHO DISs theurtheiderbutrawingtimentoforetheompanyndartfamustbeaufets The tea-room or breakfast-room, may abound with , painted chairs, flower-pot stands, hangingbook shelvesormoving libraries, and the walls maybe adornedwith landscapes, and pieces of drawings, &c. and allthe little things which are engaging to the juvenile mind.The lodgingroom admits of furniture simply necessary, but light in appearance, and should include such piecesas are necessary for the accidental occasions ofbooks the night. Here should be a small book shelf with such as should tend to promote our pious resignationof body and soul to the care of the great author of theand divine superintendant of human hepuniverse,piness.The dressing-room exhibits the toilet table and com mode, with all the little affairs requisite to dress, asbason-stands, stools, glasses, and boxes with all theinnocent trifles of youth, with which I shall close thesehints on the nature of furnishing a house, taking itfor granted, that enough has been said to lead to the proper management of such apartments as are not men tioned in this cursory view ofthe whole.FUSTIAN,kind of cotton stuff-right fustians should bemadeofcotton-yarn, bothwoofandwarp


agreat manyaremade, thewarpofwhichisflax, orevenhemp. There are fustians made of several kinds,without wide, narrow, fine, coarse; with shag or knap, or it.aFUSTICK, ahardyellowwood,thatgrowsinalltheCaribbeeIslands.It is used in dying yellow, and was introduced in cabinet work above twenty years since;found to turn by the air and heat of thesun to adead brownish hue, it was laid aside as unfit forbut asitwassuchpurposes.220 GAT

GGABLE, or gable end of a house, is that part which isfrom the cave to the top of the roof, of a triangularform,according to the pitch of the roof.GALLERY. In architecture, is a covered place in ahouse, much longer than broad, and is usually on thewings of a building, serving to walk in. According toPalladio, their length ought to be at least five times thebreadth, but not to exceed eight.GAMBOGE. " Is a concreted-vegetable juice, partlyof a gummy and partly of a resinous nature. It ischiefly brought to us in large cakes or rolls from Cambaga in the East Indies. The best sort is of a deepyellow or orange colour; it has no smell and very littletaste, unless kept in the mouth for some time, when itimpresses a slight sense of acrimony. It immediatelycommunicates to spirit of wine a bright golden colour,and almost entirely dissolves in it ." Brit. Encyclop.This pigment makes a beautiful yellow colour in water,and may easily be deepened with a little lake, to form àshade with.GARLAND. A sort of chaplet made of flowers, feathers,and sometimes of precious stones, worn on the head inthe manner of a crown. It also denotes ornaments offlowers, fruits, and leaves intermixed, anciently muchused at the gates of temples, where solemn feast and rejoicings were held, and at triumphal arches.GATE. In architecture, a large door, leading or givingentrance into a city, town, castle, palace, or other considerable building. The proportion for entrance gatesfor coaches or waggons should be from 9 to 12 feet, andtheir height half their width more.GEO 221B11ceDire0ateTourater,run 3athersead inuts fנעתandegivingerco $GENERATING-LINE, or figure in geometry, is that,which byits motion or resolution produces any otherfigure, both plain or solid . Thus a right line, movedany wayparallel to itself, generates a parallelogram; anda right line moved round a point in such a plan, withone end fastened in that point, generates a circle; andif this semi-circle be in a place perpendicular to it, andcaused to make an entire revolution on that point, it willproduce a hemisphere.GENEROSITY. Is represented in painting by a virginofamiable appearance, clothed in a mantle of gold gause,leaning her left hand upon a lions head, holding in herright, lifted up, chains of pearl and precious stones, in dicating her intentions of making presents. As gene rosityis generally, if not always accompanied withcourage, so this virtue is properly represented by heryouth; her naked arm, signifies that it is disinterested;and the lion, the courage that is inspired by thisvirtue.GENIUS.denoteIs represented by a naked child, of a smiling countenance, having a garland of poppy on his head,ears ofcorn in one hand, and a branch of grapes in theother. His smiling countenance, and the grapes the pleasure that is taken in the pursuit of that science,or liberal art for which youth have a genius . Thesupposed that every human being had a genius,ancientsthat is, a deitytoinfluencethem, orgivethema turnofmindtosome particular pursuit for general usefulness.Thereseemstobesomefoundationforsupposingthattheythus expressed their belief of divine providence inthe disposal of alloftheunity of themen; but they did it at the expencenature of God, for he is one onlyGEOGRAPHY and true,though his gifts to man be infinitely various. . Is represented by an aged woman, inanearthcoloured garment, anda terrestrialglobeat her922 GIL

feet. The compasses at her right hand, denotes that shemeasures the globe; and the square in her left, that shedoes it with just proportion . Her old age, signifies theantiquity of this art, which had its origin in Egypt, asearly as the times of Abraham.GEOMETRY. From you , a compound of genes ge,the earth, and sтpox metron, to measure, originally signified the art of measuring the earth , or any distances ordimensions on or within it; but is now used for thescience of extension, abstractly considered without anyregard to matter.This science had its rise amongst the Egyptians, whowere, in a manner, compelled to invent it to remedy theconfusion which generally happened in their lands fromthe inundations of the river Nile, which carried away allboundaries, and effaced all the limits of their possessions.Thus this invention, which at first consisted only inmeasuring the lands, that every person might have whatbelonged to him; was called geometry, and it is probable, that the draughts and schemes which they wereannually compelled to make, helped them to discovermany excellent properties of these figures; which speculations continued to be gradually improved. For DRAWING in GEOMETRY, sce Supplement under DRAWING.GILDING. The art of spreading or covering thin goldover any substance. In the language of the old testament, overlaying with gold in many parts of Solomon'stemple, appear to have been what we call gilding. Theancients however, seem to have been imperfect in theirskill of gilding, as it appears that they could not make itendure external violence of weather. They had not discovered the manner of gilding in oil as we have; henceall their gilding was contined to internal works, and laidon by means of size and a glutinous erath, which theyused for that purpose.GIL 22In gildingin oil, which is chiefly used in the country,being in all cases the most durable, care must be takento lay an even foundation by white lead, ground in linseed oil and gold litherage , which is fittest for the purpose, when the oil and litheridge are previously boiledand strained through some cloth, to cleanse it from allthe dirt and gross particles to which this mixture is subject.Having grond the white lead with this oil, it maybe brought to a proper temper by spirits of turpentine, andthen laid upon the surface to be gilded, which if it havenot been already painted, may require two coats, before the gold size be laid on. If this preparation be not broughtsmooth, it is in vain to expect good work.The sizes that are used in this kind of gilding, may bepurchased at the colour shops; and if the work requireto be quick done, japanner's gold size must be used, as it willbe ready for gilding in about four hours or less;but where a considerable quantity is required to be doneat one time, as in house work, it dries two quick, andit istherefore requisite to employthe house painter's goldsize, which partakes more of the quality of the fat oilthantheother, but frequentlyrequires twenty-four hourstobeinastate fit for laying on the gold; but as it dries60 gradually, it affords an opportunity of doing propor tionably more together; and this is not the only advan tage, forwherethe size can be kept from all duft, and ifitbeof agoodquality, thelongerit is indrying, thegreaterluster in gildingwillbe produced


thenitmustbekept free fromanykindof handlingor touch,harden.Gold size mayraconsiderable timebeforethiskindof goldsizewillbe broughtto dryto anytimeforbyajudiciousadmixtureofcopalvarnishandspiritsofturpentine, tosuitthenatureofthework.Thegeneral224 GILconftituent parts of gold sizes, consists of producing finefat oil, which is of fine linseed oil exposed to the sun'sheat in summer, by which it is bleached and cleared fromthose greasy and viced particles, which prevent oils fromdrying, and the paints, with which it is mixed, frombearing that lustre which they retain when mixed upwith good oils . To this kind of oil is added Oxford ocher,and vermilion, or fine red lead ground fine as possible,and thus brought as near to the colour of gold as it willadmit of, so that in cases where the gold leaf is not quiteperfect , it may be less observable, and also that the goldmay bethe better supported in its lustre and true colour,when the work is finished. The cleanings of the painter'spencils, in the turpentine pan, which settle to the bottom, and incline to a ſtate of fatness the longer they arein reserve, is recommended by some gilders as a goodsize; but as such size is more uncertain in its composition, they who only use a small portion of size, shouldbuy it at the shops.-In gilding well, it requires great care to keep everyarticle clean, and to find the size in a true state of tenacityfor the reception of the gold. This may be known bythe touch of the finger, which, if it slightly adhere toand bring away not the smallest degree of the size, it isin a proper condition for gilding. Those who are inexperienced in the art generally fall into the error of beginning to work before it is sufficiently dry, being apprehensive that the gold will not adhere, except it be laid onwhen the size is clammy. But this is erring on the moſtpernicious side of the question; for in this state it absorbsthe gold, and the slightest pressure of the gold inlayingit on will ruffle the surface, and sometimes render itunfit for resizing till the priming be laid on again. Ifonthe other hand the size be too dry, the only evil that atGIL 225laher,باتJegcolainee beheya gomporSheSVEITattends it is the trouble of resizing, which may in this,case help to make it bear a better lustre. When thegold is laid on, it may be observed, that the cottonwool, which is used in pressing it to , will pass pleasantlyover the gilded part, which will be bright; but if toowet, the cotton will leave hairs behind it, and seem tobe retarded in its passage over the gold, which will lookdull and unsatisfactory to the eye ofthe gilder, if a competent judge of what his work ought to be. In takingthe gold out of the book, it is best to tap the edge ofthebook with the knife which will shake the leaf out of itsplace, and the knife may then be put under it, and laidon to the gilding cushion , where, if it should chance beruffled, blow upon the centre of the leaf, and in a perpendicular direction to the gold, and it will become even,when it may be cut to the size wanted, by holding theknife in a horizontal position, that the edges may touchthe gold in every part at once. A gilder's tip must thenbe passed slightly over the face, to give a moisture tothe hairs of the tip, which being pressed to the cut goldwill bring it up, and the gold is thus applied to its place,which should be at the end of the work next to the gilderand his cushion, for then he covers the size as he advances, so that his stroke with the cotton in smoothingthe gold is less liable to catch the size. If the work beexposed to the weather, and is not required to be verybrilliant, it may be varnished with thin copal, so as notmuch to injure the look, and thus be made more securefrom external pressure or violence.GILDING in water is more operous and tedious, excepton glass, which is more simple in itself than oil gilding,but as connected with the occasional ornaments attending it, it is sometimes more troublesome. Gilding uponglass is much wanted in the present mode of mountingprints and drawings, by a black border round the insideQ1226 GILof the frame parted with one or more gilt lines or narrowfillets, and sometimes with pannelings in the angles,when the print or drawing is an oval, and the frame issquare. The glass for gilding should be of the bestkind; and being fit into the frame, the picture should beput in its place behind the glass, and turning it up;ifitbe inclosed in an oval, the glass must be marked withblack or white paint on the line of the oval as a guide inblacking the glass, that it may be correctly laid on tosuit the oval. And to shew the gilding more strikingly,a black line must first be drawn over the marks of painton the outside. This line must be drawn by a hairpencil finely tempered in black varnish, or ASPHALTUM,which see, as correct as possible, it being the guide tothe gold band, line, or fillet. The remaining part ofthe glass may then be blacked over, so as to leave aspace for the gilding, according to its proposed width.The gilder may however proceed thus far by anothermethod, which some prefer. Let him take thin paper,and trace the oval upon it as it appears on the paper;then let him take red chalked paper, and having laid theblack on without regard to the gold fillet, or border, hemust lay on the red paper, and by laying on the thinpaper on which the print was pencilled, and tracing itover with a point, the red chalk will leave the impression of the oval on the black, which, by a fine point,inust be cut through to the glass as correct as possible,and the black must be taken out, which may easily bedone, if the black be mixed with hard varnish before itbe laid on.Or a third method is, by laying on the gold first, andblacking it over, and when it is dry, trace the oval onthe black as has been described; and having taken awayall the superfluous gold and black together, it is thenblacked all over, and finished.GIL 22723:Y!ALTguPlaed1jnThe size used for this gilding is a small portion ofisinglass dissolved by a gentle heat in perfectly fair water;but so small a quantity is requisite, that the water onlyis nearly sufficient for the purpose; for if the water betoo strong of this glue, it will cause the gold to appearcloudy , or in dull spots . Take then this size, and witha hair pencil lay it on rather flowing, and with the tiplay on the gold, and blow it gently down, and havingfinished the first lay of gold, let the glass stand on anedge at a moderate distance from the fire, till it dry,which will be in a quarter or half an hour. But itmust be noticed, that in laying on the gold leaf, no watermust be left under the gold, but it must be blown out,as much as the nature of the case will admit of; orotherwise, when the cotton wool is applied to burnishit with, the gold will rub off. After thus burnishing,proceed to a second lay or coat of gold as at the first,which will cover all the defects of the first lay occasionedby burnishing, and having waited till this second coatbe dry, burnish as before; and if there be any defects ofgold, such places must be repaired. Some recommendto have the work done three times over, but twice willdó as well, if carefully done.Lastly, when the gilding is dry, it must be secured bya coat of black, laid on with copal varnish, which maybe done at pleasure, without the smallest danger of injuring the gold.WATER GILDING upon wood, is that generally termedburnished gold, and is only proper for internal works,and even in this situation requires much care to keep itfrom injury.As to lustre and effect , it has doubtless the advantageof oil gilding, but is attended with much more troubleand expence. The size used for burnished gold, madeof the finest white parchment, made in quantities pro228 GIL

portioned to the work to be gilded, for it will only keepa few days. The proportion of parchment is nearlyaquarter ofa pound toa quart of water, or rather morewater, which will be boiled down to about half thatquantity, and must then be strained througha cloth

and if after standing to cool there should still bea scumat the top or bottom, it should be pared off. Spanishwhite is then to be pounded, and sifted clear of heterogenious particles, and the size being dissolved over thefire, the whiting is poured into it, and stirred about bya wooden spatula, till it comes to the consistence ofstrong cream, which may just boil and no more, otherwise the size will be injured. With this mixture, thework to be gilded must be covered5,6,7,8, or9 times,according to the nature of the work, and the quantumof whiting that may be taken off in preparing andsmoothing it for the gold size. Observe, each coat ofwhiting must dry before another is laid on, and it issometimes best to give the worka partial cleaning, atabout half the number of coats, which will make iteasier to execute when the whole number is laid on.After the work is finished in the number of coats, thefirst thing is to clean the squares bya small iron rakemade for the purpose

in doing which

, the surface of thewhiting should be gently damped, that the superfluoussubstance may easily come away without tearing thewhole from the wood. In this operation files, pumicestone, and glass paper, are variously applied to recoverthe out-line of the mouldings, and to give each surfacea necessary smoothness to receive the gold size

and to

effect this completely, it is usual to give the wholeawater polish, bya rag dipt in water, and passed gentlyover the whole, so as not to wear down the whiting toomuch.Take then pipe clay, which in London may be boughtEC02門"GIL 229AIL9quarigchreadyfor the purpose; and they who gild in the countrymay send for this and the gold size, which will keep aconsiderable time, and may at any time be softened bymoisture. In using this pipe clay, it must be dilutedwith the parchment size made a little weaker, and laidonce over the work. With the same size mix yellowochre, and go once over the whole. This coat is forthe purpose of such parts of the carving or edges ofmouldings as require no gold.The gold size is next to be attended to, which may becompounded ofthe following ingredients: Take one poundof fine bole in fine powder, or pound it upon a stone,and grind it fine, with clean water, as thick as it willwork. With this grind 2 ounces of black lead, thenadd 2 scruples of oil of olives, and 1 of bees wax, whichinuft be all united in one mass, and brought to the consistency of a thick cream, by means of the strong size,and in a blood warm state laid twice over the work.Or it may be thus prepared: Take a pound and anhalf of tobacco pipe clay, half an ounce of red chalk, aquarter of an ounce of black lead, 40 drops of sweetoil, and 3 drams of pure tallow, grind the clay, chalk,and black lead, separately, very fine in fair water; thenmix them together, add the oil and tallow, and grind thewhole to a due consistence.Lastly, take a weaker size with some ofthe bole thusprepared, and melt them over the fire, and proceedto giveit the last coat; but previous to this, every rough orknotty particle of the former coats must be smoothed.Proceed now to lay on the gold, which will requiretwo or three different sized hair pencils. One large forcovering the work with fair water, and another forpressing the gold gently down to its place, after thewater is blown from underneath it. The cutting andmanagement of the gold is the same as for oil gildingalready described. Here, however, it will be proper to230 GIL1Btry the work, by only gilding a small part of the work2 or 3 inches long, for proving whether it will burnish.If not, the size must be varied till it will. Whenthework is ready for burnishing, is known by sounding thegilding with the burnisher; and if the tone ofthe soundbe clear, it is time to burnish, and if dull and heavy, theground is yet too moift. The time ought to be carefullyattended to, otherwise the burnishing will be more troublesome, and will not have the desired effect.In gilding it is proper to observe such parts as are tobe matted, that suitable relief may be given to the burnished parts. Such contrasts adds much to the beautyofthe work.In matting, some polish the parts before the gold islaid on, which gives it more smoothings, and afterwardssize it over with the former parchment size weakened,and some simply pencil it over with size, and after it isdry, pass over it with fine cotton wool.Gilding paper is easily performed, as follows, thoughit will not burnish: Grind bole armoniack with rainwater, and give one laying of it. When it is dry, takeglair of eggs, and add to it a little sugar candy and gumwater, which lay over the former; and upon this, whenit is dry enough, lay leaf gold, by means of a pencil andfair water.Gilding the edges of books. Take bole armoniackeight penny weights, sugar candy two penny weights,mix and grind them with glair of eggs, then on a boundbook while it is in the press, and which has been coatedon the edge with the glair of eggs and dried, lay on thisbole size, and let it dry; then rub it well, and polish it,and with fair water wet the edges of the book with ahair pencil, and immediately lay on the gold, pressingit down gently with cotton. In this state let it dry, andpolish it with a burnishing tooth.GIL 231

Gilding on silk or linen. Take parchment size, suchas has been described for burnished gold on wood, withwhich lay over the silk or cloth gently, that it may notsink through; then mix and grind ceruse and verdegreasetogether, of each an equal quantity, mix them withcopal varnish in a glazed vessel, which must simmer overa small fire. This size must be applied in the samemanner with that already described for oil gilding.Gilding chairs. This branch of gilding is , in somerespects, conducted differently from the others in oil andwater already mentioned, though the principles of bothare the same.The difference is chiefly in point of time, as the chairbranch requires the utmoft dispatch, that the workmay be kept clean, and quickly turned out of hand.Hence the japanners' gold size is of a composition thatdries rapidly, and requires the gold to be laid on in themoſt expert and ready manner. And for this purpose,in narrow fillets , which it chiefly consists of, the leavesof gold may be cut off singly, and cut upon the cushionwith the paper under it, and another blank leaf beinglaid over the gold, and turned over as the narrow slipsofgold are laid on, so that the tip is not wanted, and thework is executed with proportionably greater swiftness.And it is necessary to begin rather sooner in this than inthe other oil gold size, on account of its drying quicker,andit need not be pressed down with cotton till the wholeof the chair is covered, and then pass the cotton over thewhole. All the japan part of the chair ought to befinished, before the gilding be entered upon, that thegold may not be diſturbed in handling, and not merelyfor this reason, but that the lines or fillets of gold maybe trimmed up, by japanning the uneaven edges with acolour suitable to the ground, especially if the gildingbe any part of it flowered work, for it is impossible to"232 GILgild the outlines so clean as to require no help by thepencil dipped in the ground colour; and moreover, itshould be noticed, that in some cases of small flower orleaf work, it is best to lay on the gold without regard tothe outline, and afterwards draw upon the gold, andpick in the ground of the outline. In sizing over forthe gold, it should be so coloured, as to diftinguish thesizing work from the ground of the chair; for the sizeof itself bears no material colour. Alittle red lead, vermillion, or ochre, will generally do; or if for a darkground, mix with the size a little white lead. The japanners' gold size may be made by pulverizing gumanimi and asphaltum, of each 1 ounce; red lead, lithargeof gold, and umbre, of each 1 ounce and a half, mixingthem with a pound of linseed oil, and boiling them, observing to ftir them till the whole be incorporated, andappear, on growing cold, ofthe confiftence of tar. Strainthe mixture through a flannel, and keep it ſtopped upin a bottle. Another more simple may be made of 1pound of linseed oil, 4 ounces of gum animi; powderthe gum, and mix it gradually with the boiling oil. Letit continue to boil, till it be of the consistence of tar,and then strain it as before.In gilding chairs with burnished gold, it is not necessary to make the operation so tedious as in picture orglass frame gilding; for the chairs are usually primedwith whiting, and the japan laid upon it, forms a basefor the gold; it is generally sufficient to give only a coator two of the bole size, and then lay on the gold as inother works. The gold in chair work ought to bevarnished to secure it, and the best varnish for this purpose is copal, diluted a little with the spirit of turpentine,that it may dry quick, and be more transparent over thegold, which it injures very little when it is thoroughlydry.GLA 233.AtiveNo, 20116at 1 CET2

ng, lida質意 , maem,ted, r. Saappemade; pow! oil.oft 1967ture prGLASS,a transparent, brittle, factious body, producedfrom sand melted ina strong fire, with fixed alkalinesalts, lead, slugs,&c. till the whole become perfectlyclear and fine. When glass was first invented, admits ofmuch doubt. The firit glass-houses mentioned in history, were erected in the city of Tyre

and here was

the only ftaple of the manufacture for many ages. Thesand which lay on the shore for halfa mile round themouth ofthe river Eolus, was peculiarly adapted to themaking of glass, being ofa neat and glittering quality

and the wide range of the Tyrian commerce gave anample vent for this useful article.Glass, after it comes from the factory, goes into thehands of the grinder and silverer, that it may be compleated for framing. Before they begin to grind, theybed the glass in plafter of Paris, spread upona tablemade on purpose. They then take sand and water, and,with another glass ofa smaller size, they rub it toaperfectly even surface, which then has the appearance of a smooth slate.Thenext operation is what they call smoothing, whichis preparative to polifhing

to effect which

, they layawet blanket upona ſtone table, and taking water andemery of different degrees of fineness, with another glass,as before in grinding, they skue it about till it is smooth,andthen proceed to polifh it. For this purpose they bedagain into plafter of Paris, and take an oblong blockof wood, covered with coarse blanket or lap, as theyterm it, charged with tripple, which is made of iron ore.This block hasa stick fixed to it, the upper end of whichis fastened to the floor above

and this stick giving way

asabow, it presses the block every way upon the glass,as it is moved backwards and forwards on its surface.Whenthey have done with this block they put to another,charged with putty, made from grain tin, with whichthey rub as before, and bring it toa fine transparentA234 GLA ,.ковpoliſh ready for filvering . This last process, they termwhite lapping. They then prepare the glass for silvering, by taking dry whiting, and with the hand rub itabout the glass, to take off the dampness, and cleanse itfrom spots, that it may properly receive the quicksilver.On a table of stone, they lay a fheet of tin foil, whichmust be as large as the plate of glass; and to make thequicksilver adhere to the foil, they first rub a smallquantity of quicksilver, with the hand, over the foil tocleanse it. This they term quickening the foil. Afterthis they pour on to the foil , a proper quantity of quicksilver sufficient to cover all the foil and flow over theglass. Then they take clean cloths to clear the platefrom all dust before they lay it over the silver, whichthey do by fhutting it over the edge of a paper doubledon one edge of the foil, till the glass comes to its dueplace upon the silver. This method prevents the airfrom being drawn in between the plate and the silver,which would prevent the silver from fixing. The glassis then pressed down to the quicksilver, by a number oflead weights, that the quicksilver may adhere to theglass, and the foil also. In this state it is to remain afew hours or days, according to the size of the glass.Aglass 18 by 30 inches, requires 5 or 6 hours, and oneof 60 by 100, 5 or 6 days under the weights. And afterthe glass is turned over, it requires to lay a few days ina sloping direction, that the unfixed quicksilver maydescend to one corner of the glass, and so fall off.

•}In repairing old glass, and silvering it again, it is asperfect as new, and in this respect has the advantage ofevery other repaired article, that I believe can be mentioned. When the glass requires to be polished, the expenceof polishing is equal to the silvering . But if only whitelapped, as before described, the expence is increased onlyone halfmore, than when the glass is only silvered.The price of silvering, as fixed by the British factory,GLA 235→la-hibi

de༧ e ailve:ghserd13"is atthe rate of 201. per cent. on glasses to the amountof 201. value

and 157. per cent

. for all glasses exceeding that sum.glasses, manufactured for particular purposes,are ofthe following sizes

TheFor horse fire screens of the smaller sizes, and thoseof the largest.The smallest is generally of German Glass,18 inches by 30-20 by 32-20 by 34-20 by 36—22 by 36.The largest of English Glass,24 inches by 38-24 by 40-24 by 42-26 by 46—28 by 48-30 by 50.Toilet Glasses of the smallest size, are generally of DutchManufacture,8 inches by 10-9 by 12-9 by 14-10 by 14—10 by 1612 by 17-12 by 18-13 by 17-14 by 18.Largest Size, from Bohemia and Germany.18 inches by 20-18 by 22-20 by 24.The glasses for dressing boxes, being nearly of thepreceding sizes, it is needless to point them out asaseparate article.Glasses for chimney pieces run various, according tothe size of the fire-place, and the height of the wallabove. To save expence, they are sometimes fitted upin three plates, and the joints of the glass covered withsmall gilt mouldings or pilasters. At other times withthe naked joint only. When they are managed in thisway, the expence of the plate is reduced to one thirdless, or more sometimes. It adds, however, somethingto the expence of the frame, but not always

for when

they are of one plate, the frame in general is made bolderand more elegant.Glasses for piers run also very various

but as many

of these are made up for sale, it may be proper to givethe general sizes of such.

236 GLA16 inches by 28-18 by 30-20 by 32-20 by 36—22 by 36-24 by 36-24 by 40—24 by 44-28 by 4830 by 50-30 by 55-30 by 60-36 by 60.Glasses may, however, be ordered to any size to suitthe pier they are for, from 36 by 60 inches, to 75 by 1 17,- which is the largest they cast, at the British Factory,Blackfriars-bridge, London ..When the piers run large, and it is required to fill thewhole with glass, they are, to save expence, fitted up intwo plates; and when the edges of the plates are neatlyjoined together by nice grinding, the appearance, in somesituations, is not materially offensive to the eye.Glass for large pictures is sometimes polished, but isusually cut out of German sheet glass, which is muchlarger than our English crown. The former, will cutout an oblong of 36 by 48, and the latter only 17 by 29.The running sizes of German sheet glass imported,are as follows:16 inches by 20-16 by 22-17 by 24-17 by 2318 by 24-18 by 25-19 by 26-20 by 27—22 by 28—24 by 29-25 by 30-26 by 34-27 by 36.On this article I have received my information fromMr. Black, Glass Cutter, near the Seven Dials, LongAcre; so that the preceding particulars on grinding,polishing, and silvering, may be depended upon asgenuine.The glass imported into England from Holland, Germany, and France, is thought to be nearly half of theamount of our consumption . Which, if a correct estimate, proves that there is a want of encouragement to theEnglish manufactories, or otherwise, that there are not asufficient number of them to supply our own demands.On this account, the article of looking glass plate, ishigher in price than it would be, if duly encouraged athome; besides the inconvenience of waiting a consideratime before an order can be executed.GLU 237=BCCU9.tedyo35DTGLUE, amongst cabinet-makers, joiners, &c. is a tenacious viscid matter, which serves to bind or connect thingstogether. This kind of glue is made of skins of animals,as oxen, calves, and sheep, and is beft from the skins ofthe oldeſt. Whole skins are but rarely used for thispurpose, but only the shavings, parings, or scraps ofthem.In making glue, they fteep the parings two or threedays in water, then washing them well out, they boilthem to the consistence of a thick jelly, which they pass,whilft hot, through ozier baskets, to separate the impurities from it; and then let it stand some time to purifyit further. When all the filth is settled to the bottom ofthe vessel, they melt and boil it a second time, and thenpour it into flat frames or moulds, whence it is taken outpretty hard and solid, and cut into square pieces or cakes;and, lastly, they dry it in the wind, in a sort of net, andthen string it, to finish its drying. Glue of the beſtquality swells moſt in ſteeping, but does not dissolve inthe steeping water till it is over the fire. When glue issteeped over night, for making the next day, and it is foundthat the water is glutinous, and the cakes of course notswelled, these are indications of bad glue. The cabinetmaker may learn from these observations, on the natureand making of this useful article, that old glue is thebeft, and that its goodness or strength increases by frequent boiling, if it be not burnt, which is very commonly the case by over fierce fires and hasty boiling.To such as do not understand glue making it may beproper to observe, that the cakes should be broken conveniently small, and soaked in as much spring water aswill but cover the whole, otherwise it is in danger ofbeing too thin, which cannot easily be remedied as when'too thick. After it is in this state twelve hours, it shouldthen be boiled in a copper vessel, over a gentle fire, till238 GLU!the whole be dissolved; and for this purpose it should beconstantly stirred about with a wooden spatula, and notleft in that state till the dissolution perfectly takes place,when it should then be poured through a sieve to separateit from scum and filth.Lastly, it should then be put again into the vessel,and boiled up with a smart fire, and then pouredinto a wooden tray to cool it, and in which to keep itfor use.There are some receipts for extraordinary glues, andone that will even resist fire and water. Thus, mix ahandful of quick lime, with 4 ounces of linseed oil;boil them to a strong consistence; then spread it on tinplates in a shade, and it will become very hard, but willeasily dissolve over a fire as common glue, and must beused when hot, in the common way.There is also a receipt for a glue that will answer forwood, stone, or glass, as follows: Take good glue 4ounces, soak it over night in distilled vinegar, then boilit up, and take a clove of garlic, and beating it in amortar, add to it 1 ounce of ox gall. The juice extracted from the garlic, uniting with the ox gall, mustthen be strained through a cloth into the above gluewhen warm; then take mastick and sarcocolla,' of each1 drachm, sandrac and turpentine, of each 2 drachms;grind the sandrac and mastick fine, and put them together, with the sarcocolla, into a phial , into which pour1 ounce of ſtrong brandy upon it, and in this ftate itmay ſtand for three hours, at a moderate diſtance fromthe fire, shaking it up at different times . The contentsof this phial muft also be added to the glue when warm,which muſt be ſtirred about till some of the moisture isevaporated, and the glue is grown cold. When thisglue is to be used, it must be soaked firft in vinegar tilldissolved; and if used as a cement for ſtone, join tripoliGOT 239OLtWILt bfotJe?bai?74and powdered chalk with it; and if for glass, mix withit ground Venice glass, tripoli, and isinglass.For the joints of pannels in external doors and signboards,.I recommend, on the ground of my own expements, a quantity of white lead ground up in linseed oil,as much as will make the glue of a whitish colour, notmore; and care should be taken not to use it thick, butftrong, that the wood may unite and keep out the air,which always proves fatal to any joint. The experimentmay easily be made by joining two small pieces of dealwith common glue, and other two with the white leadglue, both being equally well jointed, and let ſtand todry thoroughly; only observe, that the white lead gluewill require more than double the time to dry it; thenput them into water, or a damp place, and observe whichwill sooneft part. In time the white lead and glue in amanner petrifies, or becomes like a solid stone. This Iaccidentally observed in gluing two pieces of vellumtogether, which being of a milk white hue, to preventthe common glue from discharging the colour, or appearblack through it, white lead was mixed with it, whichat length became as the solid vellum itself, and never gaveway.GOTHIC. What has any relation to the Goths, as Gothicarchitecture. The Goths were a warlike people, andabove all others famous in the Roman history. Theywere originally of Scandinavia, the name by which theancients distinguished the present countries of Sweden,Norway, Lapland, and Finmark.Gothic architecture is divided into ancient and modernGothic, which, in their ftyle, seem essentially different,though very generally considered as the same.The ancient Gothic architecture, which was used in.our island before the reign of Henry II. is of that kindof which the oldest of some of our cathedrals are com240 GOT}posed. The characteristic marks of this style are these:The walls are very thick, generally without buttresses.The arches, both within and without, as well as thoseover the doors and windows, are simicircular, and supported by very solid and clumsy columns, with a kind ofregular base and capital; in short, plainness and solidityconftitute the ftriking features of this kind of building.The ancient Gothic or Norman architects did, however,sometimes deviate from these rules, having their capitalssometimes adorned with carving of foliage, and evenanimals; and their massy columns, decorated with smallhalf columns united to them, and their surfaces ornamented with spiral squares, lozenge net work, and otherfigures, either engraved or in relievo.The modern Gothic ftyle of building, which commenced in the reign of Henry II. in the twelfth century,is with pointed arches, and otherwise distinguished bythe lightness of its work, by the excessive boldness ofits elevations and sections, by the delicacy, profusion,and extravagant fancy of its ornaments; so that it seemsa perfect contraſt to the ancient Gothic architecture, andis therefore by some authors not considered of Gothicorigin. But Bishop Warburton, in his notes on Pope'sEpiftles, has given some reasons to prove that it is reallyof Gothic invention, though not the most ancient Gothicarchitecture. The description is so elegant and maſterly,and so much connected with important facts , that Icannot help transcribing it, though it will protract thisarticle rather beyond my prescribed limits.He says, " Our Gothic ancestors had jufter andmanlier notions of magnificence, on Greek and Romanideas, than those mimics of taste, who profess to studyonly classic elegance; and because the thing does honourto the genius of those barbarians, I shall endeavour toexplain it. All our ancient churches are called, withoutGOT 241distinction, Gothic, but erroneously. They are of twosorts; the one built in the Saxon times, the other in theNorman. Several cathedral and collegiate churches, ofthe first sort, are yet remaining either in whole or part;of which this was the original.When the Saxon kings became Chriftians, their piety,which was the piety of the times, consisted chiefly inbuilding churches at home, and performing pilgrimageabroad, especially to the Holy Land; and these spiritualexercises assisted and supported one another, for the mostvenerable, as well as most elegant models of religiousedifices, were then in Palestine.The first Saxon king that became a Christian, wasEdwin, king of the Northumbrians, or of Northumberland. In the eleventh year of his reign, this prince, withall his nobles, with very many of the commonality, wasbaptised 180 years after the arrival of the Saxons inBritain, and in the year of Christ 627. And though ourlearned author seems to consider the piety of the Saxonprinces, without discrimination, little more than theeffects of Roman superstition; yet this prince, accordingto the character given him by the ecclesiastical writerhere quoted, appears, with others of the Saxon kings,really and evangelically pious. " Milner's Eccle. Hist.vol. 3, page 114.From these the Saxon builders took the whole oftheirideas, as may be seen by comparing the drawings whichtravellers have given us of the churches yet standing inthat country, with the Saxon remains of what we findat home; and particularly in that sameness of style inthe latter religious edifices of the knights temporals,professedly built upon the model of the church of theholy sepulchre at Jerusalem, with the earlier remainsof our Saxon edifices. Now the architecture of theR242 GOTgood1tדיHoly Land was Grecian, but greatly fallen from its ancient elegance. Our Saxon performance was indeedabad copy of it, and as much inferior to the works ofSt. Helene and Justinian,(i.e. edifices built by personsin the Holy Land of this name) as theirs were to theGrecian models they had followed

yet still the foot

steps of ancient art appeared in the circular arches, theentire columns, and the division of the entablature, intoa sort of architrave, frieze and cornice, anda solidityequally diffused over the whole mass. This, by way ofdiftinction,I would call the Saxon architecture. Butour Norman works hada very different origin. Whenthe Goths had conquered Spain,(about the year of ourLord 411) and the general warmth of the climate, andthe religion of the old inhabitants had ripened their wits,and inflamed their mistaken piety, both kept in exerciseby the neighbourhood of the Saracens, through emulation of their service, and aversion to their superstition,they struck outa new species of architecture, unknownto Greece and Rome, upon original principles, and ideasmuch nobler than what had given birth even to classicalmagnificence. For this Northern people having beenaccustomed, during the gloom of paganism, to worshipthe deity in graves,a practice common to all nations

when their new religion required covered edifices, theyingeniously projected to make them resemble graves, asnearly as the distance of architecture would permit


once indulging their old prejudices, and providing fortheir present convenience, bya cool receptacle inasultry climate

and with what skill and success they

executed the project, by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suitedtheir purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever vieweda regular avenue of well grown trees,intermixing their branches over head, but it presentlyGOT 243put him in mind of the long vista through the Gothiccathedral; or ever entered one of the larger and moreelegant edifices of this kind, but it presented to his imagination an avenue of trees; and this alone is what canbe truly called the Gothic style of building. Under thisidea of so extraordinary a species of architecture, allthe irregular transgressions against art, all the monstrousoffences against nature, disappear; every thing has itsreason, every thing is in order; and an harmoniouswhole rises from the studious application of means proper and proportionate to the end. For could the archesbe otherwise than pointed, when the workmen were toimitate that curve which branches of two appropriatetrees making by their intersection with one another? orcould the columns be otherwise than split into distinctshafts, when they were to represent the stems of aclump of trees growing close together? On the sameprinciples they formed the spreading ramifications of thestone workin the windows, and the stained glass in theinterstices; the one to represent the branches, the otherthe leaves of an opening grove, and both concurred topreserve that gloomy light which inspires religious reverence and dread.Lastly, we see the reason of their studied aversion toapparent solidity in these stupendous masses, deemed soabsurd by men accustomed to the apparent, as well asreal strength of Grecian architecture. Had it been onlya wanton exercise of the artist's skill, to shew he couldgive real strength without the appearance of any, wemight indeed admire his superior science, but we mustneeds condemn his ill judginent. But when one considersthat this surprising lightness was necessary to compleatthe execution of his ideas of a sylvan place of worship,one cannot sufficiently admire the ingenuity of the con trivance. This too will account for the contrary qua"1

GOTlities, in whatI call the Saxon architecture. Theseartists copied, as has been said, from the churches inthe Holy Land, which were built on the models of theGrecian architecture, but corrupted by prevailing barbarism

and still farther depraved by

a religious idea.The first places of Christian worship were sepulchresand subterraneous caverns, low and heavy from necessity. When Christianity became the religion of thestate, and sumptuous temples began to be erected, theyyet, in regard to the first pious ages, preserved themassive style, made still more venerable by the churchof the holy sepulchre

where this style was, on

a doubleaccount, followed and aggravated."244Hence the reader will observe, that what some architects term the ancient Gothic, this learned prelate callsSaxon

and the Arabian or Saracenic of some artists,

he considers to be purely of Norman origin. Yet thereappears to bea foundation for the distinction betweenancient and modern Gothic architecture. The ancient,seems to have beena very rude and irregular kind, whichthe Goths, in the fifth century, brought from their nativecountry into Germany, when in their heathen state

that when they became Christians, by means of theirwars with Rome and conquest of Spain, they then became authors ofa new species of architecture exceedinglylight, and was introduced into the British isles about thetenth century, after the Saxon princes were converted,and which continued to prevail in the erection of ourcathedrals, till the sixteenth century, when the ancientGrecian architecture was restored, and followed in ourworks. So that if this view of the subject be accurate,the Saxon architecture was ina period between theancient and modern Gothic, and was an imperfect imitation of the architecture which they copied in theircrusades in the Holy Land.GRE 245GOUGE, a hollow chissel used by cabinet makers andcarvers. Young persons, in both professions, shouldobserve, that the steel in gouges lies in the centre of theirthickness, about half their length; and that when theyare sharpened, they should be rubbed down from both,but at firſt chiefly on the back side. If the tool be toohard, lay it upon a hot bar of iron or poker, till it turnrather blue, which will give it a proper temper.GRAVITY, in mechanics, is the tendency or force bywhich bodies are carried or settle towards the centre ofthe earth .GRECIAN, properly, is one born in Greece, or that isskilled in the Greek language. I, however, here use itadjectively, to signify any thing executed or shaped inimitation of the taste ofthe Greeks. Many writers havecelebrated the praises of this people, as having left topofterity, models of sculpture and architecture, muchsuperior to any other nation. Particularly the Grecianarchitecture has always excelled every other attempt; andhas been, therefore, the generally allowed example offine buildings, and the best tafte in architecture. In theirhighest state of improvements, they seem to have regulated most of their conduct by scientific rules, at leastthe polite part of them aimed at it as much as possible;and hence some of their feasts consisted of guests, to thenumber of nine, in imitation of their nine graces ormuses. It was from this idea that I was led to study thedesign in plate 47, which I have ventured to call aGrecian dining table, both on account of its figure, andthe number it is adapted to accommodate at dinner.The shape of their dining table, seems to have beentaken either from the moon in her crescent state, or fromsigma, the eighteenth letter of their alphabet, which isof that figure, or like our C. But most probably it wasfrom the former, as the course and age of the moonTHE246 GREregulated some of their feasts. The old Romans sat atmeat as we do, till the Grecian luxury and softness hadcorrupted them; and then they lolled, or reclined atAnd as the Romans dinner, after the Grecian manner.had borrowed this idle mode of eating from them, inlike manner the Jews, after being subject to the Romans,copied the reclining fashion of regailing themselves atthe dining table , which was practiced at the time of ourSaviour, and has been noticed under the article BED,where I mentioned that the Jews used three dining bedsat one table; to which I had my eye in introducing threedining sofas, as exhibited in the design. But it is to beobserved, that in after times, the Romans changed theirlecti tricliniorum, or three dining couches or beds, intostibadium, which was one large couch sufficient to holdthe whole company at dinner, and was of a half moonshape. The stibadium surrounded a citron table, in thecentre, of a circular shape; but I cannot affirm positively , whether it were a perfect circle, or of a crecentor simi-circular figure.I have, however, adopted the latter shape as mostprobable, and best adapted for the purpose, in admittinga dumb waiter in the centre; and the remaining space oneach side will afford a servant very easy access to thetable. In circumference, this table is 18 feet, beingcomposed of three parts, with two flaps each, 6 feetlong, and 2 feet 6 inches wide, and which are joinedtogether with brass trap fasteners on the underside, inthe same manner as any common dining table . Whenthese tables are separate, the flaps may be let down asthose of a pembroke table; and if the hollow side beturned to the front of a sofa, they may be used, inſteadof a sofa table, if, in the hollow side, there be one ortwo drawers introduced, which may easily be done. Asto any other particular, the design will speak for itself,GRE 247Inthe back ground is a suitable side- board, supportedwith antique figures, over which, on the top, are placedtwo female ones, holding lights . The Ionic columnsare placed before the side- board at each end, which, together with the dining table thus situated, will form anagreeable vista to the eye. The manner of lying atmeat amongst the Romans, Greeks, and more modernJews, was the same in all respects. The table wasplaced in the middle, round which stood three bedscovered with cloth or tapestry, according to the qualityof the master of the house. Upon these the guests layinclining the superior part of their bodies upon their leftarms, the lower part being stretched out at full length,or a little bent. Their heads were supported and raisedup with pillows.The first man lay at the head of the bed; the next laywith his head towards the feet of the first, from whichhe was defended by the bolster that supported his ownback, commonly reaching over to the middle of the firstman, and the rest after the same manner.The mosthonourable place was the middle bed, and the middle ofthat.Favourites commonly lay in the bosom of their friends ,that is , placed next below them. After the men, amongstthe Romans, adopted this reclining posture at meat, thewomen, for some time, continued to sit, as most becoming the sex: but in after times they became reconciled to the same position as the men.GRECIAN COUCHSOFA See plates 48, 49, 75.SQUABThe stuffing part of these designs , is the chief difficultyin their execution, and doubtless requires upholsterers oftaste and ability to finish them properly. The framesof these may be finished in white and gold, or in maho"248 GRO...gany carved; particularly the sofas round the Greciandining table, should be executed and carved in mahogany. As Apollo's harp in the centre, and the fret workin the entablature, extending the whole length of thesofas. If the fret be cut in hollow edges, not square tothe ground, the work will have a better effect, and willnot harbour dirt.The scroles at the ends ofthe couches, are formed bydeal kept lower than the carved work on the outside, toadmit ofsome stuffing, which will bring the work nearlylevel with the moulding.GREEN, one of the original prismatic colours, or such asare reflected by the sun's rays on a glass prism . SeeCOLOURS.There are several greens used in water and oil colours:Sap green, verditor green, green bice, and Prussian green,in water colours; and in oil, verdigrease, common anddistilled; Brunswick green, Scheel's green, and terraverte.GROIN, amongst builders, is the angular curve, madeby the intersection of two semicylinders or arches;and is either regular or irregular. A regular groin is,when the intersecting arches, whether semicircular orsemicliptical, are of the same diameters and heights,An irregular groin is where one of the arches is semicircular, and the other semieliptical. To find the lines.for groins, is by the same method as is shewn under thearticle BRACKET, for angle brackets, and see TESTER.GROOVE, amongst joiners and cabinet-makers, are ofvarious kinds . It sometimes denotes the channel madeby their plough on the edge of a moulding, style, or rail ,to put pannels into .There are also half dovetail grooves; that is, whenonly one side is cut sloping under, and when both sidesof the groove are cut in this manner, it is termed a wholeGRO 249dovetail groove. Some workmen fix the tops of theirloby chest by a dovetail groove, which they taper towards the front, that the top may be more easily drivento its place; but in some cases it seems a preferable wayto dovetail a slip of deal behind, and in front one of mahogany or wainscot veneered, and screw the top on fromthe under side of these slips.Bookcase ends are grooved, in common, to receivesliding shelves; but they now make racks of wood on thefront and behind, which receive a moveable slip aboutan inch wide, so that the shelves may be put to anyheight to suit volumes. This is common in large dealbookcases. In very small bookcases for ladies, theyuse pegs with button ends; and inſtead of grooves orracks, bore holes at equal diftances on each side thebookcase ends into which these pegs are screwed, bywhich to support the shelves,GROTESQUE, or grotesk, in sculpture and painting,signifies something whimsical and extravagant, consisting either of things merely imaginary, or natural objects,so diſtorted as to produce surprise and ridicule. Figuresof this nature were anciently used to adorn the grottos,wherein the tombs of eminent persons or families wereinclosed.GROUND, in painting and perspective.In the first, it is understood of such parts of the piece,as have nothing painted upon them, but retain the original colour, on which the other colours are applied tomake the representations . But in picture painting, asconnected with perspective, the ground has no relationto such a diſtinction , but signifies a plain , parallel to thehorizon, whereon objects are represented. See PERSPECTIVE.GROUP, in painting and sculpture, is an assemblage ofریال (250 HAL11two or more figures of men, beafts , fruits , or the like,which have some apparent relation to each other.GUAIACUM, lignum vitæ, which see.GUM is a concrete vegetable juice, of no particular smellor tafte, becoming viscous and tenacious, when moistened with water. It neither dissolves in vinous spirits,nor in oils; melting, but suffering no dissipation in theheat of boiling water. One ounce of gum arabic willrender a pint of water considerably glutinous. Besidesgum arabic, there are the gums tragacanth, cenega, cherry,and plum-tree.Gum arabic is used in water colours, in a greater orless degree. It is also used in upholſterer's paſte, forparticular purposes, where it requires a good degree oftenacity.•HHALL. See ATRIUM. In very magnificent buildings,where the hall is larger and loftier than ordinary, andplaced in the middle of the house, it is called a saloon.The length of a hall should be at leaft two and aquarter its breadth; and in large buildings three times itswidth. The height of the hall may be two thirds of thebreadth; and if made with an arched ceiling, it willbe much handsomer. In this case its height is found bydividing its breadth into six parts, five of which will bethe height from the floor, to the underside of the key ofthe arch.HALL CHAIRS , are such as are placed in halls, forthe use of servants or ftrangers waiting on business.They are generally made all of mahogany, with turnedseats, and the creft or arms of the family painted on thecentre of the back. See plate 51 .HIN 251CFat1HANGINGS, denote any kind of drapery hung up againſtthe walls or wainscotting of a room. - See PAPERHANGINGS.HATCHMENT, in heraldry, is the coat of arms of aperson dead, usually placed on the front of an house,whereby may be known what rank the deceased was ofwhen living. The whole is so distinguished , as to enablean observer, who understands hatchments, to knowwhether the deceased were a bachelor, married, or awidower; with the like diftinctions for the other sex.HAVANNA wood, a kind of mahogany that grows inthe island of Cuba, usually called Cuba wood. - SeeCUBA WOOD. It is termed Havanna wood, becauseHavanna is the chief town in the island of Cuba. It isa sea port town, and is situated on the north west partof the island, opposite to Florida. The harbour ofHavanna is one of the finest amongst those of theWest India Islands, and is thought to equal any harbourin the world. This island is 700 miles in length, and90 broad, and is situated between 20 and 25 degrees,north latitude; and between 74 and 87, west longitude.See Cook's ATLAS.This island is now in the possession of Spain, and isof the greatest importance to that nation, it being therendezvous for all their fleets, on their return fromAmerica to Europe, as they all must pass through thegulph of Florida.HEMISPHEREHEPTAGONHEXAGON See GEOMETRY, in Supplement.HEXAHEDRONHEXASTYLE, a building having columns in front.HICKERY, a whitish, hard, and tough wood, used bywhip-makers.HINGE, a most useful article in cabinet-making, of which252 HISIthere are a great variety; for some of which see Buthinge, to which we may add the following:Hinges for tea canisters are made very thin in thejoint, and long enough to extend the length of the canister in one piece. They set on perfectly even with thetop, so that there is no joint in the way.Hinges for pulpit doors are made very wide to receivethe whole projection of the cornice, which alwayscrosses the door, and therefore it becomes necessary tohave these wide projecting but-hinges which screw on tothe edge of the door and also to the fixed part, by whichmeans the door is thrown out so as to clear the cornice.These hinges are used for other purposes where there areany mouldings in the way of a door.Swan neck hinges are a kind of pin-hinge used forsome camp table tops, as fig. 9, plate 8. Article,CAMP.Ell-hinge for shaving and dressing tables are adoptedfor strength, for the ell part returns on the front andback edge of the swinging part, and greatly secures thetop. H tumbler hinge, to set on the edges of any kindof turn-over frame, as that of a sofa bed, or turn-overtable tops.Pin-hinges are to avoid the disagreeable appearance ofthe knockle of common but-hinges on the external partof neatly finished work. These are let into the ends ofdoors so as to bring the centre of the pin even with thefront, otherwise it will not clear in turning, and that theprojecting strap which has the pin may be behind. It islet into the top and bottom of the carcase into which thedoor shuts, and the door ends slip into the other strap ofthe hinge which has not the pin.HISPANIOLA, or St. Domingo, is a West India island,and produces dying woods, and mahogany of a hardishtexture, but is not much in use with us. It is situatedbetween 17 and 20 degrees of north latitude, and beHON 253tween 67 and 74 of west longitude . It is pleasantlyvariegated with hills, plains, woods, and rivers.HOLLY-WOOD, a white, perhaps the whitest of any,kind of wood, much in use amongst cabinet- makers forcorner lines and other purposes. It is capable of beingdyed a good black, and is used as such for ornamentingcabinet work.The common holly grows naturally in woods andforests in many parts of England, and is a beautiful treein winter when most others are stripped of their verdure.There is also another species, which grows in Carolina,and a third is a native of Asia. They are to be raisedby sowing the acorns in March; in order to which theyshould be gathered in August as soon as ripe, and keptin dry earth or sand till spring. The ground on whichthey are to be sown must be well dug and cleansed fromall noxious weeds, then levelled; after this severalrills are to be drawn along it with a hoe of about twoinches deep, and from one to two feet distant. In thesethe acorns are to be laid, two or three inches asunder,and the ground then drawn over them with a rake.the middle of April the young plants will appear; but inthe first year they will make but very little progress insize, and are to be kept clear of weeds; the year following they will grow very quick, and in the Marchafter their sowing the ground between the rows must becarefully and lightly dug up, which will greatly facilitatetheir taking root. In the April, after their sowing, theplants which stand too close must be taken up and transplanted to the places where they are to stand. Wheeler'sBotany.HONDURAS, a province of North America, in NewSpain, lying on the North Sea, being about 370 miles inlength and 200 in breadth. It lies considerably southwest of Cuba, between 12 and 16 degrees north latitude,1254 HOPand 82 to 90 degrees west longitude. From this provinceis imported the principal kind of mahogany in useamongst cabinet- makers, which generally bears the nameof Honduras mahogany, and sometimes Bay-wood, fromthe bay or arm of the sea which runs up to it. Thedifference between Honduras and Spanish wood is easilyperceived by judges, but not by others unskilled in wood.The marks of the former are, as to size, its lengthand width, which generally run much more than in thelatter wood. We seldom import any much more than2 feet 2 inches broad and 10 feet long, and generally notmore than 21 or 22 inches broad. Honduras woodwill frequently run 12 to 14 feet in length, and from 2to 4 feet wide. In rare inftances, there have been some6 or 7 feet over.The grain of Honduras wood is of a different qualityfrom that of Cuba, which is close and hard, without blackspeckles, and of a rosy hue, and sometimes stronglyfigured; but Honduras wood is of an open nature, withblack or grey spots, and frequently of a more flashyfigure than Spanish. The best quality of Honduraswood is known by its being free from chalky and blackspeckles, and when the colour is inclined to a dark goldhue. The common sort of it looks brisk at a distance,and of a lively pale red; but, on close inspection, is ofan open and close grain, and of a spongy appearance.HOPE, in painting, is represented by a beautiful young woman, in a long robe hanging loose, standing upon tip- toes,and a trefoil, or three leaved grass, in her right hand andan anchor in her left. Her posture, on tip -toes , is expressive of her earnest expectation , for though hope isbeset with fears, yet it is always accompanied with expectation. The anchor, which she has in her left hand,denotes the security ofthe mind, or soul, which possessesstrong hope. The image we, presume, is borrowedHOR 23522 23 24 24 Coપત્ની છે1from Heb. vi. 19, which doubtless is one of the mostbeautiful in the sacred oracles.HORIZON, from op, bounding or limiting the sight.In perspective it denotesa plane parallel to the groundplane. In the elementary planes, in perspective, thehorizon is supposed to be produced till it cut the plane ofthe picture, which intersection generates the vanishingline of the said plane, or what is commonly called thehorizontal line. See PERSPECTIVE, in Supplement.HORNBEAM. The common hornbeam isa native ofEurope and North America. Where this tree is properly treated it grows toa large size, and may be cultivated to great advantage by the proprietors of cold barren hills, where it will thrive, when few other sorts willgrow. When this tree is propagated for timber it shouldbe raised from seeds upon the same soil and in the samesituation where it is designed to grow

but when it is

designed for hedges, or underwood, it may be propagated by layers. The seeds of this species should besown in autumn soon after they are ripe. When theplants appear, they should be cleared from weeds, and intwo years time they will be fit to transplant, and as theyadvance in growth must be thinned by cutting awaygraduallythe most unpromising plants. This wood being ofa close and hard texture in the grain, is muchused byturners.HORSE,a term applied to the feet which supportsa risingdesk, or which keepsa glass in an inclined position.It is also used to denotea kind of tall dressing-glasssuspended by two pillars and claws, and may, when hungby two centre screws, be turned back or forward to suitthe person who dresses at them. See Plate 52.But the standards of these glasses are sometimes gluedup hollow, to admita weight on each side equal to the}256 ICHglass and frame, by which means the glass is raised toany height the same as a sash window is.It should be observed, that these standards ought notto be too small in their diameter, otherwise the lead willrequire to be so long, that there will not be a sufficientroom for the glass frame to rise high enough. And itshould likewise be remembered, that the frame intowhich the glass is fixed, ought to be of as light wood aspossible, that the whole may not weigh too much for amoderate sized lead weight.HORSE-SHOE, or KIDNEY TABLE. Such as are madeof this shape or nearly. These are of different kinds.—Some are made for writing and reading at, and have arising desk in the centre, with piers of drawers at eachend.Others are made for ladies' work tables, with only ashallow drawer under the top.See plate 44. KIDNEYTABLE.HUMILITY is represented, in painting, by a virgin all inwhite, her arms across upon her breast, her head inclined, and a golden crown at her feet.Humility, accompanies purity; hence her white gårment, her readiness or disposition to confess her faults,is signified by the inclined posture of her head; and thecrown of gold at her feet, shews that humility treads onearthly grandeur, in the expectation of future bliss.I.ÍCHNOGRAPHY, in perspective, the view of any thingcut off by a plane, parallel to the horizon, and at thebase. The word is derived from ichnos, footstep,and a grapho, to write, being a description of thefootsteps or traces of any thing.INL 257... ANICONOLOGY, the doctrine of picture, or representation, such as is given under HUMILITY, and severalother terms in this Dictionary, expressive of moralvirtues, places and seasons, &c. and the passions of thesoul. Iconology is therefore a help to our rightly underftanding such representations in paintings; and alsoenables the young artift to compose them himself, bydirecting him into the hieroglyphic nature of such representations.ICOSAHEDRON. -See GEOMETRY, in Supplement.IMPOST, the projecting part of a pilafter or pier, onwhich the arch refts. Sometimes the entablature of theorder serves as the impoft of the arch, which has agrand and stately appearance.INCIDENCE, denotes the direction in which one bodyſtrikes another. The angle of incidence, is the angle inwhich an object ſtrikes a reflecting plane or mirror.INDIGO, a blue used by dyers, prepared from the plantIndigofera.INK-STAND. Black tambour ink-stands are often used.In these stands there is a drawer for paper, and the tambour incloses a place for ink and sand, which appear,when the tambour is pushed back. These stands areabout 1 foot in length, and 9 inches wide.INLAYING, in cabinet-making, was much in use between twenty and thirty years back; but was soon laidaside, as a very expensive mode of ornamenting furniture,as well as being subject to a speedy decay. The presentmode of inlaying with brass, is most durable, and lookswell let into black woods of any kind. They, however,begin now to put it on the edges of some particularmahogany work, as for the cock heads of drawers; andconsidering how apt those of mahogany are to breakoff, it must be allowed a substantial, though an expensive method of working.S258 JAPINSTRUMENTS, for drawing . -See DRAWING, in Supplement.INTERCOLUMNIATION, the space or due diſtanceof columns from each other. -See COLUMN.INTERSECTION, the point where two lines cut eachother. - See PERSPECTIVE.IONIC, resembling the fashion of Ionia, a Grecian province. Hence the Ionic order. -See under COLUMN.IRON- WORK. Top reserve it from rust, take common,or Venice turpentine, and dissolve it in the oil of turpentine, and add to it some linseed oil, made clear bystanding long in the hot sun; but for commoner purposes, drying linseed oil may do, which has not beenbleeched in the sun. When this sort of iron varnish isused, it is best to warm it, and then with a brush tolay it on as thin as possible, which in four or five dayswill dry. I do not recommend this in cases where theiron is to be much handled, but for chains, hinges ofgates, and other external works, where the rain is aptto rust iron.ISLES, are the sides or wings of a building.IVORY BLACK. -See BLACK.IVY TREE, of which there are two species: One withoval and lobed leaves, or the great common ivy; theother is with five oval sawed leaves, growing together,commonly called the Virginia creeper.It is used in England, chiefly to plant against walls tocover them as an ornament, and therefore needs not befurther noticed,JJAMB, any support on either side, as door posts.JAPANNING, a kind of painting. See PAINTING .LIB 25992-15 PJUSTICE, in painting, is represented by a fair Virgin,clothed in white, blinded. In her right hand she holdsthe Roman fasces, with an ax in it; in her left hand aflame, and an ostrich by her side .The white robe shews that she should be spotless, voidof passion, and without respect to persons, as is denotedby her being hood-winked. The fasces, denote chastisement for small offences; and the ax, decapitation forthose of a capital kind.KKEEPING. The due distance of objects, in paintinglandscapes. -See PAINTING.KNEE-HOLE, in cabinet work, is a recess, convenientopening, or an aperture in any piece of furniture, toadmit a person to sit to write or dress at.The knee-hole should never be less than 21 incheswide, and 25 high.KEY- STONE, the centre stone of an arch.LLAKE, a fine crimson red, generally prepared from scarletrags, cochineal, and Brasil wood. The best of what iscommonly sold, is made from the colour extracted fromscarlet rags. There are many kinds of it at variousprices, some being nearly as bright and high coloured ascarmine, which probably is made so by the addition ofthat colour. Hence that is reckoned best which comesnearest the carmine shades.LANDSCAPE, in painting, the view or prospect of anycountry extended as far as the eye can see.LIBRARY-CASE. - See BOOKCASE. In plate 53, is adesign for a case which I presume would look well in a260 LIGlibrary room. The bufts in the lower niches, may bethose of persons famed for literature and genius; and thefigures in the upper part, may be suited to the chiefsubjects of the books contained in the library case.The niches may be formed by gluing up ribs of deal, orbetter, if of faulty mahogany, and then veneer them innarrow slips, in the manner of a vase knife case.On each side of the niches are shelves for books; andby the plan below it will appear, that scarcely any roomis loft in the case for books, on account of the niches.For any other particular, the design itself will besufficient.-LIBRARY TABLE. Twodesigns of which are giveninplate 54. That of the antique ftyle has only three realdrawers, one in the centrebetween each leg. If, however, thesides of the drawers be made to incline to the centre ofthetable, and made to run on slips grooved into the bottoms,there is room for six drawers. This table would suit bestfor gilding, on account of the carving introduced in thedesign, if placed in a situation chiefly for ornament; butif wanted for much use, must be executed in, mahogany,which it may be with good effect. The upper design ismore modern, and may easily be finished in mahogany.The toes and caftors are of one piece caft in brass. Thenest of drawers in the centre, rise by two small springsplaced opposite to each other, which are conftructed onthe model of baize door springs, which cannot but beunderstood by any workman who is acquainted withhanging a door of that kind. In this table there are fourreal drawers made with square sides . Every other particular will be easily known by the workman . In plate55, is another design for a library table, the constructionof which is obvious from mere inspection.LIBRARY STEPS. See Supplement.LIGHTS. These are very various, as employed for doLOC 261e cacase200wye197glicereeEveleaott1! 108garmestic purposes. Of a tripod light is a design in plate 60.The plan is triangular, and towards the top the sidesmust be worked rather concavely, that they may agreewith the volutes on each angle, as the plan of the topshews onthe plate.Figure lights have been much introduced of late, andwhich certainly produce a more noble appearance thanthose of the tripod kind. There are also small bronzelights, for commodes and chimney caps, which aremost commonly used.LIGNUM VITAE, a very hard and most ponderous wood,and is of a resinous quality, of a blackish yellow colourin the middle, and of a hot aromatic taste. The smallerbranches have an ash coloured bark, and are garnishedwith leaves divided by pairs of a bright green colour.The common lignum vitæ, so called because of itsmedicinal qualities, is a native of the West Indies, andthe warmer parts of America, where it becomes a largetree, having a hard, brittle, brownish bark, not very thick.LIME TREE. A white soft wood, of the orange species,and is in general use amongst carvers.LOBBY, in architecture, is a small hall or waiting room:it is also an entrance into a principal apartment, wherethere is a considerable space between that and a portico,or vestibule; and the length or dimensions will not allowit to be considered as a vestibule or anti-room.LOBBY CHEST, is a kind of half chest of drawers ,adapted for the use of a small study, lobby, or smalllodging room.They usually consist of four drawers in height, risingto 3 feet in height, and their length about the same. Thetop drawer is usually divided into two; and sometimes.there is a writing slider which draws out under the top.The base and brackets should never be more than 5 inchesin height, and the width of the ends 20 inches.LOCKS. Of this useful instrument of security, there are262 MAHvarious species. The common till lock, both spring andtumbler, used for drawers. The cupboard door kind,common, and spring and tumbler, used for bookcaseand wardrobe doors. Box locks with link plates , suchas for tea chests and wine cisterns . Mortice locks , somefor doors, and others for sliders of cylinder writing tables.Those for inner doors are called spring locks, and arethe most considerable, both in use and structure. Theprincipal parts of a spring lock are the main plate, thecover plate, and the pin hole; to the main plate belongthe key hole, top hook, cross wards, bolt toe, drawback spring, tumbler, pin of the tumbler, and thestaples; to the cover plate belong the pin, main ward,cross ward, step ward or dap ward; to the pin hole belong the hook ward, main cross ward, shank, the potor broad bow ward, and bit.There are also a variety of patent locks, the object ofwhich is to prevent and frustrate the arts of pick-locks.Some of these are considered as infallible by their patentees, but are disputed, as to their perfection , in pointof absolute security, by competent judges, who are disinterested and impartial in their opinions; and thereforeit is difficult to point out the particular patent lock mostto be depended upon. In general, however, those ofMr. Bramah have the preference.MMACHINE, any instrument that serves to promote or regulate moving powers, so as to save either time or force.The word is from μaxavn , machane, invention or art.Hence, a machine is something that consists more inart and invention, than in the strength of its parts andmaterials.MAHOGANY- See BAY WOOD-Cuba, Hispaniola,Honduras, and Jamaica.50 NE-1MEA 26316,223RCA23P3MARBLE, in natural history, is considered as a kind offossil, being composed of small separate concretions,moderately hard, not giving fire with steel, fermentingwith, and soluble in acid menstrua, and calcining in aslight fire. Brit. Encyclop.The colours and names by which marbles are distinguished, are many. African marble is either of a redor a redish brown, streaked with veins ofa white, or carnation, with green veins. English white marble is veinedwith red. Marble of Brabanzon, in Hamault, is blackveined with white. Marble of Auvergene, in France, isof a pale red, mingled with violet, green, and yellow.Brocatelle marble, is mingled withlight shades of Isabellayellow, pale, and grey. This comes from Tortosa, inSpain. Marble of Bresse, in Italy, is yellow, withspots of white. Marble of Carrara, on the coasts ofGenoa, is very white, and thought to be the most proper of any other for works of sculpture. Cipollinimarble, is of a sea green colour, mixed with large wavesor clouds of a white or pale green. Margosse marble,in the Milanese, has a white ground, with brownishveins. Divan marble, near Liege, is of a pure black,and very beautiful. Marble of Languedoc, is of a vividred, with large white veins or stains. Of Sicily, is of abrownish red, stained with oblong squares of white; besides some others mentioned by authors, which it isunnecessary to detail. Marble may be polished withpumice stone and emery, or with lead and emery.MASTIC, a transparent resin from the lentice tree.See VARNISH .MASTICOT, a light yellow, This yellow, amongst blues,will make good greens. It grinds well, and bears a goodbody.MEASURE, a term variously applied. In geometry, itis the assuming of any certain quantity, as one, to whichthe ratio or proportion of other homogeneous or similar264 MEAquantities is expressed; or it is using a certain knownmeasure, by which to determine the precise extent orquantity of any thing.Measuring wood, amongst cabinet makers, is generally by the rule of feet and inches, considered superficially, or in inch boards, which is usually performedby cross multiplication , or multiplying the length andbreadth by each other; and it is requisite to observe,that feet multiplied by feet, produce feet; inches by feet,produce feet and inches; inches by inches, produce parts;and parts by parts, produce seconds and thirds.1st Example.ft. in.81648∞206820 2Content 11 4Suppose a board 8 feet 6 inches long, by 1 foot 4inches broad; first say, once 8 is 8 feet, and once 6 is 6inches; then proceed to multiply the feet by inches,which give feet and inches, thus, 4 times 8 are 32, the12s in 32 are 2, and 8 remain, which are inches.Lastly, The inches by inches, as 4 times 6 are 24parts, which make 2 inches, which set down under theinches, as in the foregoing example; and adding all up,we have 11 feet 4 inches the product.To have a clear idea how these 24 parts make 2 inches,the learner muft suppose that he has measured the wholeboard, except a small remains of it at one corner, 6inches in length and 4 in width; and let him imaginethis small piece cut into four equal divisions lengthwise,then he cannot but perceive, that if these four lengthsMEA 265I knowis gsupererformgthobservefercepawere joined end to end, that they would produce a piece24 inches long, and nearly 1 inch wide, if cut by athin saw. Then, if this 24 inches be divided in thecentre, and each piece be joined together, we shall havea slip of wood 1 foot long by 2 inches broad, which isthe sixth part of a foot superficial measure. This, according to the preceding example, added to another8 inches broad and a foot long, which remained aftermultiplying 8 feet by 4 inches, to which also is added apiece I foot by 6 inches, the remains of the first 8 feet.Thus it is evident that these being joined together, willmake one superficial foot, and there will be à piece remaining foot long by 4 inches broad, which is precisely one-third of a foot.2d Example.ft. in.Suppose a board 19 9And S 2 620 018 01 65 04 60 4 649 4 6 parts of an inch.In this example, firft say, 2 times 10 are 20 feet, considering 1 in the place of 10s, for the sake of ease; thensay 2 times 9 feet are 18 , which place perpendicularlyunder 20 feet. Next cross multiply from 2 feet to 9inches, saying 2 times 9 are 18, the 125 in 18 are 1 ,and 6 remains, which 6 place under the inches, and 1under the feet; then cross from 6 to 19, saying, for thesake of ease as before, 6 times 10 are 60, the 12 $ in 60266 MEAare 5, which place under the feet; and again say, 6times 9 are 54, the 12s in which are 4, and 6 inchesremaining, which place respectively; and, laftly, inchesby inches, saying, 6 times 9 are 54, which producinginches and parts, make 4 inches and 6 parts, the wholeof which being added together, we have 49 feet 4 inchesand 6 parts of an inch. And here let the learner observe, that if the superficial area or content be veryextensive, it may be divided into 2 parts, and the productof one added to itself, will be the whole.Thus, let it be required to find the content in feet and inches, an area ofBy -Then state the question thus.By--3d Example.ft. in.114636 longS broad57 3 long31 10 broad57 3171 07 65 10802641283 56 parts283 56566 11 0And begin to work in the following manner, by firſtsaying, once 7 feet are 7, once 5 , and so of the inches.Then say, 3 times 7 are 21 , 1 and go 2 tens; 3 times 5are 15, and the 2 tens are 17, which place to the left.Next observe, that as 3 is in the place of 10 , say three30s are 90, the 12s in 90 are 7, and 6 remaining make7 feet 6 inches. Proceed then with 10 inches -thus,MEA 26710 times 7 are 70, the 12' in 70 are 5 , and 10 inchesremain; then as 5 is in the place of 50, say ten 50*are 500, the 12s in which are 41 , and 8 remaining,which being feet and inches, place them respectively.Laſtly, 10 times 3 inches are 30, the 12 two, which areinches, and the 6 remaining are parts; and adding thisproduct to itself, the whole will be 566 feet 11 inches.Hence it is evident, by such a method, the contentof a very great area may, in a short time, and in a verysmall compass of figures, be ascertained. It may, however, be necessary to present a fourth example; inwhich, not only feet, inches, parts, but also secondsand thirds may be wanted, when great accuracy is requisite. Let it therefore be required to find the contentof a boardft. in. p.11 9 6 long, which is equal to an inch.By 26 3 broad, the 3 parts being equal to of an inch .22 0 016056004629 46 without the inch in length , and inch in width 0 2 9 seconds002301000 0 3 1 6 thirds29 8 8 4 6 Content of the whole.Proceed to multiply as in the first example, till youcome to the parts of an inch, and then draw a line underit, and add all up. Then begin and cross multiply bythe parts, saying 3 times 11 are 33, which producinginches and parts, set down 2 inches 9 parts; again, 3268 MEAtimes 9 are 27 , these producing parts and seconds, setdown 2 parts and 3 seconds. Begin then with the 6parts in the length of the board, and say 6 times 2 are 12,which are 1 inch, placing it under the inches; then 6times 6 are 36, which make 3 parts; and, lastly, partsby parts, saying, 3 times 6 are 18 , which producing thenext denomination, are small fractional parts; secondsand thirds, place I under the seconds, and 6 under thethirds, and add all up thus: 6 thirds, 1 and 3 seconds are4; then 3 and 2 are 5 , 5 and 9 are 14 , and 6 are 20parts, which give 1 inch and 8 parts; therefore place 8under parts, and carry 1 to the inches, which will makeup 8, as expressed in the example.TO MEASURE a solid log, find the content of thearea by example second; and then considering the thickness ofthe log under so many inches, multiply the particular number of inches, and the content of the areatogether, which will be the product of the solid log.A ftranger, in purchasing mahogany, should takenotice that he be allowed the broker's measurement,which always makes a considerable allowance for faultsand waste, which the purchaser must run the hazard of,and consequently has an undoubted right to demand itfrom the seller; except the log be partly opened, thena proportionable part of the hazard is over, in whichcase the overplus granted in the broker's measurement,is sometimes divided between the two parties; or if themerchant allow to the buyer the broker's measurement,he charges so much per foot more upon the wood, estimating the quantity by the said measurement.To MEASURE a packing case. The article to bepacked should be correctly measured, and the sizes set ata rough sketch ofthe case, drawn to show uppermost thatside or part of it which is to be left open for the convenience of receiving the article to be packed. ThenMEA 269be careful to place the dimensions, for the inside measurement of the case, allowing for battons, and otherpackage. When the packing case is closed up, and it isto be measured, take the outside measurement of thecase, including the battons, which some do, and othersonly the outside without them, which is regulated by theprice per foot charged to the customer. Having thenascertained the external dimensions, measure the top ofthe case by cross multiplication, and set down the content of the area, and double it for the bottom of theThen take the depth of the case, and the lengthof one side and an end, put together, and multiply thelength by the depth of the case; and finding the contentas before, double this also, and add it to the contentof top and bottom. The battons used in packing are aseparate charge, and are generally measured by thefoot-run. See PACKING.TO MEASURE for window curtains, the extremes ofthearchitraves should be taken, with an allowance of atleast an inch longer for the pulley rods. For a commonfestoon window lath, the allowance may be less, andsometimes the strict measurement will do. The measurement in height depends upon circumstances. Iftheroom have not much dead wall above the window, theheight may be taken from the top of the architrave.But if there be much dead wall above, and the curtain isrequired to have a deep drapery or valence, then it isusual to leave no more room between the window corniceand ceiling, than is necessary for taking off and puttingon the cornice.TO MEASURE a room for a carpet, see GEOMETRY,in Supplement.To MEASURE for a pier glass , table, and chimneyglass, it is common to take the opening ofthe architraves,and for the former the opening of the chimney, that is ,1270 MECfor the sight measure of the chimney glass; but for thepier glass, the opening or space between the two architraves, includes in it the width of the frame; and thelength of the pier table is to be ruled in general , notalways, by its breadth. The height of the surbase abovethe dado, must also govern the height of the table, takenfrom the underside of the top.TO MEASURE for rolling blinds and common blinds,the width is taken between bead and bead; and theheight of the rolling blind, from the head soffit of thewindow.MECHANICS, is considered as the doctrine of motion,being that science which shews the effect of powers, ormoving forces, so far as they may be applied to engines.The mechanic powers are simply six, which, as theymay be variously applied, are all that give motion andeffect to the most complex machines; the names ofwhich are as follow: The lever, wheel in axis, or axisinperitrochio, thepulley, inclined plane, wedge, and screw.But three of these powers are considered as compounds;namely, the axis in peritrochio, the pulley and thescrew . Hence the simple mechanic powers are butthree, the axis, lever, and wedge. The axis, in peritrochio, seems to be a machine of itself, composed ofan axis, and levers. The screw may also be consideredas so many wedges fixed round the body of a cylinderor axis, and the pulley as an axis and lever, or asaxis in peritrochio. But though they are thus reducableto three in number, yet, for the sake of conciseness indescription, and universal application in the system ofmechanics, it is found necessary to increase their number to six; and if the balance be considered as a separatepower, as some authors do, there are seven.But it is evident that the balance, strictly speaking, israther a machine or instrument, by which, to ascertainSTtMOD 271or compare the velocities or gravity of different bodies,or matter, rather than a simple mechanic power. SeeSupplement.METOPE, in architecture, is the space between two triglyphs in the Doric order. See the order under articleCOLUMN.MEZANINE, a kind of little story, called also an enterstole, is placed between two principal stories, and servesfor an apartment for upper servants.MINUTE, in architecture, is the sixtieth part of the lowerdiameter of a column.MINIUM, a kind of red lead. See RED LEAD.MIRROR, from the French miroir, is generally appliedto a particular kind of glass, either of a convex, orconcave surface. Strictly considered, all polished bodieswhich are impervious, or which repel and reflect light,may be called mirrors. As an article in furniture, amirror is a circular convex glass in a gilt frame, silveredon the concave side, by which the reflection of the raysof light are produced. The properties of such mirrorsconsist in their collecting the reflected rays into a point,by which the perspective of the room in which they aresuspended, presents itself on the surface of the mirror,and produces an agreeable effect. On this account, aswell as for the convenience of holding lights, they arenow become universally in fashion, and are consideredboth as a useful and ornamental piece of furniture.MODILLIONS, in architecture, are rich ornaments inthe entablatures of the Composite and Corinthian orders.See these orders under the term COLUMN.MODULE, in architecture, is a certain proportion assignedfor the regulation of all the parts in an entire order.Some architects give only a semi-diameter, and others.the whole inferior diameter of a column for a module.This makes no other difference in architecture, exceptin the mode of expressing it; for still the lower diameter272 MUSof the column must be divided into 60 parts, and thesame number of diameters given to the respective orders.If 30 minutes be the allowed module, then the lowerdiameter is said to be 2 modules. If 60 minutes be assigned, than it is only 1 module; and the intercolumniations of columns must be thus regulated. See articleCOLUMN. Some architects recommend 20 minutes aspreferable for a module, because it proportions the entireorder without a fraction.MEGGELLUP, used by painters, is a mixture of turpentine, mastic varnish, and linseed oil, with whichthey apply their glazings. Another preparation is, ofone part of genuine mastic varnish, and two parts ofpaledrying oil, which when shaken together will appearlike a jelly; but when applied, will prove clear and transparent as it dries.MONOPTERE, a kind of round temple, without walls,having a dome supported by columns.MONUMENT, a building destined to preserve the memory of some deceased person, or those who raise it.Such are of triumphal arches, mausoleums, and pyramids, columns, pedestals, busts, &c.MORTICE, in carpentry and cabinet making, is an oblong square hole, cut by a chissel made for that purpose,which hole is to receive another piece of cut wood calleda tenon.MOSAIC-WORK, is an assemblage of little pieces ofglass, marble, precious stones, &c. of various colours,cut square, and cemented on a ground of stucco.MOULDINGS. See Supplement.MUSES, from Mural a song, music, or poetry. The ninemuses of the heathen, who were fabled to preside overpoetry, music, and the liberal arts. Their names wereCalliope, Clio, Erato, Thalia, Euterpe, Melpomene,Terpsichore, Polyhymnia, and Urania.NEW 273Under the article GRECIAN DINING TABLE, I havenoticed that the Greeks frequently dined in companies ofnine, seated in three couches, three in each-which see.MUTULES, those ornaments placed under the corona ofthe Doric cornice; perpendicularly over the tryglyph,and are exactly the same width, both being 30 minutes,exclusive of any projecting member.NNAIADS, from YEO, neo, to flow, are the nymphs of thefloods. They were thought to preside over rivers andfountains; hence in painting and ornaments they arerepresented as in the action of pouring water out ofurns.NAILS, of which there are various kinds used in cabinetand upholstery branches.Stucco nails are with round brass heads with points,from 1 inch to 9 or 10 inches long, necessary in fixinglarge looking glasses.Screw nails from one- eighth of an inch to 3 or 4inches long.Nails for packing case work, with broad points andflat heads-when used the broad side of the point of thesenails should be placed to cross the grain to prevent itssplitting.NAVE, from Naos a temple, generally used to signify thebody of a church, reaching from the rail or balluster ofthe choir to the chief door.NEWEL is the upright post of the hand rail of a staircase;or in winding staircases it is used to denote the postwhich bears the ends of the steps round which they turn .T274 NIGNICHE, in architecture, is a hollow sunk in a wall, forfigures to standin: sometimes they are used to place tripodsin for ornament, or to receive a light. The height ofniches ought to be more than twice their width; the planofa niche is always semicircular, and the top is a quarterof a sphere or of a canopy shape. Niches should beplaced at the height of the pedestal of the columns orpilasters that accompany them. When the columnshave no pedestals, a niche may be raised higher thantheir base, in which case there may be a pannel or atable under the niche.NIGHT TABLE, a useful piece of furniture for night' occasions. Common night tables have a tray top, withholes on each side to lift them up; the doors of the cupboard part are sometimes reeded, and at other times fold;the seat part draws out in front like a common drawer,and contains a pan hid from the eye by a deep front rail ,which is sometimes made to appear like two drawerswith knobs. or handles, and sometimes as a pannel withhollow corners, in which case the handle is usually putin the center of the pannel. To assist the motion of theseat in drawing it out, there are small brass rollersscrewed to the bottom of the feet; and it is to be observed that the legs of the seat are cut diagonal wise, tojoin to those which support the cupboard part; and forthis purpose the workmen get out the front legs so muchthicker one way as to admit the saw to cut the leg inthat form, and allow somewhat of substance ofwoodwith which to fit the front to , and they plane the superfluous wood of the upper part down to it.The usual size of these night tables is 22 inches infront, and from back to front from 18 inches to 20;the height 32 inches, and that of the seat 16 inchesfrom the ground. Balance night tables are such as aremade to have the appearance of a small commode, standOAK 275ing upon legs: when it is used the seat part pressesdown to a proper height by the hand, and afterwards itrises by means of lead weights, hung to the seat, bylines passing over pullies at each end, all which areinclosed in a case.There are also night tables to imitate the appearanceof a small lobby chest of drawers, having the top hingedbehind, so that it may lift up to a perpendicular position.The front part of these, as far as from the top to the seat,is made to fold in; and when out has the appearance ofdrawers . Night stools are ofa common construction, having merely a top to fold back, and a seat fixed within, deeprails framed into four square legs; the size of these is infront from 18 to 20 inches, and from front to back16 to 17 inches, the height 16 or 17 inches.OOAK, which botanists term quercus, the Latin name for theoak tree. Of this species of wood, Linnæus distinguishesfourteen kinds, amongst which are the ilex or ever greenoak, and the saber or cork tree: but the principal difference is between the stone oak and red oak, which arecultivated in the English forests; but there is certainlya greater variety amongstthe foreign oaks, which are bothlarge in body as well as in branches. Their roots, andparticularly the heart root, run deep and perpendicularlyin the ground, and are proportioned in size to the amplenourishment they have to convey. The growth oftheoak is extremely slow , but though it grows slowly, thisis compensated by the length of time which it stands .Some authors say that it for an hundred years, growsstands for an hundred, and is an hundred years in decaying. This tree has a great quantity of sap, on which276 OBEaccount its big bark is liable to be effected by frosts,which in cold winters make it often crack and open.This tree suffers much by the latter blights and frosts inthe spring, and is therefore the last of all trees in shewingits leaves; and on these accounts it does not some yearsproduce acorns . The timber of the stone is harder andwhiter than that of the red oak, which has a reddishcolour.The leaves also of the stone oak are smaller, andof a darker green than those of the red. This nobletree, though of delicate growth, is most successfullyproduced from the seed or acorn . The oak, however,which is transplanted, never attains so great a height asthe tree from the acorn, but spreads itself horizontally,and runs into branches. Oaks designed for timber,should be raised from acorns sown in the places wherethe trees are to remain in order to which, a sufficientquantity of acorns should be provided in the autumn.The acorns should be taken from upright, tall, andvigorous trees, which should be gathered from underthe trees as soon as may be after they are fallen, and ifpossible in a dry time. These acorns should be keptdry, and after put into dry sand till the time of sowingorplanting them, which is at the end of November.The oak used by cabinet-makers is imported fromRussia, Norway, Sweden, and the United States ofHolland, some in logs, and some cut into variousthicknesses.OBELISK. Is a quadrangular pyramid , high and slender,raised as an ornament in some public place, or as amonument of some public transaction. Obelisks aregenerally built of one entire picce of stone, and arethus distinguished from pyramids, which are composedof many. The height of the obelisk is nine or tentimes the size of the base. The top of the obelisk isOIL 277one half of its base, and sometimes a little more, butnever less. It appears that obelisks were of very antique date, and were first used for transmitting toposterity the principal precepts of philosophy, whichwere engraven on them in hieroglyphical characters.OBLIQUE. See GEOMETRY, in Supplement - and OBLONG.for all other terms of this nature .OBTUSE.OCCASIONAL TABLE, as in plate 58. The designof which is so plain as to require little or no description.To a stranger however, it may be necessary to observe,that the top shewn partly out may be turned over, andpushed in so as to inclose the whole, and hide the chessboard. The triangular figures on the bottom are ofwhite, and sometimes black wood, and the holes on theedge are for pegs.OIL. Of this useful article there are various kinds. It isdrawn from several natural bodies, as animal and vegetable substances. Drying oil for painters, is made byboiling linseed oil, about one quart with two ounces oflitharge of gold, till the litharge be pretty well dissolved,and the oil turn thick. Some put a little sugar of leadinto it, and then straining the mixture through a cloth,it should be put into a stone bottle for use, and if itshould be found too thick, it may easily be diluted witha proper portion of spirits of turpentine. Some makedrying oil with red lead and umber; half an ounce totwo pounds of linseed oil, and boil them together asbefore.Oil of nuts is used in fine paintings, where brightwhites are required, because this oil does not hurt thewhite.Oil of spikes, made of lavender flowers, serves to makethe colours run better, and suits to rub over a picture,when it is too dry for retouching and finishing.278 ORTOil for staining mahogany. See under ALKANETROOT. 1OPTICS, from orixes, belonging to the sight, is thatscience which treats of the element of light, and thenature of vision in general. As perspective is a branchof optics, we shall touch a little upon the subject underthe article PERSPECTIVE, in Supplement.ORITORY. In architecture, is a closet or small apartment in a large house, near a bed-chamber, used by theRomanists for private devotion . The oritory contains analtar and crucifix. But if Christ be in our heart, theoritory wants no crucifix.ORDER, or the ORDERS, in architecture, are five.Three of which are Grecian, and two Roman. Seeunder article COLUMN, where the entire orders aretreated upon, and their perspective representations given,together with profiles at large, and their true measurements in minutes; and see under VOLUTE, where thecapitals are drawn in perspective at large, and the basesin plate 11 , under the article BASE .ORNAMENTS, in architecture, are used to signify allthe sculptor, or carved work, with which a piece ofarchitecture is enriched; as the acanthus and olive leavesin the capitals of the orders, and their other decorationsin their friezes and entabiatures.ORPIMENT. Is a combination of the calx of arsenicwith sulphur, and is of a yellow colour. By a great heatthis combination assumes a red colour, which is thentermed red orpiment.OCHRE or OKER, the name of several earths used inpainting. The most common kinds are red and yellow,though there are brown, blue, and green.ORTHOGRAPHY, from Opos orthos right, and rpaqgrapho to write, which in perspective, denotes therepresentation of any object on a fore right plane; thatPAC 2790is, a plain parallel to the eye of the spectator, and perpendicular to the horizon. See PERSPECTIVE.OVOLO or OVUM. See MOULDINGS, in Supplement.OVAL. See GEOMETRY, in Supplement.PPACKING. This is a concern in the cabinet branch thatrequires great care, particularly when the article to bepacked is a large looking-glass. Light japanned chairsfor bed-rooms, are generally packed in slight skeletoncases, after being papered over. Those that put thechairs side to side in the case, put a whole width battonup each end of the case to receive the hanging batton thewhole length of the case, which is screwed to the underside of the rails of the chairs. The first three chairs.being fixed, they put them down to their place, and turnthe other three down upon them, and marking theirplace onthe batton, they are taken out again, and screwedto it as before with two screws to each side rail. Theythen screw the first three to their place, observing tohang the chair legs about an inch clear of the bottom ofthe case. They then put stays crosswise under the longbatton, to keep it from working in the middle. Lastly,they put the other down to their place with their legs up,and the seats to each other, taking care that they do notrub or touch each other in any part, and then screwingstays across as before. Others put the hanging battonsacross the case, consequently every two chairs requires.two short battons screwed to the under side of the rail,as in the other method. This last way requires a broadbatton on the sides of the skeleton case, placed to answerthe height of the chair seat, to receive the short battonscrosswise. In this way of packing they put the chairs280 PACthe other way in the case; that is, with their frontsparallel to the ends of the case, and screw them in , twoand two together. In this way the case requires to bemore than half a foot longer than in the other; but theother requires to be broader, so that it is difficult to saywhich way ought to be preferred. When chairs aregilt, or richly finished for drawing-rooms, they requirea close case of full half inch deal, but the packing isperformed in the same way, with greater care."PACKING CASES for large glasses should have theirsides from two to three inch deal thick, and are eitherto be half lapped or dovetailed at the corners.Thebottom and top of such cases are made of inch deal,with three half-width battons of inch stuff runninglengthwise, and well nailed to keep the top, &c. firm,that the case may not easily warp when the glass is into endanger its being broken. And it is usual, especiallyif the glass be conveyed by water, to grove and slip theedges of the boards, and even to pitch the joints afterwards, to resist any dashes of salt water that may occurin the voyage, which would totally ruin the silvering bythe slightest access to it. When they are conveyed byland, gluing brown paper over the joints in the insidewill be sufficient, provided the case be otherwise wellmade. Whether by sea or by land the case should ifpossible be kept in an upright position on one of its sides.In packing one of these glasses, it is necessary to placecrosswise on the bottom, three half battons, on whichto rest the blind frame of the glass; taking care to havelarge brass fastners screwed to the sides of the blindframe, so as to answer the place of the three battonslast mentioned, that the blind frame may be screwed tothem. When the glass is in its place, it is common tocover the plate with some kind of paper; and lastly , toput at least a batton at each end over the glass, halfPAT 281deal width, which are screwed to the sides of the case.These last battons, if the depth of the case be properlytaken at first, will be level with the edge of the case,and will therefore prove a sure defence to the top. andprevent it from being pressed down in the centre to endanger the glass. The glass is then enclosed, and thetop not nailed but screwed down with two inch screwnails, two to each board, and their joints pitched andcanvassed over.PAINTING. See Supplement.PAPER, from zaupos, papuros; the name of a celebrated Egyptian plant, which was so much used by theancients to write upon. See Book.PAPER HANGINGS are a considerable article in theupholstery branch, and being occasionally used for roomsof much elegance, it requires taste and skill rightly toconduct this branch of the business. See PAPER, inSupplement.PARAPET, from parapetto, Italian, a save breast, orlittle wall, serving either as a rest for the arm, or as aninclosure about a quay, bridge, terrace, &c.PARLOUR. See DINING ROOM.PASTE. Used among upholsterers, is a preparation ofwheaten flour, boiled up and incorporated with water.The flour should be mixed with the cold water so as toleave no lumps, which should be little thicker than milkbefore boiling it; and if the paste be wanted of a verytenacious quality, gum arabic should be dissolved andmixed with it. When this mixture is boiling, it shouldbe constantly stirred about, till it thicken and becomelike a strong jelly, which then, after this degree of boiling,is fit for use.PATENT. Denotes something that stands open or expanded; thus a leaf is said to be patent when it standsalmost at right angles with the stalk.PATENT is however more generally used to denote the 1P282 PATsecurity granted by his majesty's letters patent to anyoriginal invention in arts, trade, or commerce, to prevent others from imitating and vending the same article.In order to obtain a patent, a specification of its originalinvention must be prepared, and drawings madeto represent and explain it, and delivered into an office in Chancery-lane, where the public have an opportunity of inspecting such drawings with their specifications; andif it be discovered that any article of a similar construction has been made prior to this by any otherperson, an appeal may be made, and the patent rendered null and void. There are a few articles in thecabinet branch under patents, three or four differentkinds of dining-tables, and two or three four-post bedsteads. The bedsteads are contrived as much as possibleto prevent the harbour of vermin, and have thereforebrass joints. One of them has for this purpose thepillars to screw off from the frame, with a plate of brassto cover the joints; the other bedstead has brass dovetailtenons, which slip into sockets of brass fixed into thepillars, which is the only material thing wherein itdiffers from the preceding one. The diningtables areconstructed so as to take up little room, and yet be conveniently large. This is the object of the design, andfor which purpose the frames of two of these tables aremade to draw out, and loose flaps are inserted betweenthose which are fixed on the drawing part of thesetables; and the superiority of the one to the other chieflyconsists in the portableness of its parts, having the flapsto inclose in the part which draws out, and the legs toscrew off and inclosed with them. The other table ison pillar and claws, and the drawing part by which itis increased in length, is in the block to which the pillaris fixed, but the loose flaps, inserted as in the other, cannot be inclosed within the frame, but must be, whenPED 283

not used, put into some convenient place in the roomwhere the dining table stands.PEDESTAL. That part of an order on which the columnrefts. The pedeſtal, which the Greeks call stylobates,contains three principal parts, a plinth, dado, and cornice; for the peculiarities of which, and their proportions, see the plates of the orders under the termCOLUMN, where observe the pedeſtal of each order isin mere outline, placed between the entire order in perspective, and the profile of the entablature at large.PEDESTAL is also used to signify that part in cabinetfurniture made nearly to the proportion and figure of apedeſtal in architecture. These are generally placed atthe end of sideboards, and are designed for holding platesfor dinner; for which purpose there are two woodenracks, generally made of oak, in which the plates areplaced. The plinth part of these pedeſtals is generallyformed into a drawer, containing an iron ſtand and heater,which diffuses a warm air to the plates, and keeps themin proper temperature at the time of dining. These pedeftals are lined with tin completely over on the insideto prevent the heat from injuring the wood. And itmay be necessary further to observe, that when thereare two pedeſtals to a sideboard, one of them is generallyfitted up in the inside, either with plain drawers, or as acupboard. On such pedeftals is generally placed a vase.See plate 59 , and the term VASE.PEDIMENT, in architecture. Vitruvius calls the pediment Fastigia; which signifies a roof raised or pointedin the middle, which form, amongst the Romans, wasconfined to their temples; but afterwards Cæsar obtainedleave to cover his house with a pointed roof after themanner of the temples. The parts of a pediment, arethe tympanum and the cornice. The tympanum is thenaked ofthe cornice, and is not always triangular or284 PILpointed, but sometimes circular. The cornice is a partof the upper members of the cornice of the entablatureon which the tympanum rests; and sometimes the tympanumic cornice contains all the members of that inthe entablature. For the height of the tympanum, andthe management of the raking mouldings, see MOULDINGS, in Supplement.PEMBROKE TABLE, a name given to a kind of breakfast table, from the name of the lady who first gaveorders for one ofthem, and who probably gave the firstidea of such a table to the workmen, of which there is adesign in plate 61 , which can require no explanation toany workman. The size of such tables, are from 3 feetS inches to 4 feet wide, that is when open, as shewn inthe design; and from 34 to 3 feet long, when the flapsare down. The width of the bed should never be lessthan 21 inches; but in general they are from 22 to 23inches, and their height never inore than 2 feet 4 inches,including castors.PERSPECTIVE. - See Supplement.PIER, in building, denotes a mass of stone, &c. opposedby way offortress to the force of the sea or a great river,for the security of ships that lie at harbour. In housearchitecture, it is used to denote that part of a wallwhich is between the windows. Hence the term piertable, in cabinet work, which are made to fit in betweenthe architraves of the windows, and rise above the surbase. See plate 63, in which design the top is supposedto be of marble, the shelf of wood,or fret round it, except the front. The legs are to bescrewed and reeded, and the diamond part in the rail maybe brass or gilt wood. -See PIER, in Supplement.PILASTER, in architecture, is a square column, bearingthe same proportion to those which are round, according to their different orders. The pilaster is either inwith a brass border•PIN 285sular, placed against or sunk into a wall, shewing onefourth or fifth part of its thickness before it. Pilastersare very commonly introduced into cabinet work, and areformed, sometimes only by lines let into slips of woodabout 2 inches wide, placed upright at the angles of furniture. At other times they project one eighth or quarterof an inch before the work, and are cross banded; andsometimes they are formed by sinking into the groundwork, and have small beads or other mouldings miteredround the inside of the sunk pannel .PILLAR, or column, in architecture, see COLUMN; butin cabinet making, it is generally used to signify the postswhich support the tefter of a bed; and a single massyone on which the top of claw tables rest; for thelatter kind, see plate 65.PINE-TREE. This kind comprehends all the fir andlarch trees. Some authors make out 10 or 14 differentspecies of this genus. First, the wild pine, which growsnaturally on the mountains in Italy, and the south ofFrance. This tree grows to a large size; and thebranches extend to a considerable distance.Second, The stone pine is a tall evergreen tree, anda native of Italy, andThird, The Scots fir or pine is common throughoutScotland, whence its name, but is also found in most ofthe other countries of Europe. The wood of this treeis the red or yellow deal, efteemed the most durable ofany. The cones of this tree are small, pyramidal, andend in narrow points, of a light colour, and the seedssmall.Fourth, The yew leaved fir is a tall evergreen, and anative of Scotland, Sweden, and Germany. This speciesincludes the silver fir, and balm of Gilead fir. The silverfir is a noble upright tree, and they have been found inthe vallies of Switzerland to the height of 40 yards, and286 PINmore than 18 inches in diameter in the middle. Thecones are large and grow erect; and when the warmweather comes on they soon shed their seeds, and therefore they ought to be gathered before that happen. Thebalm of Gilead fir, is the moft desirable of all the pines,as an agreeable ornament, both on account of the greatfragrance of its leaves, and the beauty of its branches,which are richly decorated with them. The silver firis very hardy, and will grow in most soils; but makesthe greatest progress in rich and loamy earth. The balmof Gilead must be planted in a good soil, as it will notlive long in any other.Fifth, The European spruce fir, a native of thenorthern parts of Europe and of Asia, includes the Norway spruce, and long coned Cornish fir. This speciesof fir is not only beautiful but useful, producing valuable timber, and is of the white kind, so desirable toworkmen. From this tree pitch is extracted. Theleaves of this tree are remarkably beautiful, being narrow and pointed; and the cones are to the length of8 or 10 inches.Sixth, The American, or Newfoundland spruce fir, anative of Canada, Pennsylvania, and other parts ofNorth America, includes three varieties, the white, redand black Newfoundland spruce.Seventh, The hemlock fir, a native of the precedingplaces, has nothing in it remarkable; but the wood istolerably good.Eighth, The oriental fir, or a native of the East, isa low but elegant tree, of little use, except ornament.Ninth, The North American white pine, which sometimes grows to the height of 100 feet, and upwards.Of this tree the masts of ships are made: and on thisaccount, in Queen Ann's time, there was a law madefor the preservation of these trees, and for the encouPIN 287ragement of their growth in America. Within fiftyyears paft, they have been planted in Great Britain inconsiderable plenty.Tenth, The swamp pine is a tall evergreen tree, anative of the swamps of Virginia and Canada. Thisname seems to include a number of varieties of theAmerican pines, which differ but little in their descriptions.Eleventh, The pinus cedrus, or the cedar pine, calledby the ancients the cedrus magnus, great cedar. It isa coniferous evergreen. Its cones, which are round andlarge, consist of smooth scales, and stand erect; and theleaves narrow, small, and thick set.This is the cedar of which it is supposed Solomon'stemple and palace were built, or the cedar of the mountLibanus, which seems to have been both spreading andlofty, according to Scripture allusions. The main trunkrises to 10 or 12 feet, which have been measured fromSo to 40 feet in circumference, from which large trunkascends thick and lofty branches, which rising out of solarge a circumference, muft give a vast spreading appearance; and if the descriptions be accurate, thesebranches must have risen to 100 feet in height; and werelike so many large trees springing from an enormoustrunk.•Twelfth, The larch tree. It grows naturally uponthe Alps and Apennines, and of late has been propagatedin Britain. It is of quick growth, and the trunk risesto 50 feet or more. Of this tree there are a fewvarieties, which grow in America and Siberia. It is ofa durable quality, and will harden almost to an impenetrable degree under water. It emits in the air a resinoussubstance, which diffuses itself into the grain and overthe surface of the wood, so as to resist water: and is onthat account used for the covering of roofs in Switzer288 PLAland. From this tree is extracted what is called theVenice turpentine, which by incision flows copiouslyfrom it.sun.All these pines are propagated by sowing the seeds inMarch, on a bed of light earth exposed to the morningThe way to get the seeds out of the cones, is tolay them before a gentle fire, which will cause the cellsto open, and then the seeds may be easily taken out;and the surest way to preserve the seeds , is to let themremain in the cones till the time of sowing. The seeds,when sown, must be covered half an inch thick withfine light earth, and the beds watered at times when theweather is dry; and in about six weeks the plants willmake their appearance. In the latter end of April, inthe following year, they may be removed into beds offresh earth, placing them at 10 inches distance every way,where, remaining for two years, may afterwards beplanted where they are to continue for maturity ofgrowth.PLAIN-TREE, of which there are two species. One isa native of the East, and the other of North America.They are trees which grow to a prodigious magnitude,and make a most noble appearance. The Virginia plaintree, will grow extremely well from cuttings, whichshould be planted about the beginning of October, upona moist soil , and should be watered in dry weather; inwhich case they make great progress, and in a fewyears after planting, will afford noble trees. Both thespecies thrive best in a moist soil, and near rivulets ofwater.PLAIN- TREE is a very white wood, close in grain,and rather tough; and in many places in the countryused by cabinet-makers instead of beech, for paintedchairs, or the fly joint rails of card and pembroketables.POL 289PLINTH, from de plinthos, a brick, is the lowermoft part of a column, and on which the whole refts.It is also applied to mouldings mitered round the bottomsof table legs and bed pillars.POLISH-Is to give brightness to any subftance. Themethod of polishing amongst cabinet- makers is various,as required in different pieces of work. Sometimes theypolish with bees wax and a cork for inside work , whereit would be improper to use oil. The cork is rubbedhard on the wax to spread it over the wood, and thenthey take fine brick-duft and sift it through a ſtocking onthe wood, and with a cloth the duft is rubbed till itclears away all the clammings which the wax leaves onthe surface.3At other times they polish with soft wax, which is amixture of turpentine and bees wax, which renders itsoft, and facilitates the work of polishing. Into thismixture a little red oil may occasionally be put, tohelp the colour of the wood. This kind of polishingrequires no brick-duft; for the mixture being soft, acloth of itself, will be sufficient to rub it off with. Thegeneral mode of polishing plain cabinet work is however,with oil and brick-duft; in which case, the oil is eitherplain linseed or stained with alkanet root-See ALKANETROOT. Ifthe wood be hard, the oil should be left standing upon it for a week; but if soft, it may be polished intwo days. The brick-duft and oil should then be rubbedtogether, which in a little time will become a puttyunder the rubbing cloth, in which ſtate it should be keptunder the cloth as much as possible; for this kind ofputty will infallibly secure a fine polish by continuedrubbing; and the polisher should by all means avoid theapplication of fresh brick-duft, by which the unskilfulhand will frequently ruin his work inſtead of improvingit and to prevent the necessity of supplying himselfU•290 ΡΟΜwith fresh brick-dust he ought to lay on a great quantityat first, carefully sifted through a gauze stocking; andhe should notice if the oil be too dry on the surface ofthe work before he begin, for in this case it should be reoiled, that it may compose a sufficient quantity of thepolishing substance, which should never be altered afterthe polishing is commenced, and which ought to continuetill the wood by repeated friction become warm, at whichtime it will finish in a bright polish, and is finally to becleared off with the bran of wheaten flour.Chairs are generally polished with a hardish composition of wax rubbed upon a polishing brush, withwhich the grain of the wood is impregnated with thecomposition, and afterward well rubbed off without anydust or bran. The composition I recommend is asfollows: take bees wax and a small quantity of turpentine in a clean earthen pan, and set it over a fire till thewax unites with the turpentine, which it will do byconstant stirring about; add to this a little red lead finelyground upon a stone, together with a small portion offine Oxford ochre, to bring the whole to the colour ofbrisk mahogany. Lastly, when you take it off the fire,add a little copal varnish to it, and mix it well together,then turn the whole into a bason of water, and whileit is yet warm, work it into a ball, with which the brushis to be rubbed as before observed. And observe, with aball of wax and brush kept for this purpose entirely, furniture in general may be kept in good order.POMEGRANATE TREE, is a native of Italy, Spain,and Africa, and may be propagated by laying down thebranches in the spring, which in one year's time willtake root. This is a mere garden tree, and in Englandcan only be valuable for the beauty of its scarlet colouredflowers, which, with its fruit, is reckoned astringent inmedicine.fumwwPOR 291POPLAR TREE, ofwhich there are five species, accordingto Linnæus. 1. The white poplar. 2. The tremblingpoplar. 3. The black poplar. 4. TheCarolina poplar.And the 5th poplar of the same country. Others say,the alba poplar is the first which grows naturally in , thetemperate parts of Europe. 2. The white. 3. The black.4. The aspen poplar. And the 5th the Carolina poplar.The first of these is esteemed a useful wood, but of asoft texture. The bark of this tree is remarkable forbeing a cure to intermitting fevers. The wood of theblack and white poplars are also useful. The tremblingpoplar is of no use but for ornament.PORCH, in architecture, a kind of vestibule supported bycolumns; much used in the ancient temples, halls,churches, &c. The columns of a porch are insular,usually crowned with a pediment. When a porch hadfour columns in front, it was called tetrastyle, when sixhexastyle, and if eight octastyle . The word porch is fromToa, stoa, a public portico at Athens, in which Zeno,the philosopher, taught. Hence his followers werecalled stoics,PORTAL, a small gate, distinguished by this name froma larger, when there are two together.PORTICO, a kind of gallery, on the ground, or a piazzaencompassed with arches supported with columns, wherepeople maywalk under cover. The word is derived fromporta, gate or door, which are sometimes made with aroof projecting and supported with columns, hence theidea of a portico, which is applied to any disposition ofcolumns which form a sort of gallery, without any relation to doors or gates.PORTLAND STONE -from a peninsula in Dorsetshire,of great strength both by nature and art, being surrounded with inaccessible rocks. In this peninsula the292 PYOquarries are found where the noted Portland stone somuch used in London, is dug.PORTRAIT, in painting, is the representation of a persondone from the life, and is distinguished from historypainting where such resemblance is usually disregarded.Portraits done as large as life, are painted in oil, butwhen in miniature, with water colours, crayons, pastiles , &c.POUCH TABLE, or Table with a Bag, used bythe ladiesto work at, in which bag they deposit their fancy needlework. Of such tables there are two designs in plate 67,where observe, that the work bags of both tables are suspended to a frame which draws forward, in which frameis a lock which shuts its bolt up into the under edge oftherail of the top. They are also used as chess tables occasionally, and the design on the left shews the top withthe chess side down, contrary to that on the right, whichis also capable of being drawn out and turned down.The design on the left hand was taken from oneexecuted by Mr. M'Lean in Mary-le-bone street, nearTottenham court road, who finishes these small articlesin the neatest manner. That on the right is purely myown design, which has not been yet manufactured. Thefrets on the edges of both tables are of brass, and theground ought to be of black rose wood when they arerequired to be elegant, otherwise they may be made veryneat of mahogany.PROTRACTOR, an instrument used in drawing, bywhich any angle is laid down with dispatch. See DRAWING, in Supplement.PYCNOSTYLE, is the smallest intercolumniation of theorders, allowing only one diameter and an half. Thisintercolumniation was chiefly used in the composite orderin rich and magnificent buildings.AREPBAEVEQU2QUSCALad20 qu口GUOLRAB 293PYRAMID, in geometry, is a solid, standing on a triangular, square, or polygonal basis, and terminating in apoint at the top. Pyramids are sometimes used to preserve the memory of singular events, and sometimes totransmit to posterity the glory and magnificence ofprinces. They are considered as a symbol of immortality, and therefore used sometimes as funeral monuments.QQUADRANGLE. Is a figure consisting of four sidesand angles.QUADRANT. The fourth part of a circle.QUARTETTO TABLE. A kind of small work tablemade to draw out of each other, and may be used separately, and again inclosed within each other when notwanted. See TRIO TABLE.QUASHAWOOD. A yellowish wood from the WestIndies, ofthe colour of satin wood, but lighter and softerin quality, and for its bitterness, used sometimes as a substitute for hops.QUILT. See COUNTERPANE.QUIRK-BEAD. Amongst joiners, is one flush or ever.withthe ground on which it is worked.QUOINS, in architecture, denote the corners of brick andstone walls. It is particularly used for the stone workat the angles of brick buildings. When these stand outbeyond the brick work, tl: eir edges being chamfered off,they are called rustic quoins.RRABBETING. Is a half channelling, or groveing theedge of any thing to receive some other piece of wool:as in wardrobe doors, the edge of the frame is rabbeted294 RAYwithin about one quarter of an inch from the front. Butif the pannel is to be flush with the framing, then thepannel must be rabbeted also to receive that of the doorframing.RACK. This term , amongst cabinet-makers, is applied toa brass plate with a number of square holes, into whicha thumb spring catches, to support at any height, a glassmade to rise in gentlemen's shaving tables. There arealso brass rack pulleys used to keep the line of Frenchwindow curtains tight, by which they may be eitherclosed or drawn apart.RACK is likewise used to denote a slip of wood cutinto notches for the purpose of supporting moveablebook shelves. See GROOVE.RADIANT, in optics, is any point of a visible objectwhence rays proceed.RADIUS. See GEOMETRY, in Supplement.RAFTERS, in building, are those pieces of timber in aroof which meet in an angle at the top, and are, at thefoot, tenoned into the girder, extending the width of theroof.Hip Rafters, are those which form the angles of ahipped roof.RAKING PEDIMENT or Moulding. See MOULDING,in Supplement.RATAN, a kind of bastard mahogany.RATEEN, a thick woollen stuff, quilled, woven on aloom with four treddles, like serges and other stuffs thathave the whale or quilling. Rateens are chiefly manufactured in France, Holland, and Italy, and are mostlyused in linings . Frieze is a sort of coarse rateen, andthe drugget is a rateen half linen and half woollen.RAY, in optics, a line of light propagated from a radiantpoint through an unresisting medium.RAY 295In perspective, many of the lines peculiar to thatscience come under the notion of rays, because visionis performed by means of rays issuing in right lines fromevery point of an illuminated object to the pupil of theeye; at which small point they enter, and fall upon theretina or bottom of the eye, and produce the sensationofthe object viewed. Hence visual lines, in perspective,are all those drawn from objects to be represented, tothe centre of the picture or point of sight, a section ofwhich on the plane of the picture is the true representation of the object on the said plane.The principal ray of a picture is conceived of as aline drawn from its centre perpendicular to the eye of thespectator; which ray has no reference to the figure ofobjects on the plane of the picture, but to the degree oflight by which we perceive them. It being therefore theshortest ray, it is necessarily the strongest; and henceit is called the principal ray, or, as it is sometimestermed, the direct radial. Every other ray falls withless force on the picture, or more philosophically speaking, issues with less strength from the object to the eye,in proportion to their obliquity. Whence it follows,that the brightest lights ought always to fall on thoseobjects nearest the eye, or in the centre of the picture.Rays reflected, are those rays of light, which afterfalling upon bodies not transparent, are thrown backagain, but with less strength; that is , reflected is not sostrong as direct light. How strikingly is this exemplifiedin the difference between the direct light of the meridian.sun, and his reflected rays from the opaque body of themoon. See PAINTING.Rays refracted, are those rays of light, which afterfalling upon any medium enter its surface, and is therebybent either towards or from a perpendicular to the oneon which they fell or the refracting medium. Hence a•296 REPsmall stick put into water always appears broken byrefraction, and shorter in that part under the water byreflection.RECESS, from recessus, to retire or withdraw. In architecture it denotes a break, or hollow place in a wall, ora small place of retirement, or secresy . Recesses arefrequently left in the walls of rooms for the purpose ofreceiving sideboards, bookcases, and other pieces offurniture.rays of RED, one of the simple primary colours of thelight. The red rays, according to Sir Isaac Newton, isof all others least refrangible . Hence he supposes thedifferent degrees of refrangibility to arise from the different magnitudes of the luminous particles of which therays consist.REEDING, amongst cabinet makers, is a mode by whichthey ornament table legs, bed pillars, &c. and is certainlyone ofthe most substantial of any yet adopted. It is muchpreferable to fluting or cabling in point of strength; andin look, much superior to the latter; and almost equal tothe former. To me, reeding appears almost the onlyornament that has escaped the notice of the ancients, asI do not recollect any instance of reeding in any part ofancient architecture. When reeding is introduced onflat surfaces, there ought always to be 3, 5, or 7, and soIf reeds on, and the odd one should be in the on a table leg, or bed pillar, &c. there should be oneon the centre facing the eye.Reeds look with additional beauty in some cases whena small fillet is introduced between them as in plate 9,No. 1 .RELIEVO. Sce SCULPTURE.REPOSE. See PAINTING, in Supplement.REPRESENTATION, generally denotes some kind ofROD 297description, or is the delineation of objects on a plainsurface. Hence it may be considered as the effect ofgood drawing and painting; for if these are not well performed, the attempt to copy or describe an object is amisrepresentation of it, and in some cases to a degree,which may only deserve the title of a caricature insteadof a representation.RETURN, amongst cabinet makers, is the falling awayofany moulding from the front side, as the returns ofpediments, and the mouldings which break from thefronts of pilasters, are called returns.REWARD, in painting, is represented by a man clothedin white with a golden girdle, a palm with an oak branchin his right hand, and a crown and garland in his left.The oak and palm denote the honour and profit which arethe reward of laudable industry.RIBAND, a fillet of silk; a narrow web of silk. Somehorse fire screens are balanced by a riband, which passesover or through the top rail of the screen, and has a leadweight fixed to it, which weight is made circular, andcovered first with canvas, and then with the silk riband inthe form of a rose or knot.RIGA TIMBER, or Fir Wood, from the city of Riga, inSwedeland. The city stands by the Baltic sea, at themouth of the river Dwina, where there is an excellentharbour.RISING. This is a motion given to different parts of furniture, as a rising desk to write at; a rising horse forthe purpose of supporting a flap or top of a table towrite at; a rising dressing glass, and various risingscreens, which the contracted plan of this work will notallow to exemplify on plates.ROD, for window curtains, are of various kinds, thecommon curtain rod is merely a piece of straight worked298 ROMiron, with a hole at each end to slip on to screw hooks,made for the purpose, The French window rod is madeof brass, about three quarters of an inch diameter, havinga pulley at the left end, and two at the right, one ofwhichis fixed in a pin perpendicular to the rod.At present they frequently make the French rods ofsatin wood, two to a window, to lap past each otherabout 3 inches in the centre; so that the curtain drawshalf on each side separately, or only half of it maybedrawnat once: andwhen they are both drawn out, they lapover each other by means ofthe rod thus made, so that thelight is entirelyexcluded in the middle. These rods havethesame pulleys as those made in brass, which are morticedthrough the satin wood rod, and are fixed in with wire,and the hanging pulley at the right hand is all of brass,and screwed into the rod. To keep the ends of the rodsecure they are hooped with brass, let-on to the ends,which are filed level with the wood, and cleaned off, withthe rod.Rods, for beds, are made to circumscribe the footpillars, and the sides of the rod screw off about 8 inchesfrom the pillars towards the head end, where the side rodsslip on to a screw hook.The rod of a tester for a canopy bed is made in twoparts, which lap past each other, and admit the curtainsto come close in the centre, or to draw back to eachother behind. These rods are made with a long plate ateach end bent down about an inch, with two or threescrew holes, with which to fix them to the under side ofof the rail.ROLLING BLIND. See BLIND.ROMAN ORDER. See the COMPOSITE ORDER, plate 34,and under COLUMN. This order is said to be inventedby the Romans in the time of Augustus, and was byRUS 299them placed above the rest, to shew that they consideredthemselves as lords over the other nations.ROOF. The uppermost part of a building, which includesnot onlythe timber work but the covering, which issometimes of slate , tiles, lead, &c. There are variouspitches or angles assigned for roofs. The moſt generallyapproved pitch is that of a right angle. If a roof behigher than of this angle, the covering is more apt tofall off, and if it be lower it lays too much stress uponthe timber work. When a building is extraordinarywide, to avoid a high roof and too extensive a span,they form a double roof. In the most primitive times,roofs were quite flat, with a parapet wall around them;this appears from some passages of sacred writ as wellas other writings.ROUT CHAIRS. Small painted chairs with rush bottoms,lent out by cabinet makers for hire, as a supply of seatsat general entertainments, or feasts; hence their namerout chair.RUDD's TABLE.A kind of dressing table for ladies ,not much in present use. They are about 5 feet long, andcontain a glass in the centre of the uppermost part, andone at each end of the lower part, which are hinged toa narrow drawer, and rise by a quadrant, by which theglasses are kept in an upright position; and as thesenarrow drawers are also hinged to a part behind themreserved in the frame, the glasses may be turned to anyhorizontal as well as upright position, by means ofwhich, the back part of the head may be seen as well asthe front, the advantage of which is a mere trifle in comparison to the expence it occasions.RUSH. This plant grows naturally in most parts ofEurope. Botanists say there is but one species of it.Those however which are found in the watery soil of300 SARHolland are the beſt for the use of cabinet makers; withthese, after they are well seasoned, they polish and cleanoff mahogany and other wood, which are used after thework has been well rubbed with glass paper.SSALOON, a lofty spacious sort of hall, vaulted at thetop, situated in the centre of noble buildings. The sidewalls of such elegant and auguſt apartments muſt bear astriking symmetry to each other. The decorations ofsuch rooms arise to the ne plus ultra of enrichment, andevery ornament conducted in a most bold and effectivetaste. In Carleton-house, the town residence of thePrince of Wales, is furnished with one of these, whichthe contracted nature of this Dictionary will not allowme either to represent or describe, but which I purposeto do in a folio work, for which I have now opened asubscription, and have obtained already the names ofseveral who are subscribers to this Dictionary*.The saloon is considered as a state room, and is muchused in the palaces of Italy, from which nation we havederived the idea, though it ought not to be forgotten,that the Egyptian halls and the Grecian atrium, of whichwe have already touched, bear a considerable semblanceto the saloon. The chief use of the saloon is forthe reception of foreign ambassadors and other greatvisitors.SARCOPHAGUS, a Greek word, from one and payw, theformer denoting flesh, and the latter to eat-flesh eater;but which we now shew, according to our designs of1

  • A specimen of the work, and the particular plan of which may be seen at my apartments; and where I will thankfully receive the

name of any who choose to subscribe to the intended publication.SAR 301these in plate 68, are in modern times appropriated to theuse of wine-drinkers; such is the fate of many terms inthecourse oftime by the various customs of different agesandcountries. The followingaccount of the sarcophagusis selected from the authors of the British Encyclopedia:• Sarcophagus, or Lapis Assius, in the natural history ofthe ancients, a stone much used by the Greeks in theirsculptures; is recorded to have always perfectly consumed the flesh of human bodies buried in it forty days.This property it was much famed for, and all the ancientnaturalists mention it. There was another very singularquality also in it, but whether in all, or only in somepeculiar pieces of it, is not known; that is, its turninginto stone any thing that was put into vessels madeof it.The place from whence the ancients tell us they hadthis stone, was Assos, a city of Lycia, in the neighbourhood of which it was dug; and De Boot informs us,that in that country, and some parts of the east, thereare also stones of this kind, which, if tied to the bodiesof living persons, would in the same manner consumetheir flesh. "The sarcophagus, as a piece of furniture, is, in somefaint degree, an imitation of the figure of these ancientstone coffins , on which account only the term can withany colour of propriety be applied to such wine cisterns.They are adapted to stand under a sideboard, some ofwhich have covers, and others without, as in plate 68.The lowest design is supported with dolphin legs, andthe upper one with lions paws; a ring at each end isnot only suitable but a convenient ornament, by whichservants may more safely move them about. The ringsand heads should be cast in brass, and lacquered, andalso the dolphins and lions paws. On the top of thosecovered should be a carved ornament, as shewn in the302 SCRdesign, which may receive or be without a ring, butperhaps a ring would prove useful to lift the top up by.SAUNDERS, a kind of wood brought from the EastIndies, of which , there are three kinds, white, yellow,and red.SAW, a tool of general use among cabinet makers, andof which there are a great variety; as a hand saw, ripping saw, pannel saw, tenon saw, sash saw, dovetail saw,bow saw, balluster saw, and bench saws.SCALE. See DRAWING, in Supplement.SCARLET, a beautiful bright red colour. In painting inwater colours, minium mixed with vermilion producesa good scarlet.SCENOGRAPHY, in perspective, from Exavn, skene, ascene, and papo, grapho, to write or describe; is therepresentation of any object on a plane, perpendicular tothe horizon, and to the plane of the picture. See ICHNOGRAPHY and ORTHOGRAPHY.SCIOGRAPHY, the profile or section ofa building, cut inlength and breadth to shew the inside.SCOTIA. See MOULDINGS, in Supplement.SCREEN. A piece of furniture used to shelter the faceor legs from the fire. Hence the more common name isfire-screen, of which there are a great variety, as tripodfire-screens, horse or safe fire-screens, folding andslidingfire-screens, and table fire-screens - see plate 74. SeeSCREEN, in Supplement.SCREW, one of the mechanical powers, much used bycabinet makers in gluing pieces of wood together. Forthis purpose they have various hand screws and caulscrews, which they use in veneering, and is one of themost effectual methods in that art. In all screws, whenthe threads are nearest together, that is, the least inclined to the sides of the cylinder round which theySEC 303revolve, their power is the greater, but what they thusgain in power, they lose in time, as is the case withevery machine.SCROWL. See VOLUTE.SCRUTOIR, an old word for what we now term a secretary, or writing cabinet.SCULPTURE, from sculptura, to carve, is generally applied to the art of cutting stone to represent persons, orpieces of history; or it imports the method of castingfigures of plaster of Paris, or other substances.SECRETARY. This term signifies one who is employedin writing letters for noblemen and princes; but amongcabinet makers it is applied to certain pieces of furnitureto write at, as in plate 70; which shews the writingdrawer open, and the other parts of the design are soobvious as to require no further description.There are also secretaries for ladies, of a small size,usually with a book shelf on the top part.The gentleman's secretary, plate 69, is intended forstanding to write at, and therefore the height is adjustedfor this purpose, it being 3 feet 7 inches to the upper sideofthe writing flap, and the depth of the secretary draweris 10inches. The door on the right incloses a cupboardfor a pot and slippers, and the left side contains a placefor day book, ledger, and journal, for a gentleman'sown accounts.SECTION, from sectio, to cut, in drawing, is simplyshewing any thing as if cut by a plane parallel to the eye,in which the true profile of every projection will appear.There are a variety of sections in geometry, producingdifferent figures; as the section of a sphere is a circle,an oblique section of a cylinder is a regular ellipsis , of acone irregular, of a quadrangular prism, is an oblong ofparallelogram, of a pyramid, a trapezium.•304 SIDSHADOW, in optics, is a privation of light, by the interposition of some opaque body. Of the nature ofshadows in perspective, see PERSPECTIVE, in Supplement.SHAFT, in architecture, is that part of a column whichextends between the base and capital, see COLUMN,plate 50; and observe, that the shafts of all the fiveorders are to diminish upwards in curve lines, from onethird of their height next the base; also, that in allthe orders, the lower diameter is 60 minutes, and theupper 50.SHAVING TABLE, a piece of furniture fitted up for agentleman to dress at, in which there is a glass behind,made to rise to any height by means of a brass rack andthumb spring, which catches the holes of the rack, andsupports the frame to which the glass is hinged. Theycontain a bason to wash in, and a cupboard below, adrawer or two below it, and sometimes a shelf to receivea bottle of water. See plate 71 .SIDEBOARD TABLE, as in plates 72 and 73, are thosethat are used for a dining equipage, on which the silverplate is placed. Plate 72, is a cellaret sideboard with acupboard at each end, which may be either plain or havedrawers. The fronts of the cellarets are hung on acentre, which is connected with a square case within,where the bottles of wine are kept, except those in immediate use, which are placed in a circular case on theinside of the front, as expressed in the design.The brass pillars on the top support a shelf, with agroove to receive the edges of plates, when it is thoughtproper to place them in such a manner. The shelf otherwise serves to place any small silver ware upon, according to the custom or fancy of a family.Plate 73, exhibits a mirror with lights on each side,SOF 305fixed to the brass rail. The lions heads are to be carvedin mahogany, and the rings may be of brass. Thegeneral height of a sideboard is 3 feet, the width 2 feet9 inches, the length from 5 feet to 10. The width ofthe cellaret part 16 inches, outside measure, if to holdnine bottles, and 20 inches for twelve; and the depthfrom 14 to 15, exclusive of the partition above andbelow the drawer. In some sideboards there is a platedrawer under the plain one next the top; this platedrawerforms a small recess between the middle legs, andbrings forward with it an arch at each end, planted onthe front of it, together with the partition which appearsunder the drawer above it; it is usually lined with green.cloth. The most fashionable sideboards at present arethose without cellerets, or any kind of drawer, havingmassy ornamented legs, and moulded frames.SILK, a very soft fine bright thread, the work of an insectcalled the silk worm. The silk worm is a native ofChina, where the culture of silk was anciently confined, but in modern times is extended to most partsof Europe.SIZE. See GILDING and PAINTING.SOFA. Dr. Johnson thinks the term is of eastern extraction, which, he says, is a splendid seat covered withcarpet. Our sofas are, however, never covered withcarpet, but with various pattern cottons and silks. Thesofa, in plate 75, will look well executed in a mahoganyframe and carved, with the pannels above the stuffingreeded in mahogany.The Ionic volutes on the legs are in conformity to thetitle of the sofa, that being a Grecian order.SOFATABLE. Are those used before a sofa, and are generally made between 5 and 6 feet long, and from 22 to 2 feetbroad; the frame is divided into two drawers, as shewnX306 SPHin plate 76, where is also the design of a sofa, that astranger may more clearly see the use of such tables.The ladies chiefly occupy them to draw, write, or readupon.For writing and drawing upon in particular, we havegiven a design of one in plate 77; the top of whichrises by means of lines connected with the four squarestandards which support a frame, to which the risingtop is hinged, as shewn in the section on the right hand.The tapered pillars which support the whole table areglued up hollow to receive the standards b, c, and thewinch at a, turns a perpetual screw, which acts upon theaxle g, and winds it round to the right, and receives theline round it. The lines pass over small pullies, denotedby the white circles, and consequently each line has aperpendicular power in raising the desk. With respectto the ſtandards at the opposite end from that whichhas the winch, the lines are conveyed to them in asquare vacuity behind the drawer, which is made narrowfor that purpose; and observe, that the small drawerwhich is at each end in the front is only sham,as muft appear from the section and the nature ofthe plan.SOFFIT, in architecture, is the under side either of thecorona or architrave. In the rich orders of architecture,the soffits are cut into compartments of roses and pateras, &c.SPHERE. A solid body contained under one single surface, and having a point in the middle, called the centre,whence all the lines drawn to the circumference areequal. A line passing through the centre of a sphereis called its axis, and the extreme points of the axis itspoles.SPHEROID. Is a solid approaching to the figure of aSQU 307sphere, but not exactly round, having one of its diameters larger than the other. It is supposed to begenerated by the revolution of the semi-ellipsis aboutits axis.SPIRAL LINE, is a curve of the circular kind, which inits progress recedes from its centre, as in winding fromthe vertex down to the base of the cone, and in this it isdistinguished from the helix line, or thread of a screw,which does not recede from its centre as it revolves roundits cylinder.SPRING. Is represented by a young man of an exactstature, clothed on one side in white, on the other inblack; a broad girdle set with stars, holding a ram underhis arm, and a garland of several flowers in his lefthand; two wings on his feet, one white and the otherblack.. Youth, denotes spring or beginning of the year;just stature, because of the equator, or equal day andnight which happens in the spring; black and whitetherefore denote day and night. The girdle, the equinoxial line; the ram, the sun's entrance into the sign ofthe zodiac at that time, named aries, or the 21st ofMarch; the wings, the swiftness of time.SQUAB, a kind of seat. See COUCH, and plate 48.SQUARE, is a geometrical figure, having four equal sidesat right angles with each other.It also denotes a useful instrument among cabinetmakers, by which they make the end of a board square,or at right angles with its sides, or by which they drawa line perpendicular to the side or edge of any thing.These squares may also be made with a joint, to act as abevel, serving to draw any oblique line .There are also set squares made of quarter mahogany,in the form of a right angle triangle, with which to set308 STAany thing square. There are also Tsquares, used muchin drawing; such squares ought to be made of hardftraight-grained wood, especially the blade; and observe,the thickness of the blade should not be more than oneeighth of an inch thick, which should be chamfered offon all sides to one-third of the thickness of the blade;it should then be dovetailed into the stock, observingto haunch the edges of the square about one- eighth on tothe stock, which preserves it from splitting. The edgesof the square should then be corrected before the remainingpart of the stock be glued on.1STAIN. Is to give another or retinge the former colourof any subſtance . The art of ſtaining wood was morein use at the time when inlaying was in fashion, whichrequired most of the primitive colours; at present red andblack flains are those in general use.For a good black ftain, put into a glazed earthenvessel a pint of ftrong vinegar, two ounces of fine ironfilings, and half a pound of pounded galls, and allowthem to infuse for three or four hours on hot cinders;after this, increase the heat of the fire, and pour into thismixture four ounces of copperas and a small addition ofwater, having half an ounce of borax and as muchindigo dissolved in it, and make the whole boil till a frothrises over it: rub several coats of this upon the wood tobe ſtained black, after it has been first washed over withaqua-fortis a little diluted with water. Laftly, when thework is dry polish it with oil and wax.It is usual however, in preparing for ftaining a black,to give two or three coats of logwood chips well boiledin water, which will contribute towards a good blackwhen the aqua fortis is not used.Some do no more than dissolve a file in vinegar bymeans of stone sulphur, which they rub on the file whenSTA 309it is made hot to a pale degree; after which they bruisegall nuts, and add some rubſtone mud to it, and keep thewhole together in a bottle. This composition requires,previous to laying it on, that the wood should be washedwith logwood as noted above.A third method is as follows: dissolve some alum inwater bya moderate heat, and in this water soak thewood to be stained black, or brush it over with theliquid a few times. Then take a quantity of logwoodchips, and boil them in water in an earthen vessel till thewater be reduced to half the quantity; pound or grind alittle indigo and add to the liquor, and boiling the wholetogether, lay it on the wood quite hot, which after itdries, repeat three times, and it will produce a violetcolour. Laftly, take verdigrease at discretion , and boilit in its ownvinegar, and with this wash the work over,which will produce a good black.To dye a black -the veneer should be soaked in alumwater in a luke-warm state, then let it be put into strongand boiling hot liquor of logwood chips, where it maycontinue for some days; after which take gall nuts,madder, sumack, alder bark, and iron filings, and boilthem together; and after the liquor is cool put in somevitriol, and in the liquor soak the veneer till it is dyedthrough. Take care not to infuse too much vitriol,which would over tender the wood. The safeft methodis firft to prove a small portion of veneer, and thenproceed to any quantity.It is said, box or pear-tree may be dyed black as follows:fteep the wood in alum water for three or four days, thenboil it in common linseed oil with a little Roman vitrioland sulphur; the longer it is boiled the wood will be theblacker, but will become too hard if the due time beexceeded. This mode, however, can only answer for310 STAsmall pieces, such as turned vases, pateras, or smallround or oval portrait frames.To ſtain a red-may be performed by quick limeslacked in urine, which the wood is to be covered withwhilst it is hot; but in this liquid it would be a help toadd that extracted from Brazil wood, to prevent its beingof too dark a red. Or if the wood be soaked in alumwater with some tartar in it, about halfthe quantity ofthealum , and afterwards in Brazil wood stain made strong,in whichthe wood muſt be either soaked for halfa day, orbe repeatedly brushed over with the liquid till the ftain isproduced.Fordying red-some recommend the wood to be boiledin alum water, then to put them into a tincture of Brazilwood with alum water for two or three weeks.In repairing old furniture, to bring the new to thecolour of the old mahogany, use a little soft soap, andlet it lay on the part for some time, till the new appear tobe nearly the same colour as the old. If the soap do notbring up the new part sufficiently ſtrong, add to it a littlequick lime and chamber lye, or the lime of itself will do,when mixed with soap.Stains in stuffs, silks, cotton, and linen, maybe takenout by the following method: take two pounds of springwater, put in it a little pot-ash about the quantity of awalnut, and a lemon cut in small slices; mix this welltogether, and let it stand for 24 hours in the sun, thenttrain it through a cloth, and put the clear liquid upfor use. As soon as the spot is taken out wash the partwith water.To take out spots of grease, pitch , oil , or ink, thefollowing receipts are recommended:For grease-rub the parts with oil of turpentine, andafterwards wash them again in rectified spirits of wine.STA 311If the oil or grease be in white silk, rub the spots wellwith aqua-fortis so diluted as not to burn it, afterwardsrub them again with the glair of new laid eggs; hangit to dry, and laftly, wash it with fair water, and pressit well.To take out spots of pitch or tar out of cloth - rubhogs' lard well into the spots, and let it remain for 24hours or more if necessary; then rub it well with thehands, and wring it; and laftly, wash it clean with soapand water.To take out spots of ink out of silk -take ftrongwhite wine vinegar and hot ashes, rub them well uponthe spots, and afterwards wash with soap and water.Genoa soap is esteemed the beft for this purpose. Thejuice of lemons is sometimes used inſtead, or along withthe vinegar; and hot white bread, just taken out of theoven, and applied to both sides, will take out oil or greasefrom silk.STAND. Amongst cabinet makers is applied to differentsmall pieces of furniture; as a music stand, basonstand, table stand, or a small pillar and claw table stand,and a tray stand.STATE BED, are those intended for the accommodationof princes and noblemen. Of this kind of bed, we mayconsider that in plate 13, which is there termed a Frenchbed, yet it must be observed, that something morecharacteristic of the magnificence of kings and princesis requisite to constitute a ſtate bed, of which 1 publisheda specimen above. 12 years ago in my quarto work; thedesign and description of which I scruple not to recommend to the reader, though it is now the property ofMr. Bains, Bookseller, Paternofter-row. In my presentconfined plan I have no room for another design of this"312 STAkind, but hope to have an opportunity in future in myintended large work.STATUE, a piece of sculpture in full relievo, representinga human figure. Some define it to be in high relievo,and insulate, that is, detached from a back ground, torepresent some person distinguished by birth, merit, orgreat actions, placed as an ornament in a fine building,or exposed in a public place to preserve the memory ofhis worth. In Greece, one of the highest honours towhich a citizen could aspire, was to obtain a ſtatue to perpetuate his memory; ftatues are distinguished under fourdifferent kinds . The firft, are those less than life. Thesecond, are those equal to life. The third, those thatexceeded. And the fourth, exceeded it twice, thrice,and sometimes more, and were called colossuses.The first class of statues were used for great men, kings,and for the pagan deities themselves. The second, orthose equal to life, were erected at the public expence toperpetuate the memory of men of learning and greatvirtue. The third, amongft which are those that surpassed the life once and a half, were for Emperors; andthose of double proportion were for heroes. Statues arenot only various as to magnitude and use, but also inquality or denomination. First, an allegorical ſtatue is thatwhich under a human figure or symbol, represents something of another kind; as a part of the earth, a season,age, element, temperament, time, &c. Second, curuleftatutes, are those which are represented in chariots drawnby big or quadriga, that is, by two or four horses,of which kind there were several in the circusses, andthose seen with triumphal arches on antique medals.Third, equestrian ftatue, is that which represents someillustrious person on horseback, as that famous one ofMarcus Aurelius at Rome, that of King Charles I. atSUP 313PCharing Cross, &c. Fourth, a Greek ſtatue, denotesa figure that is naked and antique, such were those oftheir deities, and the Athlete of the Olympic games;the ſtatues of heroes were particularly called Achilleanstatues, by reason of the great number of figures ofAchilles in most of the cities of Greece. Fifth, hydraulicſtatue, is any figure placed as an ornament of a fountainor grotto, or that does the office of a jette d'eau, a cock,spout, or the like, by any of its parts, or by any attribute it holds the same is to be underſtood of any animalserving for the same purpose. Sixth, a pedeſtrian ſtatue,is one standing on foot, as that of King Charles II . inthe Royal Exchange. Seventh, Roman ftatues is anappellation given to such as are clothed, and which receive various names from their different dresses. Thoseof emperors with long gowns over their armour werecalled ftatuæ paludata; those of captains and cavaliers,with coats of arms, thoracate; those of soldiers withcuirasses, loricatæ; those of senators and augurs, trabeatæ; those of magiftrates with long robes, togatæ;those of the people with a plain tunica, tunicatæ; andlaftly, those of women with long trains, stolatæ. Encycl..:Brit.STONE, is a hard, solid mineral body, neither fusible, normalleable, formed in the body of the earth.SUPPER-CANTERBURY. See plate 26, and the articleCANTERBURY. The upper part of the large design isintended to take off occasionally; for this end, the pillarswhich support the top are screwed fast up to the top andhave strong pins at the bottom, which fall into sockets.The design on the right is for a single gentleman or lady.The circular top receives a tin case, to be japanned, forholding the plates; and the tray also below muſt have a314 SYC1tin lining to receive knives and forks; the small drawerinthe stretcher is for spoons.SYCAMORE TREE, one of the species of the maple tree.See MAPLE.Thefollowing articles were omitted inpage 302.SATTIN, a glossy kind of silk stuff, the warp of whichis very fine, and stands so as to cover the coarserwoof.SATTIN WOOD. This is, amongft cabinet makers, ahighly valuable wood, the best of which is of a finestraw colour cast, and has therefore a cool, light, andpleasing effect in furniture, on which account it hasbeen much in requisition among people of fashion forabove 20 years past. There are various species of thiswood, but I can find no botanical classification for thisnor several other foreign woods, in any author that hasyet come to my knowledge. The East India sattin woodis of the hardest texture, and of a small rich figure inthe grain, and I think no inftance in nature, yet discovered, does exceed the beauty of the richest sort of it.The West India sattin wood is less hard, more bold infigure, sometimes paler in colour, which is a favouritequality, and often more valuable than the East Indiawood, because of its breadth and general utility. TheEast India wood runs narrow, and is used in generalonly for cross banding. The foxy, or red coloured sattinwood should be avoided; but sometimes this is not aquality in the wood, but an accident occasioned by beingcut at the wrong season, when the sap is rising, or itmay be from dampness, or being suddenly exposed tothe sun, when it comes from the saw, which draws thesap tothe surface, or other causes inexplicable. When 1216ECTAF 315however, the cause is not natural, it may be helped, afterthe work is finished, by rubbing the surface over withlemon juice and salt, a little aqua-fortis , and oil ofvitriol,mixed cautiously, and first applied to a small piece ofthe sattin wood veneer; and it requires this assistance,that the ingredients may be duly proportioned. Whenthe liquid has restored the natural colour by eating outthe sap, the surface must be rushed over immediately,and then varnished as quick as possible, that the air maynot re-enter, and draw the sap forward again. A finetint of sattin wood may be imitated by gambouge,bister, and a little lake; and for shading furniture on thedark side, add more of the bister and lake.TTABBY, a kind of rich silk , which has undergone theoperation of tabbying, which is performed by an engraved roller, which preffes it into uneven surfaces, andthese reflecting the rays of light differently, makes itappear wavey. ,TABLE, a moveable piece of furniture, supported variously,and used to place things upon. In cabinet making, thereare a great variety of tables, with names appropriate totheir use, as Dining, Card, Library, Pier, Sideboard,Sofa, and Writing Tables - which see under thesearticles.TABLET, a little table. Hence the ornamented tablet,frequently introduced in carved frames, and in the fronts.of table frames.TAFFETY, a fine smooth silken stuff, remarkably glossy.There are taffeties of all colours, some plain, and others316 TAPstriped with gold, silver, &c. -Some are chequered, othersflowered.TAMBOUR, in French, signifies a drum. Tambour tables,amongst cabinet-makers, are oftwo sorts, one for a gentleman or lady to write at; and another for the latter toexecute needle work by.The writing tambour tables are almost out of use atpresent, being both insecure, and very liable to injury.They are called tambour from the cylindrical form oftheir tops, which are glued up in narrow slips of mahogany, and laid upon canvas, which binds them together,and suffers them, at the same time, to yield to the motiontheir ends make in the curved groove in which they run,so that the top may be brought round to the front, andpushed at pleasure to the back again, when it is requiredto be open.Tambour doors are often introduced, in small piecesof work, when no great strength or security is requisite,as in night tables, and pot cupboards.The tambour tables used by the ladies, are on pillarand claws; and at the top of the stand or pillar is awooden ball inclosed in a concave sphere, to which isfixed a circular rim of wainscot, about a quarter of aninch thick and 2 broad. To this rim the ground fortheneedle-work is fixed by lacing it over; and as the wholeframe moves by the ball fixed as above, the work maybe turned to any position as the worker may require.TANGENT. -See DRAWING, in Supplement.TAPER, or THERM. To taper table or chair legs, isto diminish their thickness towards the ground. Taperedlegs look handsome in work, but to me they appear quiteunnatural, ' to take all the tapering from the inside, as isthe practice of some workmen. This mode offendsagainst every instance of nature, and the chaste taste ofthe ancients. A man's leg tapers nearly alike on allTEN 317sides. The sprightly rush and willow, by the waterbrooks, rise with regular tapering from their base; andthose most beautiful models of antiquity, the five orders,diminish in their shaft, in regular circular gradation towards their cap.TAPESTRY, a kind of cloth made of wool and silk,adorned with figures of different animals, and formerlyused for lining walls of rooms.TARRASS, a sort of plaster, or strong mortar, chieflyused in lining basons of water, cisterns, walls, andreservoirs.TASSEL, a kind of pendant ornament used in upholsterywork. The drawing lines of festoon curtains have tassels at their ends. And opposite to this side, thereshould be a false line and a tassel to it, to match the rightside ofthe window.Balance tassels, are those which are used in fire.screens to keep the mount up. The weight of the screenmount must be ascertained , and then a lead tassel isformed of equal weight, with a hole through the centreto take the line, which then is covered and worked asany other tassel.TEMPERENCE, in painting, is represented by a gentlewoman holding a bridle in one hand, and the stay of aclock in the other, and an elephant by her. The bridledenotes her dominion over the passions and appetites.The elephant her strict rule in the measure of her diet,as this animal, being accustomed to eat a certain quantity,will not take any more.TENT, from tentorium to stretch out, is a pavilion orportable house. Tents are made of Russia duck and tick,for officers and soldiers to lie under when in the field.The size of the officer's tent is not fixed; some regiments have them of one size and some of another. Acaptain's tent and marquee is generally 10 feet broad,318 ΤΕΝ14 feet deep, and 8 feet high. The subalterns' are onefoot less; the major's and lieutenant colonel's a footlarger. The subalterns of foot lie two in a tent, andthose of horse but one. The tents of private men are6 feet square and 5 feet high, and hold five soldierseach. The tents of horse are 7 feet broad and 9 fectdeep; they likewise hold five men and their accoutrements. In plate 79, is a design for a field officer's tentand marquee, which has been executed for Sir WatkinWilliamWynn, by Mr. Marshal, of Gerrard-street, Soho;and was highly approved of by that gentleman and hisofficers. The marquee, or outside, is of Russia duck,and the inside, or tent, is of tick, standing within themarquee, about 8 or 9 inches or more; so that the tent,bythis means, breaks offthe water that may press throughthe duck in heavy rains. The inside of the tent is linedwith cotton, and hung in draperies. The plan of thetent is semi-circular at each end; and where the circlecommences, a curtain is hung extending the whole widthof the tent, parting in the middle for the easy admissionof company to dine. Within the circular ends the servants wait, and are thus parted from the company. Thecircular room at the end ofthe tent, is the sleeping apartment, which has a passage to it leading streight from thebody of the tent, in length about 12 feet, and 8 feetwide, having a curtain on each side, behind which theyput trunks and other articles out of the way.The main roof is supported by two upright posts driveninto the ground, between which there is a pole extendedfor the ridge of the roof. The circular sleeping roomhas only one post in the centre, by which its roof is supported. The porch, or first entrance, has a small postat each angle, and a slight frame made to join to theroof of the marquee. The painted valence on the ridgeofthe roof is of convass, and the colours are to corre

THR 319spond with the standard of the regiment. There is also asort of valence that goes all round the cove of the roofon the side wall, hanging about 9 or 10 inches deep.From each seam in the Russia duck is a line stretchedout, by a wooden runner, with two holes, through oneof which the cord is knotted, and the other gathers thecord as it is drawn tight round the pin, as shewn ata. From each extremity of the side- walls is what iscalled a weather line crossing each other, and drawnround a pin as the other lines, as may be observed fromthe drawing. These lines are the only means for keepingout the side-walls to their place, and to guard them againstwinds, together with the loops and pins, which are atthe bottom of walls, as the plate shews. For the furniture of a tent, see the article CAMP. The widths andlength of the Russia duck for the roof, may easily befound, by laying down a semi-plan on paper of a largescale, and dividing the plan into seams, to suit the cloth;and then drawing a perpendicular line from the centre ofthe circular end, to give the height of the roof; and aline being drawn from any of those divisions, gives thelength of the seams, and the width is taken from theplan bythe compasses, and the opening measured on thescale, which gives the width.TERMINI, in architecture, denotes a kind of ſtatues orcolumns, adorned at the top with the figure of a man's,woman's, or satyr's head, as a capital; the lower partending in a kind of sheath or scabbard.TERRACE, a walk or bank of earth, raised in a gardenor court to a due elevation for a prospect. The name isalso given to the roofs of houses that are flat, wherewe may walk.THRONE. A royal seat, or chair of ftate enriched witharchitecture and ornaments of sculpture, raised on oneor more ſteps, and covered with a canopy.320 TRATILIA, the lime tree. Botanists reckon four species ofthis tree. The flowers have a fragrant smell, and provegrateful to bees. This wood is light, smooth, and of aspongy texture . It contains a gummy juice, whichbeing repeatedly boiled and clarified, produces a subſtancelike sugar. It is thought to be a native of Britain,though some think that it was imported into England inthe year 1652. This wood is much in use amongcarversand laft makers.TIME. In painting, is represented by an old man, baldbehind; he is winged, to denote the swiftness of time;in one hand is a scythe, and in the other an hour glass;the former denoting time will destroy every thing, thelatter, that time under providential direction, muſt run outits appointed period.TORUS. See MOULDINGS, in Supplement.TRAMMEL. A mathematical instrument with which todescribe ovals.TRANSVERSE, going across from the right to the left.The longest diameter of an ellipsis is called the transverse,and the shortest the conjugate diameter.TRAVERSE, amongst cabinet makers, is to plane acrossthe grain ofthe wood.TRAY, from the Saxon language, to carry, anciently akind of trough hollowed out of a piece of wood, but isnow applied in cabinet making, to boards with rims roundthem, on which to place glasses, plates, and a tea equipage. Hence there are tea trays of various shapes andsizes. Dinner trays, butler's trays, knife trays, and combtrays. The dinner tray is for taking up dishes and platesto the dining table; their sides are 3 inches deep allround, with handle holes in each side, which may bemade of good Honduras, but the bottoms should be ofSpanish, for the reason assigned under the article BUTTRE 321LER'S TRAY, which see. The length of the largestdinner trays are 32 inches, and width 2 feet; full-sizedtea trays are nearly the same. Mahogany knife trays ofthe best kind have two partitions, with a brass handlewhich clasps over the edges of two partitions, and screwsto the sides, which are 3 or 3 inches deep; the insidelength 14 inches, and the width from 10 to 12 inches;observe, the sides of these knife trays are square up, notsloped as formerly. Comb trays are 6 inches by 8 or9inches long, with bevelled sides and mitred corners,generally inserted amongst the utensils of ladies dressingtables . They are mitered upon a block of wood andkeyed at the corners.TREE, a large vegetable, rising with one woody stem to aconsiderable height. The magnitude of some trees istruly surprising, and in some instances next to incredible.The largest tree in Europe, is a chesnut on mount Etna,said to be 160 feet round, but quite hollow within.And there have been seen by travellers, both oaks andelms 20 feet in circumference. Some yews have beenfound in Britain 60 feet round. Palms, in Jamaica, attain the height of 200 feet; and some of the pines inNorfolk Island are 280 feet high. The yearly growthof oaks and elms, in taking the girth of them, amountsto about 1 inch and a half, or sometimes not more thanone, which gives one- sixth part of it in thickness of thewood added to the tree, or something under three-eighthsin diameter. This addition, when the tree is cut down,and sawn directly across, shews itself by a ring whichit has for every year's growth, which become, however,Jess visible towards the centre.The bulk of trees depends both on the soil and heat of.the climate where it grows. At the distance from thepoles where vegetation commences, there are no trees,but only pining and slender shrubs; but as the climateY322 TRIadvances towards the equator, the trees increase in size.This is observable in mahogany, which in general is ofthe largeſt diameter, every species of which grows in thehottest countries. The largest I ever saw was in London about twenty years since, which was upwards of8 feet over one way; but considering that it was squared,the circle that would inscribe such a square, would be38feet in circumference; and it is most probable, thatthere are much greater standing in their native soil, asimmoveable.The season for felling trees has been much disputed,but the most proper is settled to be from the time theleaves begin to fall off, till they begin to bud again in thespring. In this season, the sap has settled down into theroots of the tree; therefore the trunk at this time willbe freest from that sap which tends to rot the timber.An act ofparliament, however, requires oak timber tobe felled in the spring, for the sake of the tanning, alder,and dying barks, which come freely off at the timewhen the sap begins to rise . And, according to Buffonand some others, this is no prejudice, but a real benefitto the wood of the tree, provided it remain unfelled fortwo or three years, at the end of which period the sapbecomes hardened by the heat of the sun, and will be asdurable as the most solid part of the wood, which is itself also improved by this method. See the articleBARK.TRELLISE, slips of wood crossing each other at rightangles, or in an oblique direction.TRIDENT, an attribute of Neptune, being a kind ofsceptre in form of a spear or fork, with three teeth;whence the word.TRIGLYPHS, an ornament in the Doric freeze. Seeplate 11 , No. 6; also plate 31 , and the description of theDoric order.TUL 323TRIO-TABLE, a sort of small work table, made in threeparts, to shut up into each other, and which may beused either jointly or separately. See plate 78.TRIPOD. In antiquity, a famed sacred seat or stool, supported by three feet, on which the priests and sybils satto render, cr deliver their oracles. Literally, it denotesany thing with three feet, from rodios, tripodion, acompound.Tripod stands have been variously introduced for ornament. They have been much in use for the support oflights, and continue to be so, though there are otherspreferred as more fashionable. See plate 60.There are also tripod fire-screens, and tripod worktables. See SCREEN.TRIPOLI, a kind of soft stone, found in Tripoli, in Barbary, from whence it was brought to us. Of this stonesome is now found in England, of a brownish or yellowcolour. It is much used in polishing, particularly invarnishing, which see.TROPHY, amongst the ancients, was a monument ofvictory. Such monuments were adorned with variouswarlike instruments. Hence in the temples, dedicated tosuch pagan idols as preside over war, the friezes of theirentablatures were decorated with weapons of war. Inmodern ornaments, several species of trophies are introduced, as music trophies, love trophies, &c.TRUNK, from truncus, Latin, a chest or box usuallycovered with leather. In a botanical sense, it is thestem or body of a tree. And from the cylindrical formof the body of a tree, probably the term trunk, appliedto a chest, was derived, as they are usually made withcircular tops, and at other times an entire cylinder.TULIP WOOD. A finely variegated, hard, East Indiawood, in great repute amongst cabinet-makers, for crossbanding. The stripes of it are variegated like a tulip of324 VARa fine blush red, and fairish white: hence its nametulip wood. The trees of tulip wood seldom run morethan 5 inches wide, and 4 feet long; in point of weight,it is hardly inferior to any. The beauty of this woodsoon decays, when exposed to the sun; to preventwhich, all work, in which it is used, ought to bevarnished.TURNING. The art of forming hard bodies, as wood,ivory, stone, and iron, into a round or oval shape, bymeans of a machine called a lathe. It appears that thisart, in comparison with the practice of turning amongstthe ancients, is in no state of improvement, but ratherimpaired or fallen back; for there are vases to be seenof their work, with figures, in half relief upon them,which was the work of the lathe.TURMERIC ROOT, used by dyers to give a yellowcolour.TURPENTINE, a transparent gum or rosin, which flows,either naturally or by incision, from several lofty resinous trees, as larch, pines, fir, &c .TUSCAN, the name of one of the five orders in architecture . See plate 30, and under COLUMN.VVANISH, in perspective, generally alludes to some pointor line, in which a vanishing point is situated. Anobject is said to vanish in proportion as it recedes fromthe plain of the picture, or base line; and having approached the vanishing point or line, it becomes invisible. See PERSPECTIVE, in Supplement.VARNISH, a clear limpid fluid, capable of hardeningwithout losing its transparency.VAR 325A varnish for small boxes, &c. Dissolve 2 ouncesof gum mastich, and 8 ounces of gum sandarach, in aquart of highly rectified spirits of wine, then add 4 ouncesof Venice turpentine.Another varnish, for larger work: -Dissolve, in aquart of spirits of wine, 8 ounces of gum sandarach, 2ounces of seed lack , and 4 ounces of rosin; then add 6ounces of Venice turpentine. If it be desired to havethe varnish red to help the colour of mahogany, wherethere are no white wood lines or delicate cross bands,then more of the seed lack should be used . And take'dragon's blood and alkanet root, pour upon them spiritsof wine, till the colours are extracted from these substances. Strain the liquid through a cloth; and whenthe sandarach and seed lack are dissolved, by continualshaking, mix the staining liquid with it.Pure white spirit varnish, for covering delicate surfaces, ought to be carefully managed, as every kind offoulness and dirt, diminishes its lustre and transparency.―The best gum sandarach should be procured, and thefairest coloured of it should be selected from the rest;and whatever quantity of sandarach is put into a bottle,or other vessel for making it, let the proof rectifiedspirits of wine be poured into it, till it rise somewhatmore above the sandarach, than the height which thegum rises in the boule; then shake the whole together,till the gum is dissolved . Let then about 3 ounces ofwhite rosin, and as much Venice turpentine be added toit , and shake the whole together, and let it stand in thebottle it was made in for use. And observe, not toshake the bottle before you begin to use it , but pour offthe top part of it for present use, and the rest will clarifyas it stands. Some recommend 凿the mixture to be effected by heat, as a water bath or sand- heat, which maybe done, by taking an caithen jar and putting in the326VARsubstances as above, and three-fourths of the spirits ofwine, covering the vessel close up, and set it into hotwater, till the whole be dissolved.Copal varnish is composed of lintseed oil and gumcopal, and is much used in painting, and for varnishingpictures. Take 16 ounces of copal, and let it be dissolved over a slow fire . Then take 8 ounces of bleachedlintseed oil, and pour upon it, that they may incorporate by stirring the whole round with a wooden spatula.Then taking it off the fire, add to it 16 ounces of thebest spirits of turpentine, not till it is pretty well cooled,otherwise the spirits would take fire from the oil, and itmight prove of dangerous consequence . If, on beingperfectly cool, the composition should be too thick, itmay easily be diluted with the spirits to any degree requisite, as it is used; and it is proper to take notice, thatif mahogany work be coated with this varnish, it shouldbe used very thin, or it will be tedious to get it sufficientlydry. But for this purpose, a portion of black rosin maybe melted into it, and then it will dry rapidly, withoutbeing reduced too much with the spirits .MASTIC VARNISH. Mastic or mastich, is a transparent resin from the lantise-tree. Into one quart ofspirits of turpentine, put in 12 ounces of genuine mastich in tears, and very cautiously heating them till theyare thoroughly incorporated. The safest way will beto put the ingredients into a glazed earthen vessel, andplace it in boiling water. In case of fire, a wet clothshould be at hand, by which to smother the flame.This varnish, with the addition of copal varnish to it,will answer very well for pictures.TURPENTINE VARNISH may be made as follows:Take a pound of common turpentine, a quarter of apound of black rosin, and a small quantity of dryingoil, and dissolve them over a gentle fire. Lastly, whenVAR 327the mixture is inclining to cool, let fall a drop of thespirits of turpentine, and it will be seen whether it beinclinable to take fire; if not, pour in gently a quart ofit, which, ifthe vessel be placed into hot boiling water,may be properly incorporated without danger.A BLACK VARNISH. Take 3 ounces of asphaltum,2 ounces of black rosin, 12 ounces of amber, and meltthem together; after which take 6 ounces of drying oil,and gently heat the whole again. Lastly, put into thismixture 12 ounces of spirits of turpentine, as beforedescribed. This, and every other varnish contained inthe preceding directions, should be strained throughcloths, und bottled close up for use.In varnishing any work for polishing, the surfaceshould be well rushed, and perfectly true. Then giveto the top one coat of copal varnish, which will preserve the spirit varnish more effectually from cracking.Then repeat three lays of white hard spirit varnish, andrush off the ground, when it is sufficiently dry. Afterthis four more coats should be added, not oftener thanonce a day; for if they are repeated in haste, before eachlay of varnish dry, it will prove a tedious time before itwill harden sufficiently to polish. When a sufficientbody of varnish is thus prepared for polishing, takepounded pumice ftone and water, with a rag, and rubthe strakes of varnish level, then wash it off, and let thework ftand a day or two to harden again; for as thepumice ftone worked down, so it must in reason cometo that part of the varnish less hardened, and thereforemust require a day at least to dry. Take then tripoli,and work with it in the same manner as before: dry thework, and let it stand another day. Lastly, take rottenstone and water, and clear off with oil and flour. Somecabinet-work may be done in a more expeditious way, byonly giving three or four coats of varnish, and then328 VERrushing it down without polishing, give a fine thin coatof clear varnish, and it is finished.VASE, a term frequently usedfor ancient vessels dugfrom underground, or otherwise found and preserved in the cabinetsof the curious. In architecture, the appellation vase isalso given to those ornaments placed on cornices, pedeftals, &c. representing the vessels of the ancients,particularly those used in sacrificing, as incense pots,flower pots , &c.VAULT, an arched roof.VENEERING. Amongst cabinet makers, is the art oflaying down and gluing very thin cut wood, of a finequality and valuable, upon common wood. See CAUL.When they veneer with the hammer, they temper itwith glue size, and warm it at the fire; and likewisethey air the ground, and laying the veneer on it, theywork the hammer both ways till no more glue will comeout. Sometimes the object of veneering is cheapness, andsometimes appearance. In most cases, however, theground, glue, and extra time are equivalent to the expence of solid wood, except it be to save very rich solidboards.VERDIGRISE, is a corrosion of copper, much used as agreen paint. In grinding it, small pieces of copper willfrequently be found in it, to clear it of which it is sometimes diftilled, which improves it much, but adds to theprice. To make a fine green it should be well groundupon a hard ftone, with a little white lead and dryingoil, and when it is free from every kind of grit, whichmay be easily proved by passing it between the finger andthumb, then add a little king's yellow or more white, asthe shade may be required; and observe, that this greennever comes up to its perfect brightness till turpentinevarnish be mixed with it, a little of which may be usedat the time of grinding, and the reſt put in immediatelyVIR 329before laying it on; and if the verdigrise be groundin a strong body, it will bear and be improved by agood quantity of the varnish. This colour naturallydries quick, and therefore requires nothing of a siccativequality to help it. If it be fine work that will allow forthe expence, the laſt coat of the work may be inade moſtbrilliant by using only the distilled verdigrise with a propertemperature of the other ingredients juft mentioned, anda small portion of copal varnish in addition . And, beparticularly careful to grind enough at one time to compleat the work, for if there be any more grinding, theshade will vary, and the work may thereby be spoiled.VERDETER, is also a preparation of copper, used sometimes for a blue, as it inclines more to that shade thanverdigrise. In general it is used for a green, being somewhat cheaper than the preceding colour; and if goodking's yellow, or patent yellow, be used with it, it willmake a handsome green when treated as directed in theforegoing article.VERMILION, a very bright and beautiful red colour,composed of quick- silver and sulphur, known by thename of minium among the ancients; but that whichgoes bythis name amongſt us is only a preparation oflead. Vermilion of itself is too glaring a colour foralmoſt every article of painting, but by inserting a smallquantum of Prussian blue and lake, it is brought to anagreeable crimson red, like lake itself, for which it maybe used in cheap japanning, when the price will notadmit of real lake.VESTIBLE, a kind of entrance into a large building, or anopen place before a hall.VIRTUE, in painting, is represented by a comely virgin,having wings behind, a spear in her right hand, and inher left a crown of laurel, and a sun in her bosom.Her youth denotes, that virtue cannot decay, but per830 URN1petually raise the mind to that state where it will be beſtrepaid, which is expressed by the wings; the laurel signifies that she is ever proof againſt vice, and the sun thatvirtue is cherished by the natural dictates of conscience,the spear her dominion and rule over vicious habits.VISION, the faculty of sight.VISUAL LINES, in perspective, represent the rays oflight issuing from every point or angle of an illuminedobject to the pupil of the eye of the spectator, a sectionof which is the true representation of the object on theplane of the picture. Hence all lines drawn to the pointof sight are termed visual, and are considered perpendicular to the picture.VITRIOL, a compound salt, formed bythe union of iron ,copper, or zink, with the sulphuric acid. It is of threecolours, white, blue, and green, according to the metal.From this definition , the use of vitriol in dying any kindof black is evident.VOLUTE, in architecture, a kind of spiral scroll used inthe Ionic capital, and that of the Composite. SeeDRAWING, in Supplement.Uyet ULTRAMARINE is the finest and most valuable bluediscovered; the price of which hinders it from beingmuch used. It is the moft brilliant and durable blue, andis used by the first landscape painters in their laft touchesin ſkies.UMBER, a colour,of brown earth, of which there is bothraw and burnt.URN, a kind of vase of a roundish form, with a large swellin the middle, used now chiefly as ornaments, but ancientlyWIL 331they were employed to preserve the ashes of the deadafter being burnt; and were placed sometimes under thetombstone on which the epitaph was cut. Urns werealso used at their sacrifices, in which to put liquids.See VASE.WWAINSCOT. The wooden work which lines the wallsof a room as high up as the surbase.WALNUT TREE. Of this tree there are three species.The English walnut, and the white and black Virginia.Hickery is reckoned to class with the white Virginiawalnut. The black Virginia was much in use for cabinetworkabout forty or fiftyyears since in England, but is nowquite laid aside since the introduction of mahogany. Thecommon English walnut tree is much paler than theVirginia, and cannot be used but for the moſt commonpurposes.WAX. See CEMENT.}Twomechanical powers. See MECHANIC.WHITE. According to the modern doctrine of colours,is a composition of all the primitive ones. Sir IsaacNewton demonftrates that those bodies only appearwhite which reflect all the kinds of coloured rays alike.Hence, white hats have been preferred by philosophicgentlemen in hot weather; because, contrary to the blackhats, they reflect or repel the heat, whilft the black absorbs it. The white paints are white flake and whitelead. See PAINTING.WEDGE.WHEEL.WICKET, a little door within a gate.WILLOW TREE. Botanists reckon twenty-seven dif⚫ferent sorts of it, but most of these never come totrees.332 WIRWINDOW, in architecture, is an aperture for light inany building. The word window is from the Welchuynt dor, signifying, the passage for the wind orair, as the door is the passage for the people. " Before theuse of glass became general, which was not till towardsthe end of the 12th century, the windows in Britainscem generally to have been composed of paper, properlyprepared with oil, this forms no contemptible defenceagainst the intrusions of the weather. But some of theprincipal buildings, we may reasonably suppose, to havebeen furnished with windows superior to this kind.They could, however, be furnished merely with latticesof wood or sheets of linen , as those two remained theonly kind of windows in our cathedrals nearly to the8th century; and lattices continued in some of the meanertowns in Lancashire to the 18th century, and in manydiftricts of Wales, and adjoining parts of England, arein use even to the present moment. " Brit. Encycloped.After such a view of the hiftory of windows, we maywell be surprised at their present state of elegance; notonly adorned with glass, sun blinds, &c. but with therichest silks in feftoon and French draperies, crownedwith gold and richly painted cornices, a specimen ofwhich see in plates 80 and 81.Of the nature of the window rods, see Rods, and howthe lines draw see in Supplement CURTAIN.I shall therefore only observe at present, that the ringsheld in the lion's mouths should be made larger than ingeneral to admit the drapery; and if they be cast inbrass and gilded, they may hook into the mouths of thelions, and may be taken off at pleasure,WIRE DOORS, are much introduced at present in cabinet work, and with very good effect . When wireworked doors are introduced, they have generally green,white, or pink silk fluted behind it. In any commodeWOO 333or cabinets which have a part of their ornaments gilded,wire suits well with it.WOOD. Under the term tree, we have made some remarks on the growth and nature of wood, which may befurther confirmed under the following extract:"Wood is composed of a number of concentric circlesor zones, one of which is formed every year , consequently their number corresponds to the age of the tree.These zones vary in thickness according to the degreeof vegetation that took place in the year of their growthor formation. They are also of different degrees ofthickness in different parts; that part ofthe tree whichis moft exposed to the sun, and beft sheltered, growingfastest. Hence, in this country, that part of the zonewhich looked toward the south while the tree was growing, is generally the thickest. The innermoft circle orzone is the one which was first formed, the outermostwas formed the year before the tree was cut down. Thezones are at first very soft and tender, and harden bydegrees as the tree becomes older: this is the reason thatthe middle of a tree is so often much better wood than theoutside of it. The proper ligneous part ofthe wood consists of longitudinal fibres -in fasciculi; i . e. in parcels orbundles: and possessed of considerable hardness. It isthis longitudinal direction of the fibres that renders it somuch easier to cleave wood lengthwise than across thetree, or in any other direction. " Brit Encycl.Under the article BOTANY BAY WOOD, I conditionally promised to give a compleat catalogue of allthe woods, but as I have been abundantly particularin obtaining them under every article, and having hadno further information on the subject of wood, it woube needless to insert a catalogue here, especially as I findmyself straightened for room.334 ZOCWRITING TABLE. The same as library table. SeeSOFA WRITING TABLE of a new invention.YYELLOW, one of the original colours of light. Thevellows used by painters are Dutch pink, English pink,King's yellow, patent yellow, masticot, Naples yellow,orpiment, Terra de Sienna, turpeth mineral, and yellowochre.YEW TREE. This wood is reddish , durable, full ofveins, flexible, and hard. It produces berries which arered, mucilaginous, and have a sweet taste. It is acommon opinion that the leaves are poisonous to cattle,but as birds are known to eat of the berries withoutharm, it seems disputable. Yew tree is found in a wildstate inthe Highlands of Scotland. There are only twospecies of it, one of which is considered as a native ofEngland, and most countries in Europe, and NorthAmerica. The yew grows to an enormous size; in someinstances, as well as the chesnut, one having been measured in a church-yard whose circumference was 56 feet.Mr.Wheeler says, yew is easily propagated by sowingthe berries in autumn as soon as they are ripe, upon ashady bed of fresh undunged soil, covering them overabout half an inch thick with the same earth.ᏃZEBRA WOOD. A scarce and valuable wood when ofa good quality. It is streaked with brown and white asthe animal is, from whence it had the name. It is abeautiful wood for cross-banding, but at present is extremely scarce.ZOCLE, a low square member, serving to support a column, or other parts of a building, instead of a pedestal,base, or plinth.Additions and Corrections in A.AFRICA, one of the quarters of the globe, is representedin painting by a blackamoor woman, an elephant's headfor a crest, a necklace of coral, and pendants of thesame; at her ear is a scorpion . In her right hand is acornucopia with ears of corn; on her left, a fierce lionby her on one side, and a viper and serpent on the other.She is represented almoft naked to indicate the climate,and that Africa is very destitute of materials for clothing.The elephant is a native of Africa, which also aboundswith vipers and serpents.ALLIGÁZANT, a kind of black rose wood.APOPHYGE, page 9, for as read at the base.ARCH, page 12, for 170 degrees read 180°.ARCHITRAVE, page 14, for plate 8 read 9.ATTIC PILASTER, page 24. The proportions of it therestated may be more easily understood thus: -The wholeheight of it to be divided into nine equal parts, one ofwhich is for the height of the cornice, and divide one ofthose ninths into ten parts, and give twelve and a half ofthese for the height of the plinth, two for the torus, andhalf to the fillet of the base; and observe, that the widthof this pilaster is the same,as the order on which it isplaced; but when it is unconnected with any, it may betwelve and a half in diameter, or equal to the height ofthe plinth, and its projection from the wall one-fourth ofthe same.BBED-STEPS, are such as are placed by a bed side for theconvenience of getting more easily into full and highmade beds. They generally consist of three steps, risingabout 22 inches or 2 feet high, 2 feet 6 long, and 18inches wide, or less when without a night convenience.336 CLOThetop is commonly hinged, and it being inclosed, servesfor a pot cupboard.BED-CHAIR, for sick persons. It is made capable ofbeing raised to any angle at the back, by which tosupport the sickly more or less upright. The backs ofthis kind of chair turns by a pin or centre on each sideto a circular frame, made of beach, which has notchesin it to receive the legs of a horse, which raises theback. The height of the back is 26 inches, its width22 at top, and 20 at bottom . There are side wings attop as a fence to the head, projecting out about 5 inches,and two stump elbows .BED TABLE, is also for a sick person, and has no morethan a plain piece of half-inch mahogany for the top,fixed to a slight frame with four legs, about 4 or 5 incheslong. The top has a narrow rim round it, and runs about16 inches long, and 12 or 13 inches wide,сCAMP, page 126, instead of plate 78 read plate 79. Tent.CASE, or Cover, for chairs, &c. to keep them clean,made ofany inferior stuff. Cases or covers for cushionsof sofas and chairs, made to slip over and tie with tape.Covers for pier tables, made of stamped leather andglazed, lined with flannel to save the varnish of suchtable tops . Lately they have introduced a new kind ofpainted canvas, varnished, and very elastic in its nature,and will probably answer better than leather.CHAISE-LONG, from the French , signifying a long chair,couch, or squab. The chaise-long has a stuffed backand arm on each side, with a bolster, and its use prettymuch the same as the Grecian squabs or couches-plates48 and 49.CLOCK CASE, a tall piece of furniture, adapted to a pendulum clock, and is always proportioned from the figureLIB 337and fize of the dial , together with the length and motionof the pendulum. But as thefe pieces are almoft obfoletein London, and having more neceffary plates to infert,I have given no defign of any; but intend to do it inmy large work, to ſerve my country friends .DDUCHESS, a kind of bed, compofed of three parts, or achair at each end and a ftool between them. They areonly intended for a fingle lady, and are therefore notmore than about 30 inches wide. The chair ends,when apart, have the appearance of large arm or fauteuil chairs, and the middle part may be uſed as a ſtool-see plate 17. And it fhould be obſerved, that thepillars are made fhort, that they may be either incloſedwithin the ftool chairs, for which reafon the tefter isalfo made to fold.FFAUTEUIL, from the French, fignifies a large chair—See No. 2. plate 8.FOUR-POST BED-page 213, refers to plate 17 inſtead of 14.FRENCH BED- in page 213, refers to plate 18 inſteadof 13.LLIBRARY-STEPS, are fuch as are placed in a library, forthe uſe of raiſing a perfon fo as to reach at any book.Sometimes they are made to appear like a ftool, and atothers as a Pembroke table, or to rife out of a librarytable. The defign in plate 56, when incloſed, is toappear as a tool with a ftuffed feat; and to any workman, the mechanifm of it will appear clear, fo that mydeſcription need only be ſhort.The length is 2 feet, width 18 inches, heigth 17,including ftuffed feat; the firft ftep flides out of theΖ338 PACftretching rail, and is 8 inches from the ground. Theframe is 7 inches deep, and receives the upperfteps, hinged at A, fo as to fall clofe to the frame ofthe feat, that both may go down together. The handrail at b turns up by a centre, and has a ſpring under itto keep it upright, which muſt be relieved when thewhole is incloſed.Loo TABLE-plate 57 , by miſtake of the engraver termedIoo Table. This table was omitted in its proper place,which fhould have been the laft term in L.In this deſign the intention of the cupboard is evident,as alſo are ſome other advantages, which however Ifhall point out, which partly induced me to give thisdefign.First . In making thefe very large loo tables, it isoften troubleſome to find dry mahogany 6 inches fquare,which fuch a fized table requires; and even the clawsrequire 3 inch plank, of which, owing to their greatlenth and curviture, they make a great confumption.Second. The blocks alfo work up a confiderablequantity of wood, and are liable to warp and give way,which inconveniences are done away by this method, aswell as the advantage of having the cupboard, that maybe made convenient for feveral purpoſes.The pins on which the top turns, may be made ofiron, to work in a focket of brafs, let into the hangingftile, which then would never give way; and beingoiled, would never fcreech; nor are the pins in dangerof being ſtrained, as the top is fecured from comingtoo far forward by the moulding below, which is perpendicular to the top of the pedeſtal .PPACKING- age 280, line 16, inftead of when the glaſsis into endanger-read-by which the glass will be in dangerof Ireakin .4SCR 3391.MK4%PIER TABLE-plate 63, by mistake of the engraver, istermed Pire Table.SSCROLL-in page 303, is printed by miſtake ſcrowl, andin another place ferole.SUPPLEMENT.IN the courſe of proceeding with the dictionary, itoccurred to my mind, that Geometry, Perſpective, andPainting, would be moft conveniently placed togetherat the end of the work, under the idea of giving aconnected and more general treatiſe on theſe uſeful ſubjects. From this view it was, that I fo frequently havereferred the reader to the fupplement, for a more fullview of the meaning of fome terms in theſe branchesof the arts. And as geometry is the foundation ofevery branch of drawing, we fhall fay as much uponthe fubject, and no more, than what is neceſſary for adraftſman and mechanic to underſtand.And I hope, that my friends and fubfcribers to thework, will readily perceive by this plan, I throw myfelf into confiderable expence in the plates of lines contained in the fupplement, which might have beenbrought into the body ofthe work, and fo reduced thenumber of the cabinet defigns . I therefore truft, thatfhould the fupplement occafion the addition of onenumber to the original quantity, it will be candidlyexcuſed by the fubfcribers, yet it is my defire to avoid itif poffible.340 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.OF GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. Section 1.We have already defined this term, and given a fhorthint of the origin of Geometry, under the article inthe dictionary, and therefore fhall proceed immediatelyto fome uſeful problems.PROBLEM I. plate 1. fig. 1.To find the centre of any given right line, throughwhich to draw a line at right angles to it, let a, b, bethe given line; extend the compaffes from a to c, morethan half a, b, and interfect an arch from each pointa, b, and through their interfection, d, e, draw a linewhich will pafs through the centre of the faid points,and will be perpendicular to the given line a, b, asrequired.PROBLEM II. fig. 2.To erect a perpendicular at the end of any givenline, as f, g, take any opening of the compafs, andfixing one foot in g, defcribe the arch 1 , 2, 3; thenwith the fame opening, interſect the arch at 2 , and from2 and 3 defcribe two arches, meeting at 4, which pointwill be perpendicular to g. Again, if we confider f, g,as the fide of a geometrical ſquare, and would completeit, on g, defcribe f, 4, and fromf, i, 5; and on 4 drawi, 6, and the point i, will be perpendicular to f, confequently the fides ƒ, 8, 8, 4—4, i, and i, f, will beequal, and their angles 90°.PROBLEM III. fig. 3.Suppofe it required to find any number of divifionson the line 1 , 2, open the compaffes to any convenientextent, and on the indefinite line 3, 4, lay on the proGEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 341pofed number of divifions; then extend the compaffesfrom 3 to 4, and with this opening interfect two archesat a; from each divifion draw lines to a. Laftly, makea 2, a 1 , equal to the given line, by drawing the arch1, 2, through which draw the right line, and it will bedivided as required. And fhould it be neceffary to findthe fame number of divifions as flutes in a pilafter, ona line confiderably longer than 1 , 2, or 3, 4, produce thelines a, 2, 4, 6 to any length propofed, and draw through6, 5, a line parallel to 3, 4, and it is evident that it willbe correctly divided. Thus the workman may make aboard or drawing for flutes and fillets, to fuit the dimenfions of any pilafter, however ſmall or large, and mayaccurately obtain them to anfwer the circumference ofany fized pillar; and it may be obſerved, that anynumber of lines, however variable in length, may atonce be correctly divided by this method.PROBLEM IV. fig. 4, 5 and 8.To divide one line in due proportion to another, bymeans of any triangle-If the triangle c, b, be bifectedin 2 on the baſe, and confequently, c, b, double of c, 2,and if through 2 be drawn a line parallel to d, b, meeting c, d, in 2-through 2 draw 2, 2 , parallel to d, b, andd, b, will alſo be double of 2 b, d, c, of d 2. Hence, ifd, b, be divided again at 3 and 1 , and lines be drawn paralJel to c, b, through thefe points, d, c, will be dividedin the fame proportion; and if from 1, 2, 3, on d, e,lines be drawn parallel to d, b. c, b, will be divided intoequal parts alfo, or in proportion to d, c. Thus, fuppoſe we wanted a line equal to one-fourth of the rectangular fide of the triangle, draw c, d, at random, andtake any convenient opening of the compaffes, and layon 1, 2, 3, d, draw then the given line d, b, in anypofition to c, d through b draw b, c, the bafe; and lastly,1, 1, parallel to d, b, then will 1 , 1, be one-fourth of342 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.d, b; alfo 2, 2, one half and 3 , 3, three-fourths of d, b.The fame thing may be effected, when the bafe ofthe triangle is only half the length of c, b, as b, b, fig.5, where obferve the lines 1 , 2, 3, are the ſame in reſpect of the fide of the triangle d, b, as in fig. 4.In fig. 8, the triangle c, d, b, fhews that in whateverratio b. d. be divided, if the baſe c, b, be biſected at 2,and 2 , 2 , be drawn parallel to d, b, the parts on theline 2, 2, are each of them half of the correſpondentson d, b; for the lines c 1 , e 2, c 3, c 4, are each of themthe hypothenuſe of a triangle, and all the triangles areequally bifected by the line 2, 2, at their common baſec, b, therefore 2, 4, is equal half b 1—2, 5, equal halfb 2, and fo of the other.•PROBLEM V. fig. 6.To divide a given line, B, C, into feven equal parts-Take any opening of the compaffes, and draw anyline B, D, to which draw, by turning two arches,H, G, parallel; on B, D, turn the faid opening of thecompaffes fix times, from B to D, and from Gto H,lay on the fame number of openings. Laftly, draw aline from to 6, and from 2 to 5, &c. and the lineB, G, will be accurately divided as propoſed.Obferve-It is of no confequence whether the accidental opening of the compaffes be more or less than thedivifion fought for, which ever way it be, the effect isthe fame on the line B, G.PROBLEM VI. fig. 7.To find the true centre of any fegment or entirecircle- Let c, d, r, be the fegment of a circle, wholecentre is required, draw the chord c, d, or any othergreater or lefs, and from d, draw the chord d, r, andby problem 1ft bifect thefe chords, which will meet inGEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 34313, the true centre. In like manner may the centre ofa complete circle be found, when the original one hasbeen erafed; for by making any three points on thecircumference, and proceeding with the chords as hasbeen deſcribed, the true centre may be found. And theworkman, for whofe fake chiefly thefe problems areprefented, may reduce theſe further to practice by obferving, that if he wants the centre of any archway, foas to fit to a board that will join every way clofe to thearch, he may fit a fhort length of thin deal, fuppofe 18inches long, to an arch fix or ſeven feet wide, whichbeing correctly done, then defcribe on a floor, thecurve by the edge of the board; and if any two chordsbe drawn to this curve, and they are bifected as above,the centre of the whole arch will thus eafily be found.SECTION II.On the use of the Drawing Inftruments. plate 2 .By duly confidering the feven proceeding fimple problems, which every mechanic ought indiſpenſably toknow, as the bafis of geometrical drawing, the uſe andpropriety of a cafe of inftruments will more readilyappear. In a complete cafe, there are only three inftruments which merit explanation, the reft are fo eafilyunderſtood, as to render it quite unneceſſary to ſay anything refpecting them.OF THE SCALE OF 10ths.Fig 1. is an ivory fcale of tenths, by which may beobtained any hundredth part, added to the large divifionsI ,.2, 3, 4, 5, which may be confidered under any denomination of meaſurement, as a foot, yard, fathom, &c.To conftruct the fcale, draw 11 lines at equal diſtances,and parallel to each other; then affigning any part as afoot, yard, &c. as 10, 10, divide it into 10 equal parts,344 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.and from each part draw a line oblique and parallel, byproblem 3, to each other, as the fcale fhews; whenceit is evident, that the pace 10, 10, is divided into 100parts. In ufing the fcale, fuppofe we want one foot andone hundredth part, apply the compaffes on the ſecondline from the bottom to one on the oblique line; if twohundredth parts to 12 on the third line, and fo on upwards. Hence it is obvious, that the one oblique lineincreaſes the length to ten, hundredth, parts more, thanthe fimple large divifion 0, 1, of whatever denominationit may be; confequently every fuch line increaſes by 10degrees or parts, which demonftrates that the ſpace10, 10, is thus accurately divided into 100 parts-Andlaftly, if we want a foot, &c. and one tenth of a foot,we have only to apply to the upper divifions on theunder line, as is clear.Ifwe wish to have the ſpaces 10, 10, divided into 12,to anſwer the number of inches in a foot, we muſt thendraw 13 lines parallel, and at equal diſtances, and proceed to take any hundredth and forty-fourth part of aninch, as was done before in the hundredth parts.OF THE PROTRACTOR. plate 2. fig. 3.The protractor is a brafs femi-circle, divided into 180degrees, from each extremity of the diameter, ſo thatthe quantity of any angle may be taken, from either endof the inſtrument; and for this purpoſe, the diameterof the inftrument has a mark in its centre, as at a,which is applied to the point of any angle, the fubftanceor opening of which, is meaſured by obferving the degree which is cut by the limb of the triangle. Thus,if the angle of the two lines in fig. 2 be meaſured, byapplying the centre a of the protractor to A, fig. 2, andcaufing the diameter of the protractor to coincide with.the line B, the upper angular line will be found to cutGEOMETRICAL DRAWING . 345exactly on 20, which afcertains the quantity to be 20degrees. The protractor is not only uſeful in meafuring, but in laying down angles of any degree-If wewant to lay down one of 90 degrees, from any given.line, then let the fide A B of the protractor coincidewith the given line, and make a point at 90, which isthe zenith of the inftrument, and the two lines to eachother will fubtend an angle of 90 degrees, written 90°;and as it is demonftrably clear that lines of this angle areperpendicular to each other, fo the angle they form iscalled a right angle, and is the only one which is noteither acute or obtuce; that is, which is not either moreor lefs flat or fharp. All angles more than 90° areobtuce; and thofe lefs, are termed acute, of which thereare two that ſhould be particularly noticed by cabinetmakers and upholsterers, namely, the angle 45°, whichis the diagonal of any fquare, or the miter angle; andthe angle 60°, which is the fide of an equilateral triangle,or one having all its fides of the fame length, a propertywhich no other triangle has, from any of whofe fidesbiſected, a line being drawn perpendicular to it, cuts theoppoſite angle as at c, d, fig. 6, and if a line be drawn inthe fame manner from either of the other fides, as at B s,it will give the centre of a circle that may be infcribedor circumscribed to the triangle.Laftly, ifthe fide a d be bifected as the other, as at n,and by joining the three points B nc, we have an equilateral triangle, whofe fides are equal, b B half the fideof the large triangle, hd a which is to the ſmaller, as4 to 1; and if sb be produced, and is interfected byan arch, whoſe radius is s h, as at-p, hp will then bethe fide of a regular hexagon, that may be infcribed in acircle whofe radius is sh, s dor s e; whence it is evidentthat every circle contains fix equilateral triangles , whoſefides are equal to the femi diameter, or radius, of thecircle that circumfcribes them.346 GEOMETRICALDRAWING.As there are in fome cafes of inftruments, a newlyinvented, ivory or ſcale protractor; it may be proper tofhew that they are both on the fame principle, and havethe fame effect in meaſuring or laying down angles, asis obfervable, from the manner in which it is defcribedon the plate, in connection with the circular protractor;where it is eaſily feen that the degrees in both coincide;but that in the ivory protractor, the degrees are astangents to their respective fines, and thofe on the circularare equal divifions on the circumference .OF THE SECTOR. plate 2.Sector, in a geometrical ſenſe, is a part of a circle comprehended between two radii and the arch, as the figure 2.Hence the inftrument obtained its name, as in openingthe legs they defcribe more or lefs of an arch, comprehendedwithin them, forming a mixed triangle. The great advantage of the ſector above the common fcales, is that it ismade to fuit any radii or ſcales of any fize. By the linesof chords, fines, &c. on the ſector we have lines of chords,fines, &c. to any radius, as far as the two limbs of theinftrument may be extended, until they become a rightline to each other. The general utility of the fector isfounded on the geometrical principle, that fimilar triangleshave their homologous fides proportional; an idea ofwhich, may be conceived th let the lines AB. A 10,fig. 2, repreſent the legs of the fector, and I , 1, 2, 2, twoequal fections from the centre A. If now the points I , I ,2,2, be connected by right lines, they will be parallel toeach other; therefore the triangles A 1 , 1. A 2 , 2, will befimilar, and confequently the fides A 1. A 1. A 2. A 2,proportional; that is, as A 1, is to I, I , fo is A 2, to 2, 2;whence if AI be the half, third, or fourth, A 2, I, I,will be a half, third, or fourth of 2, 2. In this example itGEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 347His half; for as A 1 is half A 2, fo is I1 , 1 , half 2, 2; whenceit is evident by the fame reaſoning, that ifthe line A i beproduced till it be ten times its length, as it is at No. 10,the parallel line 10, 10, will contain its parallel at No. 1,I, ten times, and fo in proportion of all the other numbers.Hence we have the line of lines upon the ſector, markedLL. which fig. 2 on the plate, reprefents, and which thelearner cannot fail of underſtanding after what has beenobferved: therefore fuppofe the line D E to be dividedinto feven equal parts, take the given line D E in thecompaffes and open the legs of the fector, and fixing onefoot on 7, let the other leg of the fector be opened orcontracted till the other foot fall exactly on the correfponding 7: in this pofition let the ſector remain, andtaking the compaffes to 1, 1 , contract them till they coincide with that ſpace: which opening applied to the givenline D E it will divide it correctly into feven equalparts. If the given line D E is required to be dividedinto ten, or any other number, as 9, 8, &c. it muſt betaken as before and placed on 9, 9, 8 , 8, or any other, andthe compaffes contracted to 1 , 1 -for once 9 is 9 --once8 is 8, and fo on; and thus it is clear that the ſectorperforms both multiplication and divifion; but it is furtherobfervable from the line of lines, that as the first order ofnumbers from 1 to 10 are again divided into 10 equalparts, that the divifion of the given line D E may bemultiplied to 100, that is 10 times 10; and to make theoperation more eafy, if the given line D E be placed on5, 5, then it will be 5 times 10, or into 50 equal partsby taking one 10th of the line I , I at this opening,which may be done by placing the compaffes on the 2dnext ſmall divifion after I, 1 , and taking the difference ofthe two lines, which will be a 50th part, which beingdivided will be a 100th part. It is further to be noticed,that whatever the opening of the fector may be, the dif•1I348 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.ference of any two parallel lines next to each other is the100th part of the opening; this may be easily proved ifthe given line D E be considered 10 times longer, forthen what is now one 10th of D E at prefent, will thenbe 100th part of DE made 10 times longer. The common 4 inch fectors will not open to more than a line of8 inches in length; but if a line, to be divided into 10,be 17 inches long, by doubling the divifion of a 10th ofthe former, the latter will thus be divided into 10 alſo,and by the fame rule any length whatever.OF THE LINE OF POLIGONS.On the fame fide of the fector, is a line for finding anoctagon, or other poligon, that may be infcribed in a circleof any radius. The line is marked POL on each fide, andis to be thus ufed-fuppoofe a, G, fig 6, the radius, takethis opening in the compaffes, and opening the fector,place it on 6 6; then if a duodecagon be wanted, letthe ſector remain at this opening, and contract the compaffes to 12, 12 on this line, then will the line 12, 12, becontained 12 times in the circumference of a circle drawnby the radius a G, as will appear ftill more clear fromfig. 6, by taking the chord of 30 from G to 30, or fromG to 12 , which will turn 6 times in the circumference ofthe femi- circle G, 80, h, and confequently 12 times inthewhole circle; and thus the chord G 11, G 10, G 9, &c.will respectively turn 11, 10, 9 times, &c. on the faidcircle, forming the different poligons, which have theirnames written from their particular chords at fig. 6,where obferve the quantity of degrees contained in theangle of each poligon is marked.OF THE LINE OF CHORDS.The line of chords is marked CC, on the fame fide ofthe fector. A chord, is a right line connecting the two1GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 349extremes of an arch, as A, B, fig. 16. plate 1. or h, d,fig. 6. plate z. and is always fhorter than a diameter;therefore it divides the whole circle into two unequal parts,called the greater and lefs fegments of a circle. The ufeof the chord line on the fector is for meaſuring the quantity of any angle, and is in this reſpect fimilar to the protractor; but with this advantage, that the protractor islimited to one radius, but the chord line of the fector is not;but is to be opened to any radius placed from e to e, onthe brass centres, as was defcribed before on the line oflines, and thofe of poligons.When the chord line is thus fixed, if we want the chordof 30, place the compaffes on 30, 30, which is the fide ofa duodecagon, as before mentioned. And if we want thechord of 15° for a twenty-four fided figure, place the compafs feet on the ftroke between 10 and 20, which gives it.And if a pentagon be wanted, place the radius, on 50, 50,which will increafe the chord by 10 degrees, when thecompaffes at that opening is placed on 60, 60, which willform a five-fided poligon or pentagon, as at 70, fig. 6.Laftly, by the chord line, any quadrant of a circle maybedivided into 180 equal parts. This will appear, if it beconfidered, that the radius of any circle is the chord of 60,which leaves 30 to compleat the quadrant. The firstorder of divifions on the chord line divides the radius orfemi-diameter of the given circle into 6 equal parts , 3 ofwhich added, makes up 9 in the quadrants, as in fig. 16.plate 1. The fecond order of thefe divifions increaſes thefirst 10 times, by which the radius is divided into6c, and the 3 remaining into30, which are 90 in the quadrant.Thethird order, or ſhorteſt lines of the chord fcale, increaſesthe divifions 60 more, which makes 150, and the 3 remaining into 30 more, which makes 180.180痛350 GEOMETRICALDRAWING.OF THE LINE OF SINES.We come nowto the other fide of the ſector, on whichare fines and tangents marked SS, TT.A fine is a right line drawn perpendicular to the diameterof any circle continued till it touch its circumference, asthofe lines are marked fines at fig. 3. plate 2. By theſefines, which are parallel to each other, and drawn fromequal divifions on the circumference, we may deſcribe atrue ellipfis, as fhall be fhewn afterwards. The fines ofan arch maybe found by opening the fector, and takingthe radius of the circle as before, and placing it on thebrafs centres on 90, 90. The fector remaining fixed atthis opening, we may obtain all the fines, from 10 to 90,which is the whole fine of the arch, as at 90. And thus,it appears, that by laying on the fines on the whole fine a90, a circle may be drawn without the compaffes; for itis demonftrably clear, that the points of their interfectionare the true points of the arch to which they arethe fines.OF THE TANGENTS.A tangent line, is that which is drawn perpendicular tothe diameter, and at the extremity of any arch, fo as onlyto touch but not interfect the arch , as the line markedTangent is at fig. 3. and obſerve, that the Nos. 10, 20, 30,&c. are found on the fector on the lines T T. To findthe tangent of any degree, the radius of a circle muſt beapplied on the brafs centres as before, over 4, 5, 4, 5.Then is the inftrument fixed for any tangent from 10 to 45,but if the tangent of 50, 60, 70, 75, are wanted, take thefame radius as before in the compaffes, and extend thelimbs of the fect or till the feet of the compaffes coincidewith 45, 45, on the additional tangent lines marked tt, bywhich opening the fcctor is prepared for taking the othertangents.GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 351..OF SECANTS.A fecant line, is one drawn from the centre of a circle,Cutting the circumference, and meeting with the tangentwithout, as the line a, B. On the common fector, thefecant ſcale is fixed and can only be uſed for one radius,taken from the centre on the braſs joint of the inftrument,and extended to 20, on the lines marked s s. With thisopening deſcribe a circle, then, if the fecant 30, 40, & required, fix the foot of the compaffes on the centre,on the braſs joint, and extend it to 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 75.But it may be obſerved, that if the fector be ftretchedquite to a ftraight line, the fame will be effected whenthe radius is equal to 20, 20, meafured when in thispofition.SECTION III.Of Geometrical Figures.PROBLEM I. fig. 9. plate 1.The fide an of any poligon being given to find circles,in which may be inſcribed the fide a, n, from four to twelvetimes. With the fide a , n, deſcribe from the points a andn, the arches a 1, n 1, interfecting at 1 , through whichdraw a perpendicular. Take then a 1 , and on this perpendicular line lay on a 1 to 7, and divide 1, 7, into 6equal parts. Set down two of thofe parts from 1 to 0, p,then will a, p, a, o, a 1 , a 2 , a 3, a 4 , a 5, a 6, and a 7, bethe radii or femi diameters of circles, in which the fidea, n, may be infcribed from 4 to 12, as will readily appearby taking a, n, and placing it from 4 to 4, which is aquarter of a circle; and laftly, lay a, n, on the circles 8, 8,12, 12, and it will turn twice in the former and thrice inthe latter; which proves, that in the entire circle an eightand a twelve-fided poligon would be thus formed, and foof the other, as fix would take a, n, 11 times, five 10,four 9, three 8, two 7, one 6, ought 5, and p 4times.350 GEOMETRICAL FIGURES.PROBLEM II. fig. 10.The circle being given, to find the fide of any poligon,that may be infcribed .Take the radius of the given circle, as a, s, and defcribe the arch 2, 56; then is the line 2 , 6, one- third ofthe circle, and forms the triangle 2, 1, 6, which thecabinet maker fhould obferve, gives the three pointswhere the claws of ftands and tables are fixed, that haveround pillars.Take the radius and fet it from b to 12, and the remains is the fide of the duodecagon, that is, from 12 to a,and from a to 24, is the fide of a twenty - four fided poligon;from a to 8 of an octagon, to 6 a hexagon, to 5 a pentagon, b a quadrangle. For a heptagon , nonagon, decagon,and endecagon, divide any of the quadrants a, 1,9, intofo many equal parts, as the propofed poligon containsfides, fuppofe 7 as fhewn on the fig. then take four ofthofe parts, and they will be the fide fought for, and whatever number the quadrant is divided into, four of theleparts must always be taken for the fize of the poligon.PROBLEM III . fig. 11.Of the Covering of a Sphere or Globe.Defcribe a circle equal to the diameter of the fphere,Divide the quadrant into as many equal parts as there arefections wanted in the fphere, as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6; drawthem perpendicular to the diameter, and fetting the compaffes at o, carry thefe round to the other diameter, whichdiameter continue to 6, and take the space a 1 , and layit from a 1 to N 2; then take 1 , 2, 2, 3, &c . and place themas before, at No. 2, till the whole are laid on. Set thenthe compafies at 6 N° 2, and extending the other foot to 1,defcribe the arch, and in the fame manner at 2, 3, 4, 5,From b perpendicular to 5, draw a line to the centre «,which feveral portions of arches are to be laid on double,GEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 353on thofe at N 11 , according to their rotation or number.And having thus laid down the points, draw the curve b,1, 2, 3, &c. on each fide, which is a fection of the ſphere;and both of them comprehend its covering, which according to this figure, would require 12 pieces to cover it.To defcribe the fections as they would appear on a planeparallel to the fphere as fhewn fig 12, fuppofe o 1 , one 6thof the quadrant; then from 1, draw the chord 1, a bifectthe chord, and draw a line perpendicular to it, and thecentre of the fection will be at b. Extend the compaffesfrom b to a, and on a 1 defcribe the fection.From the centre of the chord 1a, draw g f, parallel tothe diameter; which will at once bifect all the chords,whoſe centres are at d, e, h, 1, from which the otherfections are drawn.PROBLEM IV. fig. 13.To draw an elipfis by 2 circles, interfecting each other.Let A B be the length of the tranfverfe diameter; divideit into three equal parts , and take one for the radius of thecircles which defcribe, and they will interfect each other asat 1, 2. Through I draw 1 , 3, and 1 , 4, cutting thecentres; from 2 do the fame. Laftly, take 1 , 5, in thecompaffes, and with it defcribe the arch 5, 6, and from 2defcribe the oppofite one, and the oval is completed.PROBLEM V. fig. 14. -To draw an elipfis by 2 circles , tangent to each other.Let A B be the tranfverfe diameter; which divide intofour, one of which is the radius, by which 2 circles are tobe drawn. Then make 1 , 3, 2, an equilater triangle, andalfo 4, 1 , 2; and from 4 defcribe the arch d, e, and from3, the archf, g, which completes the oval. If the oval bethought too long, its width may be increafed by dividingthe femi conjugate diameter into three equal parts; andA.a .354 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.drawing a line from h, through the centre i, which givesh, i, for the radius of the 2d curve; and for the reft, itis enough to inſpect the figures .PROBLEM VI. fig. 15.To draw an elipfis by the fector. Deſcribe a femi- circle,whofe diameter G A is equal to the length of the oval .Take b, d, for half the ſhort one, and on the line of fines,place b, d, from S to S at the brafs centres. Divide thequadrant into nine equal parts, and draw the fines perpendicular to the diameter. The fector beingfixed as directed,take the fines 80, 70, 60, &c . respectively with the compaffes, and transfer them to the fines 80, 70, 60, &c. onthe fig; then will the points thus marked form a quarter ofa true clipfis. The other quarters may eafily be drawn, ifthe entire circle be defcribed, and the fines being found onone femi, may at once be drawn through the other. Note,a very large oval may thus be drawn by means of a 41 inchfector only, which may be opened to about 8 inches, confequently it is capable of defcribing one any length by 17inches broad . And I fhall only mention that fuch is theextenfive ufe of this little inftrument, that by it a circlemay be drawn without the help of compafles if the feveralfines are interfected, as fhewn on the right of fig. 15;which the reader cannot but perceive, if he have attendedto the preceding operations by the fector.PROBLEM VII. fig. 17.To draw an oval by a line and 2 centres .Make a, ",equal to half the tranfverfe diameter, that is, take c, d,and place it from 2, the fhort, to a on the long diameter;at which point fix a bradawl , and one alfo at the other end,the fame diftance from the centre c; then with a pencil atP, fixed to the line, the oval may be drawn.PROBLEM VIII. fig. 21 .To defcribe an eliptic arch by interfecting lines. LetGEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 35503sA Bbe the opening of the arch, and o, n the depth, andmake S equal o, n; divide half the opening and half thedepth of the arch, each into five equal parts, as expreffedby the numbers. From 1 , 2 , 3, 4, onthe depth drawthefeveral lines to n; then from S draw the point 4, on A Bto 4, which gives the first point, and fo of all the other, asis apparent from the fig.PROBLEM VIII . fig. 18.To draw any mixed or gothic arch. The fpan and depthof the arch being given, and the angle of its curviture asa, b, c, divide a, b, c, into equal parts, and c, b, intothefame number; from or any other point, more or lessfrom the centre; as the arch is required to be more or leſscurved at c, or at a. From 5, 5, draw a line, and from4, 4, from 3 , 3, 2, 2, 1 , I , the interfections of which givethe true arch. In this manner, may almoſt any ſhape ofacurve be acurately found .PROBLEM IX. fig. 20.To find the centre and 2 diameters of any elipfis.Draw any two parallel lines, as 1, 2, 3, 4, which dividefrom the places where they interfect the fides of the elipfis,and their centres will be at p, q; through thefe points drawa right line, which divide from the points where the lineTo find cuts the elipfis , as at 5, 6, then is S the centre.the diameters; defcribe on the centre S any circle that willinterfect the fides of the elipfis , and from the points 7, 8draw a line, and through S draw another parallel to it,which will be the conjugate, bifect the line 8, 7 as at 9;then will a line through S 9, be the tranfverfe diameter.PROBLEM X. fig. 19.To draw with the utmost difpatch a femi-octagon, fo thatits fides fhall be regular. The diameter being given as356 GEOMETRICAL DRAWING.A B, divide it as at c, from which draw two fquares, anddraw the diagonal F, with which defcribe the arch F 1. Fixthe compaffes at A, defcribe 1, 2, then is A2 half thefide of the octagon. Or it may be performed ftill quicker,by making F the centre, and defcribing the arch C 3.SECTION IV.OfGeometrical Lines, practically applied. fig. 1. plate 3.Let A B be confidered as the under edge of a facia foran eliptic bed cornice; A 6 is the depth of the curve, and6c, the chord line. Bifect the chord line, and by problem1, plate I, draw a line perpendicular to its centre, whichwill meet the perpendicular A 6, continued downwards;which will be the common centre of the lines, 1 , 2, 3, 4,5, 6. Divide the depth of the upper curve into 6 equal partsat the haunch, and from I lay the ruler to 1 , and from2 to 2, which cut the points a and b, from 3 to 3, whichcut the point c, and fo of the reft. Laftly, when theupper curve is thus compleated, lay on the width ofthecornice with the compaffes on the feveral lines tending tothe centre; and obferve that the mitre C 1 , at the haunchtends alſo to the fame.FIG. II.If the cornice be a regular circle, it may be drawnwithout the trouble of a long lath for a centre, as is commonly practifed. Thus; fuppofe F E the chord of thearch, draw E a, perpendicular to it; and divide Fa, o EE a, into the fame number of equal parts. Then on E adirect a line from 4 to F, cutting at 4, 4. In the famemanner, muſt 3, 2, 1 , be drawn to F.FIG. III.Of lines for a circular hipped tefter, The line 1, 3 ishalf the width, and 1, 2 the height of the arched teſtersARCHITECTURAL DRAWING. 359 thenfourofthefefeven,andplacingthemfromdtoa,on@drawtheremainsoftheſcotiafromc tob.-OF THE CYMARECTA, fig . 2, 3, 4.The cymarecta varies in proportion in the differentorders. In the Tufcan, its height and projection are12 minutes; the Doric 7; the Ionic 7; the Compofite 7,and the Corinthian 6. This moulding is drawn bythree different methods or centres, according to the fancyor other circumſtance that may induce the architect toprefer one to the other-Ift, draw the diagonal 4, 5, andbiſẹct it at 2, through which draw the line 1 , 2, 6, thenare the points 1 and 6 the centres, and the arches areperfect quadrants. Fig. 3, bifect the diagonal at 2 , anddivide one half into 6 , and 4 of theſe are the centres asFig. 4, the diagonal is alfo bifected, and one halfas 1 , 2 is taken for the centres by interfecting the twoarches as at o.OF THE CYMAREVERSA, fig. 8, 9.This moulding may be drawn in the profile in thefame manner as the cymarecta, but is fometimes quirked,as at N 9, in which caſe divide the height and projectioninto two equal parts; make the centre 2 equal to thechord of the arch 4 b , and make a 3 one fixth of the projection, and draw the radius 1 , 3, equal 1 , 4, and I willbe the centre. This moulding is generally uſed in theIonic and Corinthian architraves, and alfo above theIonic volute.OF THE BED MOULDING, fig. 5.The bed moulding confifts of a hollow or cavetto and aquarter round; it is placed under the corona of the Tufcan entablature, to which it ſeems peculiar. Its proportion is as 14 projection, to 14 or 15 in height, which360 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING,being divided into eight equal parts, give three forthe cavetto, one for the fillet, and four for the ovalo,the centres of which are 1 , 2, being perfect quadrants.OF THE NECKING OR COLLARINO, fig . 6, 7.The Tuſcan collarino, or necking, fig . 6, may bedivided into four equal parts: when it is introduced in adetached manner in works of architecture, two of whichare for the aftragal, one for the fillet, and one for thehollow, which is a perfect quadrant, and the aftragal afemi-circle. But when this moulding is placed at theneck of a column, it bears the following proportions andparts, as in fig. 7; the aftragal is three minutes, thefincture or fillet one and a half, and the apophyge threein height. In projection the fincture is three, and theaftragal one and a half, which brings it to a femi-circle.The apophyge is divided into five equal parts, and fix oftheſe are for its height as at 1; draw the diagonal 1 , 2,and bifect it, and draw the line 6 perpendicular to it, andmake 1 , 6 equal to fix equal parts, which will be thecentre. In this manner the apophyge of every columnis drawn, except the Tufcan, which has its centre in 5,confequently is a quadrant.OF THE SURBASE MOULDING, fig. 10.This moulding may be termed an inverted ſcotia, itbeing proportioned the fame as fig. 1. The three different modes of finiſhing at the top, may be adopted incabinet work. In all the fquares at the top it is fuppofedto be veneer, and the bead may be put on feparate, andthe veneer brought over it to hide the joint. Laftly,double bead may be managed in the fame manner, toleffen the projection of the inverted ſcotia, when muchprojection is objected to.theGEOMETRICAL DRAWING. 357divide 3 , I into any number of equal parts , and draw theordinates 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Draw then the hip line 4, 5,and continue the ordinates to that line; and draw lines fromeach perpendicular to 4, 5. Take then the line 1 , 2, andlayit at the hip from 5 to 6, and fo of the other ordinates 2,3, 4, &c. and when the arches are raiſed perpendicularon the tefter lath, they will coincide with each other. Ob.ſerve the ribs are dove-tailed into A the centre; and inframing the hips, there must be two ribs to each; fo thateach quarter ofthe tefter may be taken to pieces ſeparately.FIG. IV.This is an irregular octagon tefter, with an ogee roof,which is introduced for exercife; as there are both lines forthe ribs, and covering, fo that both branches of workmenare concerned to underítand the lines: for then there can beno caſe ofthis fort but what they may maſter.Let the mixed curve line 1 , 0, 2 be drawn by twoquadrants of circles inverted to each other, and divide I,3 into equal parts as before; but at o there is a fubdivifionfor the fake of greater accuracy. Draw the ordinates tothe hip rib, as before, and place the feveral heights on a 7,68, c9, through which draw the ogee as at 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 ,12, which will be the hip rib.For the covering of the tefter; the lines from the ordinates a, b, c, d, e, f, are continued round on the plan toa b, which bifect by a line to g from the centre and onthis line lay on the feveral ſpaces taken from the hip rib asfrom 6 to 7, from 7 to 8, and ſo on; for obferve the linefrom 6 to g, is the curve line 6, 7, 5, ftretched out andthe feveral lines acroſs, on 6 g are equal in length to thoſeon the plan A as h, i, j, k, and give the points throughwhich the curve for the covering paffes. Thus; from theplan A take the line n, h, and place it on o, h, and ſo ofthe rest.353 GEOMETRICALDRAWING.OF THE PEDIMENT. fig. V.Make a 9 the whole extent of the full cornice, anddivide it into nine equal parts as fhewn; then take two oftheſe for the height of the pitch from the line a 9, as fromno; obferve the cymarecta, is taken off from thelevel cornice, and only continued on the pitch, and returnat the extremities . The raking moulding at fig. 6, fhewshow the cymarecta is to be worked fo as to anſwer in themiters and returns; B is the natural ſtate of the moulding,the projection of which take to G, and draw the perpendicular lines on; draw the diagonal p q, and divide it intofix equal parts, at I, 2, &c. from which draw lines perpendicular to pq, till they touch the curves, which are the fameas at B. Draw C D perpendicular to the raking moulding,and make D E equal n o, and divide the diagonal as before;and make I , I on c, equal to I , I on G, fo of the reſt, andjoin the points by the two curves.In openpediments, the moulding returns as at F, whichmuſt be drawn as before; the projection E Dis placed on alevel line i k, and km, is drawn perpendicular; and obferve,that the parallel lines divide each diagonal in due proportionto each other, and the perpendicular lines from each pointwhich they interfect on the diagonal are all of one length.Hence the workman fhould obferve, that there are threedifferent profiles of the cymarecta to be regarded in 20open pediment; and in a clofe one only two.SECTION V.ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING.Of the Scotia Moulding, fig. 1 , plate 4.So called becauſe of the ſtrong ſhadow it produces in thedeep part of the neck. The Attic fcotia runs about 4minutes high; the Corinthian 4; and the Compofite 5 .Divide the height, or 4 into feven equal parts, and withthree of thefe on S defcribe the circle from d to c; takePERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 363OF PERSPECTIVE. SECTION I.Of the Definition and Etymology, with fame Strictures on theTerm Perspective.Perspective is the art of reprefenting any object as itappears to the eye on a plane, fuppofed to be interpofedbetweenthe object and the eye. The term feems to bederived from the latin perfpicio to fee, or to difcoverplainly; this is Dr. Johnſon's opinion, but I prefume toquestion whether it be not more fuitably deduced fromthe verb perfpelo, to take a thorough view of, or to fitout a fhow, that is, to exhibitobjects to view. Thisetymology certainly agrees more with the practice ofperspective than the former; for the art does not profefsto make objects more clearly feen than they are in natureaccording to their diſtance from the eye, but to reprefent them as they are; or would be feen on a tranfparentplane, placed parallel, or otherwife, between the objectand the eye of the fpectator. As a clear and correccomprehenfion of the theory of perfpective depends materially on an accurate definition of the term perspective,it may be proper to take notice of fome, which areheterogenious, or inconfiftent with the genuine theoryof the art. By this means the learner may be morepowerfully ftruck with the real nature of perfpective,than if the difference were not thus pointed out. It ishowever proper to obferve, that a falfe definition of theterm may be given, when it is fucceeded by genuinerules of practice. The British Encyclopædia definesperſpective to be " The art of drawing on a plane furface, true refemblances or pictures of objects, as theobjects themselves appear to the eye from any diftanceand fituation, real or imaginary."Mr. Kirby, thus, " Perfpective is the art of drawingupon any furface the reprefentation of objects as they364 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING .1appear to the eye. " Both theſe definitions are the famein fenfe, but are equally incorrect: the latter, however,would be true, on fuppofition that the reprefentationwere on a ſpherical furface, concentric to the furface ofthe eye. The former limits his definition to a plane orftraight furface, and the latter, doubtlefs, had an eye tono other. The difference of theſe definitions from thetrue one may eafily be understood, by confidering theline a, b, fig. I, as the picture, or a fection of the raysAd, and Ae, ifluing from any original object d, e,to the eye A, and being cut by the line a, b, whichis the ſection of the ftraight picture; c, f will bethe repreſentation of the original object d, e on the faidplane, and on the curved picture or fection 2, 4 will bethe reprefentation; the difference of which is obvious,and is in proportion as the fubtence of the angle 4 A 2is to the tangent c, f, of the faid arch. It is alfo evident,that this difference will increafe from two caufes, i. e.either from the increaſed length of any original line d, e,or by its approach to the ſection or picture a, b, whichwill have the fame effect; but if the eye A be removedfurther from the fection or picture, the effect will becontrary; and hence the neceffity of choofing a diftancefor any picture fuited to take off the distortion that ariſesfrom this difference, which is always in proportion tothe length of the diftance, or the length from the pointof fight A, to a, b, the picture, which is A B. Fromwhich it will appear, that though perfpective is not thereprefentation of objects on a ſtraight ſurface, as they appear to the eye, but as they appear on a tranfparent plane,as glafs interpofed between the fpectator and the object;yet we must acknowledge that it is an excellencein perſpective to bring fuch a reprefentation by itsftrict laws, as near as may be to their appearanceto the eye. When therefore any author defines perARCHITECTURAL DRAWING . 361OfThree Methods of drawing the IONIC VOLUTE.Method I. In fig. 12 let a 24, be equal to fourteen minutes, and the eye equal three and a halfminutes, or one eighth of the whole volute from a to 5;to this eye circumfcribe a fquare and draw the diagonalseach way. From the eye at 24 draw to d, fig. 11 , andthrough the centre c, draw s , d, fig. 11 equal to 24, b,fig. 12, and d, a equal 24, a; draw then s , a, and from stdefcribe the arch D divided into twenty-four equal parts;through which parts draw the tangents on d, a, and number them 2 , 3, 4, &c . to 24, which are the feveral radii,by which the twenty-four portions of circles, of whichthe volute is compofed, are drawn: therefore take c, aonfig. 11, and with this opening, fixing the compaſſesat a, fig. 12, cut a ſmall arch on the eye of the volute,and do the fame on 2, fo as to cut the other arch in theeye as at o; then from the point of interfection draw thearch a, 2; proceed then to the next radius taken fromc to 2, and placing it on 2, and 3, and cutting a pointonthe eye ofthe volute as before, deſcribe the arch 2 , 3;and fo ofall the other to 24, which completes the volute.Obferve the inner contour begins at b, and muſt bedrawn in the fame manner as the outer one, after havingdivided b, a, into twenty-four equal parts, by means ofa triangle as at a, o, m, fig. 13, which will be more eafilyunderſtood by conſulting the deſcription of that figure.Method II. fig. 13. As before, the eye of the voluteis one eighth of a, b, which fhould be divided into eightequal parts, placing the eye on the fifth divifion from a,which leaves three parts below the eye draw then afmall fquare within the eye, whofe fides ſhall be equalhalf the diameter of the eye. Divide the fide of thefquare into fix equal parts, and draw from the centre ofthe divided fide two oblique lines, to which draw theJL362 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING.faid divifions, and they will find twelve centres by whichto deſcribe the whole volute: take then the compaſſesand fixing one foot on centre 1 , extend the other to a,and with it defcribe the quadrant a, c, on 2 contract themto c, and defcribe c, b on 3 and 4; do the fame and theturn of the volute will be brought to e once round.Hence it must be evident, that as there are two morefquares infcribed in the fquare 1 , 2, 3, 4, fo they willafford eight more centres for the completion of the volute. For the inner line of the volute divide a, m, bythe triangle a, o, m, one ſide of which being divided intotwelve equal parts, and the feveral lines being drawnparallel to a, m, a, m, will thereby be accurately dividedinto twelve équal parts , as by problem 4. Laſtly, take11 onthe triangle, and place it at c, and take 10 place itat b, and ſo on; and by the fame openings of the compaffes, that were uſed in turning the outer contour, defcribethe inner by varying the centre a very ſmall matter. Inthis example, the volute is fhewn in connection withthe capital of the column, and the learner muſt obſervethat the line A Dis the outfide of the fhaft; that thedotted curve at u is the ovalo of the cap; that the beadunder the ovalo is the fize of the eye of the volute, andgoverned by it.Method III. fig. 14, which is fimply the eye of thevolute on a large fcale, having the twelve centres markeddiftinctly. Having divided thirty-two minutes, thewhole height of the capital into nine and a half equalparts, as fhewn at fig. 13, eight of thefe are for thevolute, and having placed the eye as directed in the preceding methods, begin to defcribe the first arch at 1 , fig.14, then 2 and fo on; and as the divifion of the eye isthe only thing in which the third differs from the ſecondmethod, it is needlefs to fay any thing further upon it.•inmag.YomePaPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 365ſpective as we have cited above, it is faying more forperfpective than what it in reality is; and it is nowonder that certain perfons are difappointed in theirexpectations, when, by the ſtrict rules of perſpective,they produce objects with very long and extremely fhortcorners, twiſted in their pofition, and their whole appearance distorted . But if they clearly understand, thatperfpective reprefentations are no more than the ftereographic projection of objects on a plane furface; theycannot but expect that folid geometrical figures or objects, projected on a right plane, muft in their ownnature, produce in fome cafes, an unnatural appearancein the mere contour; but which may be confiderablyreduced, by placing the eye in the true point of fight,colouring or ſhading the reprefentation, and affigning adue diftance to the picture. Thefe judiciously combined,contribute effectually to the attainment of the perfectionof the art; which, as hinted at before, confifts in producing pictures to have as much the appearance of natureas poffible.SECTION II.OfParticulars relating to the Theory of Perspective.Da Vinci has well obferved, that " Thoſe who become enamoured of the practice of the art, withouthaving previously applied to the diligent ftudy of thefcientific part of it, may be compared to mariners, whoput to fea in a fhip without a rudder or compafs, andtherefore cannot be certain of arriving at the wiſhed forport. Practice muſt always be founded on good theory."The truth of this obfervation I find conftantly verified inthe courſe of my experience, in teaching perfpective,wherein is generally difcovered in young perfons, a propenfity, haftily to apply to the practice, withouttroubling themſelves with either the imaginary or real366 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.i12+difficulties of the theoretic part of the art. The confequence of ſuch a procedure is, that in the general application of perfpective, fuch learners will always findthemfelves as much at a lofs as thofe who attempt towrite correaly in any language, without the previousknowledge of the grammar peculiar to ſuch language. Inthe end, it proves the most expeditious and effectualmethod of learning this art, to attend to, at leaſt, amoderate degree of theory, and therefore I hope the following will not be thought tedious, efpecially whencompared with what fome have written upon the fubject,which I confefs is truly adapted to difcourage thatdegree of enquiry into the theory, which is abfolutely elfential to a right underſtanding of this generally efteemedfine art. The more the learner knows of geometryprevious to his entering upon perfpeaive, the quickerwill he comprehend the theory of the art; but taking itfor granted that he is not in the leaft acquainted with it,I shall endeavour to interfperfe my theory with as muchof it as is convenient, joined alfo with the practice ofperfpeive, together with the nature of fhadows in common cafes. I have propofed this method for the fake ofbrevity, in comprehending the whole art; and fortreating it in a more elegant and pleafing way; that thevery dull, tedious, and disgustingly dry details, peculiarto thefe fuby Ets, may, as much as poflible be avoided,and that the whole may be compriſed in a fmall compaſs.I proceed then to the confideration of the elementaryplanes, which are the very doors at which we must enterinto this fcience, if we would fee its internal beauties. Theconnection and dependence of the planes with each other,form the true fkeleton of the whole mafs, from whencethe feparate members are derived, and can only be properlyunderstood when they are confidered detachedly. Themembers of this fkeleton, are the points, lines, and furfaPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 367ces, generated by the interfections of the elementary planesand lines with each other; by which only a true foundationfor practice can be laid. The elementary planes, arehowever only imaginary or fuppofitions, and are onlydeviſed for the illuftration of theoretic lines, that their connection and dependence on each other may be more eafilycomprehended: but they are not trifling fuppofitions, forwithout their aid, no fort of ftereographic projections canbe properly difcuffed or understood. Let the reader therefore pay the most strict attention to fig. 1 and 2 , plate 1 ,which exhibits the elementary planes with their principalinterfections and points depending upon them. And thathe may proceed with fome geometrical knowledge as aguide; let him take notice of the following definitions,which will apply to thefe figures.Firft. A point is confidered without parts or magnitude,and in perspective or ftereography, points are fuppofed tobe generated by the interfection or cutting of two lines, atany angle with each other; for when lines are parallel toeach other they cannot interfect or cut; but they may,continued to fome plane, not parallel with them, producetheir refpective points on the faid plane. Thus the parallellines 1 , 3 , 2 , 4, in fig. 2, can never interfect each other,but they produce their refpective points 1 , 2, by beingcontinued till they touch the plane H L D f, or cut theline D J.Second. A line is length, without breadth, whetherright or curved. Aright line may alfo be confidered as thefhorteft diftance between any two points. Hence the pointsIC cannot be joined or meafured by any other line ſhorterthan the right line IC which meaſures the diſtance betweenthem. Therefore in perfpective this line is fometimes termedthe direct radial, it being the fhorteft ray of a picture; forit is as a line drawn perpendicular to the pupil of the eye Iand to the centre C ofthe picture.368PERSPECTIVEDRAWING.A right line may likewife be conceived, both in geometry and in perspective as generated by the interfection of twoplain furfaces with each other, Thus; imagine A B D JNKa plane furface parallel to the ground; and fuppofeHLD Jto be another placed perpendicular to it, orpaffing in this or any other direction through it; then willthe right line DOJ be generated or produced bytheirinterfection .Third. A furface is that which has only length andbreadth, having no refpect to thicknefs, as thofe of thecubes X M which may be conceived of without any ideaoftheir folidity.Fourth. A plain furface is that which lies evenly betweenits boundaries, or through which if a right line be will touch any two points in the furface. D Jis aright line croffing the furface A BDJNK; 1 2, areeach a point in that furface, with which the right line DJcoincides, therefore A BDJNK is a plain furface.Hence, as fuch plain furfaces may exift in the mind, orbe conceived of without any relation to fubftances; theterm plane is uſed in optics, ſtereography and perſpective todenote the feveral fections of which rays or lines are capable; which fections according to their variety of pofitions,produce the numerous figures which are the objects of ,perfpective drawing, and ftereographic projection. Ofthefe planes there are five, comprehending the whole theoryof perfpective; three of which are principally used, butnot altogether without fome dependence on the other two.SECTION III.OF THE ELEMENTARY PLANES.Of their use and dependence upon each other.Having in the foregoing fection prepared the way,understanding the elementary planes, we fhall nowcomemore directly to their inveftigation. And,Firft, of the ground plane. In fig . 2 the letters A BNKPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 369mark the boundaries of this plane. On this plane,which is generally confidered as horizontal, or parallel toit, are feated all original objects, by which we mean, allthoſe which are to be reprefented on the plane of the picture, fuch are the cubes X M. The extent of the groundplane only terminates with the boundaries of our fight, butwith relation to a picture is to be reſtricted as a part tothe whole, and ſhould be governed by the diſtance of theeye from the picture, as at G R fig. 5, and the height ofthehorizontal E C. If objects, as A B, fig. 5, be fo featedon the ground plane, as that their reprefentations on theplane of the picture ſhall be at A B, exceeding the boundsGR; their appearances will be diftorted or unnatural, asA B are in compariſon with F, which is the repreſentationof the fame cube. If C L, be conſidered as the diſtance ofthe eye from the picture, make C R equal to C L, thenwill ER be half the length of the picture, or half theboundaries of the ground plane.6Second. Of the plane of the picture. In fig. 2, theletters H L DJ comprehend this plane, which is generallyconfidered to be perpendicular to the ground plane, but itmay be inclined; for the theory of vaniſhing planes andlines equally provides for the latter as for the former.The perſpective plane, as the plane of the picture isfometimes called, is that whereon is defcribed the imagesof original objects, as c, b, d, a, is of the face ofthe cube6, 5, 4, 3, and b, e, its upper furface 6, 5, 7, 8, ando, p, of 12, 13, II, 14. And obferve, that thofe and allother images on the plane of the picture are produced by afection of the rays, which are fuppofed to iffue by reflection from every part of a luminous body; which rays arerepreſented by thoſe lines drawn from each angle of theoriginal cubes X M to the eye I. Howthe ſection of theſerays is performed, muſt be the fubject of future difcuffion. But it will be proper to notice, that the paper,Bb370 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.1board, or canvass, on which we reprefent objects in perfpective, is to be confidered as the perfpective plane; andwhen ever the learner perceives the coincidence fubfiftingbetween them, the right knowledge of perfpective, maybe faid to dawn upon his underſtanding, and he will foonperceive the beauty of the whole art.Third. Of the horizontal plane. This plane is confidered as parallel to the ground, and is fuppofed to cut theboundaries of the eye or fight. To have a clear andproper conception ofthe horizontal plane, we muſt ſuppoſeourſelves placed in the centre P. of an even and extenfivecountry, defcribed bythe line A D, fig. 7. We ſtand atP, and without obftruction are fuppoſed to viewthe wholefpace A D, which to the fpectator at P, will appear to rifeto V and S, which is the perpendicular height of his eye;confequently if through V S, a line be drawn parallel toAD, then will V, S, reprefent the fection of the horizontal plane, cutting the boundaries of our fight at V S; withwhich points the hemifphere feems to the eye at b, to bein contact: whence it is obvious, that all objects 1 , 2, 3,4, as they recede from the eye towards S or V, diminiſhproportionably till they vaniſh in the points V and S. Andthis holds equally true, whether we ſuppoſe the objects tobe higher than the eye, as trees or towers, at 5, 6, 7, 8,or not fo high; for though a high tower 5, 6, is viewedby the eye at b, under a much greater angle than theobject is at 1 , 2; yet the lofty mountain and the creepingmole hill equally vanifh, when they are fuppofed to be atS or V.The high hills which we fometimes view, at the extremities of a level country is no objection to the preceding propofition; for fuch hills are not at the boundaries ofour fight at V S. They are in reality only as at m, n, andtherefore obftructions to the extent of our fight; for fuppoſe m, n, a ſolid fubftance, the eye at b could not fee V;PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 371but if m, n, were removed to V, it would become a point,which according to the firft definition of the precedingfection, is without magnitude, and therefore cannot beviſible; for whatever is vifible, muſt have fomne proportionto magnitude; but the points we make with a needle onpaper are visible; they are therefore furfaces of fome dimenfions, and are not points ftrictly speaking; for pointsare only ideas, not objects. The horizontal plane in connection with the plane of the picture, is fhewn at fig. 2,by the lines HL, L R, R Y and Y H, but theſe cannotbe confidered as the boundaries of the plane; for the horizon may be underſtood as a fection of the fphere, and istherefore a circle of extenfive radii. By thefe lines thenare only marked fo much of the horizontal plane as isneceffary to defcribe the lines and points of perſpective, asweſhall afterwards fhew.འFourth. Of the vertical plane. In fig. 1, this planeis defcribed by the lines CO, O G, GI and IC, and isperpendicular to the eye, the ground plane, and the plane ofthe picture through whofe centre C, and the eye at I, itpaffes, and may be produced to any height from theground plane. The vertical plane is fo called becauſe itmaybe confidered as a perpendicular fection of the pyramidof rays, repreſented by the lines drawn from each angle ofthe original cubes X M, of which I is the vertex.Fifth. Of the directing plane. This plane in fig. 2,is defcribed by the lines WZY R, and which isſuppoſed to paſs through the eye, parallel to the plane ofthe picture, and to be perpendicular to the ground plane.This plane is chiefly uſed in the tranſpoſition of objects,wherein the eye is fuppofed to be fituated in a plane between the plane of the picture, and that on which anyobject is projected. It has however fome relation to thetheory of perfpective, but is of no uſe in practice; therefore we now paſs on tod372 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.SECTION IV .Ofthe Lines and Points produced by the Interfections of theforegoing Planes.Having now taken a view of the nature ofthe elementary planes, and of their dependence and connection witheach other; we proceed to the refult of theſe as they effectthe theory of perſpective:Iftwo planes interfect one another, they do it in a rightline JD, whence JD is the common fection produced bythe interfection of the ground plane with the plane ofthepicture; therefore JD is called the ground line or interfection of the picture, and the line H Lis the interfectionofthe plane ofthe horizon with that of the picture, and istherefore called the vanifhing line of that plane. Thedirecting plane alſo produces two lines by its interſections,with the horizontal, and ground plane-That with thehorizontal, as R Y, is termed the parallel of the eye, andthat with the ground plane, as WZ, the directing line.If from the eye I a line be drawn perpendicular to thepicture, the point C, where that line cuts it is the centre,and I is the point of fight, or place of the eye; and theſpace between I and C is the diſtance of the picture. Alſoif from I a line be drawn perpendicular to the parallel ofthe eye or the plane of the horizon, as I G, that line meafures the height of the eye above the ground plane, andthe point G is termed the point of ſtation, or the foot ofthe fpectator; and the line I G is called the eye's director,and GO being confidered as perpendicular to DJtheground line, GO is the line of ſtation, and OCthevertical line paffing through the centre of the vaniſhingline H L.Thus far, we are now prepared for finding the reprefentations of the original cubes X, M by producing afection of the ſeveral rays which from them are directed to373the eye at I; where the learner ſhould imagine his owneye to be; and let him alfo fuppofe the plane of the pictureDJHLto be glaſs, then would he perceive the cubesX Mto have the appearance on the glafs, which they arerepreſented to have on the perſpective plane: but the chiefthing to be regarded is the fection of the rays, repreſentedbylines, which indeed is the whole buſineſs of perfpective.It is therefore to be obferved that vifion, or fight, is performed, or to ſpeak more philoſophically, the faculty offight is acquired by reflected light from every part of aluminous body, which converges in a point in right linedirections, and enter the eye at the pupil, which is but avery ſmall point, yet is capable of admitting numberlessrays of light without confufion; which being variouſlydiſpoſed or refracted by the coats and humours of the eye,fall on the retina or bottom of the eye, and thus gives theſenſation of objects, as has been demonſtrated by SirIfaac Newton and others. Now theſe are the raysdeſcribed by right lines, I5, I6, &c in the figure, a ſectionis required.PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.And for this purpoſe let the learner obferve, that the faceof the cubes next the picture are fuppofed to be parallel toit, and confequently their fides are perpendicular to thepicture; wherefore produce the lines 1, 3, 4, 2, till theycut the ground line D J at the points 1 , 2. Now as alllines perpendicular to the picture vanish into its centre C,draw 1 , C, 2, C, which will cut the rays 3 I, 4 I, at a, d,draw a, b, d, c, parallel to the angles of the cubes 3, 5, 4,

  • 6, which angles are perpendicular to the ground plane.

Now as lines perpendicular to the ground plane are parallel to the picture, fuch lines can have no vaniſhing point,and therefore their repreſentations or images a, b, d, c, onthe picture muſt be perpendicular to D J the ground line,and parallel to any of the perpendicular angles of the cubes;draw then the line a, d, which is the repreſentation ofthePERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 374bottom of the cube 2 , 4, for the line 2 , 4 is parallel to theplane of the picture and to the ground plane; and thereforeits image a, d, is parallel: fince all lines parallel to thepicture , whatever pofition they have to the original orground plane, can have no vaniſhing points; and for thisreafon, namely, that they cannot poffibly interfet thepicture, as two lines parallel to each other can never meetin a point. Hence the angles of the cubes 5, 6-8, 7—11 , 12—14, 13 , have their images b, c, e, o , p, parallelamongst themſelves, and to the interſection of the pictureDJ, with the original plane A B, D J, N K, which we havehitherto termed the ground plane, in compliance withcustom, which confiders all objects to be repreſented asthey reft with their bafes upon the furface of the earth:but the theory of perſpective, when fully underſtood, isnot fo contracted, fince it confiders planes, fimply as theybear a relation to each other, whether parallel, or inclinedto the ground and to the picture. Hence in whatever pofition any plane cuts the picture, that plane is confideredan original plane, and the objects or figures upon ſuchplanes are termed original objects, whofe repreſentationsare to be deſcribed on the plane of the picture. This however maybe further illuftrated after, but now let the learnerobferve that at b there is a change of pofition in the line,which is not continued perpendicular, but drawn to C thecentre. The reaſon is plain, if he recollects that we havefaid, all lines perpendicular to the plane of the picture havetheir vanishing point in the centre C but the angles 5,8—6,7-11 , 14-12, 13, are all perpendicular, and thereforemuſt be reprefented on the picture by b, C, c, C, whichlines, cutting the feveral rays, iffaing from the originalcubes X M, give the repreſentation of the furfaces X M;whenjoined by parallel lines at e, o, p. We have ſaid thatall lines perpendicular to the picture vanish into C thecentre; for fince fuch lines are parallel to the verticalPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 375plane, which paffes through the eye I, and the centre C,which is perpendicular to the picture, the vertical line OCscontinued indefinitely, is the vanishingline of that plane,and C its centre, when the original line is perpendicular tothe picture; but if in an angle to it, as the fides b, c, a, d,of the inclined fquare P, fig. 2, the centre will be ſomewhere on the vertical line O Cs, either above or below C,according tothe angle ofthe inclined original lines . Hences is the vaniſhing point of the original lines b, c, a, d; forif from the paraliel of the eye Y R of the directing plane,another plane be imagined to paſs through the eye parallelto Y R, and continued till it cut the picture in an angle toY RHLthehorizon, equal to that which the original planeP makes with the ground plane, then will b, I be the truevaniſhing line of the fides a, b, d, c of that plane, and O s;the vertical line will be the vanishing line of the fides a, d,b, c, which are parallel to it, though they be inclined to theground.Laftly, if from the eye I a line be drawn to s, the centreof the vaniſhing line h, ↳, perpendicular to h, 1, and to YRthe parallel of the eye; that line I, s, is called the diſtanceof that vanishing line. In producing a fection of the rays,from d, c, a, b, drawf, b, a, b, perpendicular to the picture,and draw the viſual i, s , f, s , and they will be interfected att, u, v, z, join the points t, v, u, z by lines, and the reprefentation of the plane P is found; for t, u is the image of a, d—v, z ofb, c- u, z of d, c, and t, v of a, b.SECTION V.OF THE VARIOUS POSITIONS OF LINES.Of Lines oblique to the Picture, fuppofed to be fituated inPlanes, parallel to the Plane ofthe Horizon.Infig. 3, the ground plane and the picture remaining asbefore in fig. 2, together with the eye at I, and the centreC, produce the fides of the original fquare P, till it cutthe ground line. D J at d, e, f, g, which are the points of3761 PERSPECTIVEDRAWING.interfection ofthe original lines 1 , 2, 3, 4; and as all linesoblique to the picture have their vanifhing points fomewhere out of its center C, they must be determined bythisgeneral theorem; namely, that the vaniſhing line of anyoriginal plane is that line where a plane paffing throughthe eye, parallel to the original plane, cuts the picture.Hence H L D G may be conceived to be a plane, paffingthrough the eye, perpendicular to the ground, or to theplane of the horizon, but inclined to the picture in anangle, equal to the fides of the original fquares O P. Nowas IG is the interfection of this inclined plane with thedirecting plane, and D H parallei to I G is its interfectionwith the plane of the picture; then is the line D H thevaniſhing line of the inclined plane G I HD, and H thevanishing point of the fides 4, 2, 3, 1 , of the ſquare P, andall lines parallel to theſe fides. The other fides 1 , 2, 3, 4are in the fame degree oblique to the picture; and confequently the diagonals of theſe ſquares O P are perpendicular to it, and will therefore vaniſh into C the centre ofthe picture, as we have before fhewn fuch lines will. Nowas both the fides of the fquare are alike inclined, thereforethe vanishing point L is equally diftant from the centre Cwith H. The truth of this theory may be perceived in aconvincing light, by producing the fides of the fquare toDJthe ground line, as at d, e,f, g, from which draw viſualsto HL; which interfecting each other, give the reprefentation of the original fquare P; draw then the ray R I,which cuts the vertical line O C at k, through which, forconvenience, draw the vifuals m, L, n, H, and the imageof O will be given on the picture. Now, confider theline 3, 1, d, H, d, and I, H, all in one plane, and fuppofethe eye of the fpectator at I , viewing through the tranfparent D, J, H, L, the original line 3 d, then muſt he feed, H, the image of that line on the plane of the picture.In like manner he would view 4, k, the diagonal oftheſquares, to be the image of R 2, the diagonal of the originalPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 377fquares O, P; for the lines R I, 2 I , R 2, are in the fameplane of rays, and form a triangle, of which the verticalline o, c is a perpendicular fection, therefore q, k, is theimage of R 2.Of Lines fuppofed to be fituated in Planes oblique bothto the Ground Plane and the Picture.In fig. 4. The centre C, the diftance of the eye I,and the vanishing line H L, of any original plane, parallelto the horizon, being given; to find the vaniſhing line ofa plane inclined to the horizon and picture. And here itis to be obſerved, that the pofition of the elementaryplanes are tranfpofed, fo that the ground plane, horizon,and plane of the picture, are all in one ſurface; as maymore clearly be underſtood from fig. 6, whofe lines andfigures correfpond with fig. 3, where theſe planes are intheir natural fituation to each other. Therefore the triangle HIL of fig. 6, in an upright poſition, is fimilar toHIL of fig 3, in the horizontal plane. And the triangle d, 3, 8, on the ground plane, fig. 3, is the fame asd, 3, 3, on the ground line D J fig. 6. Alſo the vaniſhing points H L, centre C, and diſtance of the picture 1,are alike in both figures; together with the vertical lineOCI. And though the three planes in fig. 6, are ſtretchedinto one, the repreſentations of both are evidently the famein theory.Having premiſed thefe, we proceed to find a vaniſhingline as propoſed. Through C A fig. 4, draw a line, makingwith the horizon HL the angle, which the inclined planemakes with the ground plane. Draw the line CI i, perpencular to C the centre, and through s draw I As parallelto HL, then may I A be confidered as the place of theeye. Throughs draw h L, parallel to I A C, then willLbe the vaniſhing line, and s the centre of the inclinedplane. Again, as a line fituated in fuch a plane is fup378PERSPECTIVEDRAWING.poſed to incline alfo to the picture as the end a 7 of the tabletop, make HI equal to the angle, which a 7 originallymakes with the picture; and as the table top is rectangular, draw IL perpendicular to HI, then will L be thevanishing point of the fide a 6. The truth of this theorymay be demonftrated as follows: fuppofe the triangleHIL capable of being turned perpendicular upon its baſeHL, then would I the place of the eye be to HL as Iis to H L, fig. 2. The triangle CIA s being alfo turnedperpendicular on C s, IAwill coincide with I. Imaginealfo the triangle of the inclined plane b, i, I L to be raiſedtill i I is inclined to I A and coincided with it. Laftly, fuppoſe the triangle HPh turned up on the perpendicular lineHI b, till P come round to I, the place of the eye viewingthe picture, then it is evident, by a little reflection, that h,Lis the true vanishing line of a plane paffing through theeye in an angle inclined to the parallel of the eye and tothehorizontal equal I As, for all the triangles will thusagree with each in their fides, and will unite in a point atthe eye; by which is reprefented refpectively the threeplanes of rays iffuing from the end, fide and top of the tableto the eye, which planes of rays are each of them parallelto the end, fide or top refpectively. Thus the plane H Phis parallel to the end 2 , 9, a 7; alfo h, i, ILto the top,and iIL, &c. to the fide 2, a, 6, 8.SECTION VI.THE PRINCIPLES OF THE PRECEDING THEORYREDUCED TO GENERAL PRACTICE.Problem 1. fig. 5. To reprefent a Geometrical Square,having two of its Sides parallel, and the other twoperpendicular to the picture.Let X be the feat of the fquare on the ground plane,then DJ is confidered as the ground line, or interfectionof the picture with the ground plane, and HCL parallelPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 379to it the vanishing line of a plane parallel to the horizon.Draw the vertical line C I through the centre of the picture, and make I the place of the eye, or IC equal tothe diſtance of the eye from the plane of the picture.Thus the paper, drawing board, or canvas, on which wework, must first be prepared, in order to the delineationof the moft fimple object in perfpective, as X. Continueits fides till they cut DJ at 1 , 2, from which draw visualsto C; draw the rays 4, 9, to the eye I, which will cutthe viſuals IC at a b; from which points draw lines tothe other viſual 2 C, and the repreſentation is completed.In this operation the learner fhould reflect a little on theanalogy of this figure with fig. 2, that he may proceedon grounds well underſtood; and for this purpoſe thefimilar lines in both are marked by the fame characters,that their connection and agreement may be perceived.The operation however may ftill be more fimplified; for,as fhewn in fig. 8, any number, as a whole floor offquares, in this poſition may be found by one diagonalline.Operation-Lay on DJ any number of equal parts,equal to the fide of the intended fquares, and draw linesto C the centre from each, then will they reprefent thoſefides of the fquares which are originally perpendicular tothe picture. Draw then a I, and obferve, that the placeof the eye I, in fig. 5, is in this tranſpoſed to the vaniſhing line HL at I; then is IC ftill the diftance of theeye from the picture: and it beiug an axiom in perſpective,that the diagonal line of any ſquare, whofe fides areparallel and perpendicular to the picture, tends to the diftance of the picture; therefore draw a I, which will passthrough the diagonal of 7 of the fquares, and if throughthefe diagonal points, lines be drawn parallel to DJtheground line, 49 fquares will thus be repreſented.Obfervations-The eye tranfpofed to I on HL, has380 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING .the fame effect on vifual lines, as when a plan X, fig. 5,is ufed; and the eye keeps its natural pofition on the vertical line CI. This is demonftrable by drawing a L,fig. 5, which paffing through the diagonal, gives the famereprefentation as when rays were drawn from the feat ofthe original fquare X to the eye at I.Obferve further-That the parallel lines of the fquaresin fig. 7, are reprefentatives of each other, according totheir diftance from the eye and the picture. Hence theline 8, 7, is the reprefentation of the front line a 9, at adiſtance from the picture equal to a 9, the original fide ofthe floor of ſquares. In like manner the intermediateparallel lines, reprefent a 9, in proportion to their diftance;and the divifions upon each are fimilar, and will bear thefame denomination to each other; ſo that if thoſe ſpaceson a 9, be a foot, yard, or more, they are the fame onthe reft. Hence each divifion becomes a fcale, by whichto proportion objects perſpectively, according to theirparallels thus, if I want to know the height of theobject c, d, lay the height on the fcale f, c, and it willbe 2 of thefe, whether feet or yards. And lastly, allobjects on the fame parallel, whofe heights are originallythe fame, have their reprefentations of equal height whenftanding on the fame parallel. The fame holds true inthe length of objects which are equal originally, whenthey are parallel to the picture, and ftand on the fameparallel.Thefe remarks may contribute towards folving thedoubts of fome enquirers into this art, who are inclinedto believe that parallel objects, continued to any greatlength-fuch, for inftance, as the body of a church, onthe front of the picture, in which there are a number ofwindows of equal diftances from each other-in whichcafe the artift, un killed in the theory of perfpective, isapt to think that the windows moft remote from the eye,PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 381ought to appear narrower than thofe in the centre. AndI confess this matter to have been one of my own doubts,when a youngfter in this fcience; not confidering thefimple geometrical axiom, that lines perfectly parallel, cannever meet, and therefore in perſpective can have no vaniſhing point: and if fo, by what rule can the fronts ofhouſes, or other large buildings, parallel to the picture becontracted? There are only two pofitions of lines forbuildings of every defcription, either they are parallel, orin fome degree oblique. If they are in the leaft degreeoblique, their bafes, and all the parts on the front of ahouſe, ſuch as the tops and bottoms of windows, willuniformly incline fomewhere to a point on the horizon;but if parallel, thefe parts will be parallel on the picture.Hencein perspective it is a generally acknowledged pofition,that all lines originally parallel, fituated any where on aplain parallel to the picture, have their reprefentationsparallel amongst themfelves and to the horizon.But in the contemplation of theſe fubjects the fancy isapt to rove in mazes of doubt, and therefore perhaps thereader has already placed himfelf, in imagination, on thefront of a long range of regular buildings, or a long ſtreet,and ftill reafons with himfelf thus:-I cannot fee thewindows at the extremities near fo wide as thofe oppofite tomy eye, and if I look to my left, or to the right from theplace where I ſtand, the buildings feem to be much loweraccording to their diſtance from the centre; and if fo, howcan fuch a range of buildings be reprefented with theirtops and bottoms parallel? This objection is very plaufible, and more fo than any other with which I am acquainted; and as its difcuffion is of fome confequence toa true knowledge of the art, an anſwer to it will not bedigreffive from our main ſubject. Let it therefore beobferved, that the eye has confiderably the advantage overthe rules of perfpective, which can only admit of one point382 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.of fight or centre to a picture, to which all the vifive raysconverge. But we are to remember, that the eye has thepower of turning every way, and to a vaft degree, asaffifted by the circular motion of the head; fo that wenaturally attempt to view a long ſtreet placed parallel tothe eye at a ſhorter diftance than can be admitted in theirperfpective; but if we recede from this ſhort diſtance, andplace ourſelves at one fomewhat more than the perpendicular of an equilateral triangle, whoſe baſe is the length ofthe buildings; and having thus fixed our ſtation, we muſtkeep the eye ftedfaft to one point, perpendicular to thefront, and take into our drawing no more of the ftreet thanthe eye can comprehend without turning either it or thehead; for if we want more of the ftreet, we muſt ſtill ſtepat a proportionate diftance: the eye thus fituated will viewthe street parallel, and its windows regular in width andſpace, if they are fo originally; and finally, its repreſentation will be perfectly fimilar with the original ſtreet.Such views are however feldom taken, and are never confidered as pictureſque.PROBLEM II. fig. 6, plate 1 .Of Squares oblique to the Picture.We have already confidered a part of this figure as toits analogy with fig. 3, and its connection with the theoryof the art; and fhall therefore proceed fimply to the practical method of drawing fquares in this fituation; andwithout any regard to the plan P. The centre C, vaniſhingline V L, and the place of the eye I being given, drawI H parallel to the fide, or equal to the angle which twoof the fides of the original fquare makes with the picture.Draw IL perpendicular to HI, then will HL be thevaniſhing points of the fides of the fquares. Butthat therepreſentation may be performed without a plan, makeVL equal to the diftance of the vanishing line, I L orPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 383HI; likewife V H the fame. And here it is to be obferved, that lines inclined to the picture are the fame wayeffected by interfections to V v, the diſtances of the vaniſhing lines LJ, H B, as when they vanish into thecentre C, and are interfected by the diftance of the eye I,tranfpofed at I, as in fig. 8. Thus far then the pictureis prepared for objects inclined to it. Draw ƒ L, andmake ƒ1 , equal to the diftance of the fquare P fromthe picture; draw 1 , V, which will cut at q, make 1 , 2,equal to the fide of the original fquare, and draw to V,cutting at t; which gives the fide of the fquare, by drawing from q tto H, which cutting the diagonal tending tothe centre C, lines may be drawn to HLthrough theſepoints, and the reprefentation is completed. Thus wemay proceed to any number of ſquares, by repeatedly laying on the ſpace 1 , 2, on the ground line each way.PROBLEM III. fig. 5.To reprefent a Squarefituated in a Plane inclined totheGround, having its Sides parallel to the Picture.The picture being prepared as to its diſtance, centre,and vaniſhing line, draw L s equal to the angle, whichthe inclined fquare makes with the ground, as fhewn bythe elementary planes in fig. 2, by the line Is, parallel toP the original object. Draws, d, the diſtance of theinclined plane, parallel to the horizon, and draw the fidesof the fquare to s, the vanifhing point in the inclined plane.Laftly, draw the diagonal b, d, which paffes through thefquare to the distance of the inclined plane d, and drawingfc, the fquare is completed.384 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.PROBLEM IV. fig. 1, plate 2 .To reprefent a Paralellogram, whofe Sides are perpendicularto the Picture, and ends inclined to the Horizonor Ground Plane.The centre C, diftance of the eye I, horizon HL, andground line DJ, being given, make b, a, g, the angle inwhich the parallelogram is inclined to the ground: and asthe fides a, n, o, p, are perpendicular to the picture, theinclined vanishing line i C, paffes through the centre ofthepicture parallel to a, b, confequently C the common centreis the vanishing point of the fides o, p, a, n, perpendicular to the picture; and as p, n, o, a, are parallel to it,they can have no vanishing point. Therefore in whateverpofition the line o, a, b may be to the ground plane, ſo longas it keeps parallel to the picture; any line originally perpendicular to it would vaniſh into C the centre. Drawthen to C, the fides o, p, a, n, and make a, b equal to thefides of the parallelogram, and b 2 to its ends, and havingturned C I the diftance to i, draw i, b, i, 2, interfecting atp, n, join p, n and the parallelogram will be reprefented asrequired.The fubject of this problem may be fully illuftrated byfig. 2, which preſents a water wheel, parallel to the picture,and therefore the ends of the wings 1 , 2, 3, &c. are perpendicular, and being fo they vanish into the centre C inevery pofition, for all their vanishing lines 2, 6, 3, 7, 4, 8,país through the centre, parallel to the feveral wings ofthe wheel, as denoted by the correfpondent numerals;from which lines being drawn to C, will indefinitely reprefent the ends of the wings. Now confider the widthof the wings equal to 1 a, 8 g, 3 b, &c. and from I a,draw a line to 1 , on the vanishing line 1 , 5, cutting at10, and from d, 5, cutting at 9; through 10, 9, drawaline, which will be parallel to 1 , 5, and give the apparentPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 385width of the wing. Inthe fame way must b, c, d, e, f, &,be drawn to their refpective diftances on the vaniſhinglines, which will finish its reprefentation.Obfervation. -Suppoſe the wheel to be put in motion;all the edges of the wings will move ſtrictly parallel tothe picture, and confequently their ends are always perpendicular to it; the inference of which is , that a planemay bein an infinite variety of inclinations to the groundplane, or that of the horizon, and yet pafs through thecentre of the picture.PROBLEM V. fig. 2.The Reprefentation of a Square perpendicular to the Ground,and to the Picture.The horizon, diſtance ofthe eye, and ground line, remaining the fame as for the wheel, draw the viſual u,C, and let the fquare be equal u, r, fromthe picture; drawr 2, from r to v lay on the original fide of the fquare;and draw v 2, cutting at o, from which raiſe a perpendicular. Make v, t equal v, r, and draw a line from tto 2, cutting at p'; laftly, from C draw a line through ,cutting at 4, which gives the fquare A, as required. Ifthe fame fquare be moved round parallel to the picture,as at B, its repreſentation will be a fquare, for it maybe confidered as a parallel fection of a pyramid, whofebaſe is a ſquare, t , v, s, B and its vertex is C, the centre ofthe picture. Thefe pofitions of ſquares, and all others,perpendicular to the ground, are fully illuftrated byPROBLEM VI. fig. 3.To repreſent a Wheel, with its Sides parallel to the Horizonand Ground Plane, having its Wings oblique to the Picture.This figure provides us with the reprefentation ofparallelograms in every poſition, perpendicular to theCc386PERSPECTIVEDRAWING.ground; and every angle of inclination to the picture,confidered at the fame time as perpendicular to theground. And it is to be obferved, that when we canthus reprefent parallelograms, we, by the fame methods,are able to give the perfpective of any door, opened toany angle. It is for this reafon I have adopted the figureof a horizontal wheel, as moft convenient for this purpofe. The diſtance of the eye I C, the centre C, andthe vanishing line H L, together with the interfectionGR, being given, draw the type at I, confifting of twogeometrical fquares, interfecting each other at rightangles, and infcribed within a circle, produce I, V, N,IV to H L, the vaniſhing line; alſo I D, which biſectsright angle, VN, I, V at D, and is therefore the vanishingpoint ofthe diagonal of any fquare, whofe fides to the picture are inclined in that angle. Now produce L4, AN,drawn to the boundaries of the plate. ID is perpendicular to it, and IV bifects the right angle; confequentlyVis the vanishing point ofthe diagonal of any fquare inclinedtothe picture, in the angle DIAV. Thus we havevaniſhing points fufficient for the two ſquares at I. Through Ddraw D 1 at pleaſure, or to a given point P, cutting thevertical line I C at P, which will be the centre of thewheel. Through P draw V P a, and make V n equalV I. Now, fince Vn is the diſtance of the vaniſhingline IV, draw ng through P, and having made 5, 6equal to the radius of the wheel, draw 5 , cutting theline V P at a, then is a, P half the diameter. Draw a,d, AN, and through P draw V NP, cutting at d and b;and draw d D cutting at e; join e and b, which lines tendto A N, and is therefore originally parallel to a, d,which vanishes in A N. Hence a, d, b, e is the repreſentation of the fquare a, d, b, e, at the type I; and,therefore, the parallelograms d, b, a, e, are diagonals ofthat fquare, and must be at right angles to each other"PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 387Proceed now to find the points for the other interfectingfquare, as follows:-Through P draw 2 , 4, to AN,becauſe 2, 4, at I, is parallel to a, d, b, e. ThroughH draw Ha, which tends to v, the vaniſhing point onthe left, at a diſtance from C, equal to C A N, whichgives the point 1 , from which draw 1 , V, cutting at4; and draw 4, V N, cutting at 3; through 3 draw 3,V, cutting at 2; hence we have the fquare 1 , 2, 3, 4,interfecting a, b, d, e, determining the length of eachwing or ſpoke of the wheel, and producing 8 points,through which, a curve being drawn, a circle will,circumfcribe them, as fhewn by the dotted line in thefigure. If, however, there be not room for v H in thedrawing, obferve that I t paffes on the type though thecentre of the arch 3, 2; therefore t is the vanishing pointof a line t, p, paffing through p to r, biſecting the arch 3,e, a, I , at the point r. Laftly, draw V N, r, cutting atI, and at 2 the fame as before; and if s , E be drawn,cutting at 9, which bifects the arch I d, in the fameway; and drawing V 91 we have 4; and from 4 to V N,we have 3; by which means the 8 points may be foundwithout recourfe to either of the very diftant vaniſhingpoints. This problem is operous, but it will fully repaythe learner for his patience when he can mafter it; forhe muft obferve its general utility, in teaching, not onlythe repreſentation of a wheel parallel to the horizon, butalfo upright planes, in any direction, for doors; acircle and an octagon in perſpective, however inclinedtheir diameters may be to the picture.SECTION VII.Öf the Application of the preceding Practice to the RepreJentation ofPieces of Furniture.Having, in the preceding ſection, treated of planes inall poffible pofitions to the picture, the learner is effentially388PERSPECTIVEDRAWING.prepared for the repreſentation of ſolid figures of anydeſcription; but as this treatife is particularly defignedfor cabinet-makers and upholsterers, we proceed to' every needful variety in furniture.Of Fig. 1, plate 2.The Repreſentation of a Reading or Drawing Table, havingits Top raiſed to an Angle, b, a, g, to the Horizon, andits Sides perpendicular to the Picture.The top of this table is deſcribed in prob. 4 of the preceding fection, confidered fimply as a parallelogram inclined to the horizon, but perpendicular to the picture,and therefore we ſhall only touch on the frame, whoſeend is parallel and fide perpendicular to the picture.But the learner fhould obferve, that, in reprefentingfurniture, he fhould always make a ſcale of feet andinches; by which is to be proportioned the height of theeye above the ground, termed the horizon, and alſo everypart of the piece intended to be delineated. To thehorizon may be affigned in general 5 feet 6 inches, or 5feet, as furniture is in general viewed from a naturalheight. The distance of the eye from the picture, maycommonly be governed by the diſtance from C to G, onGR, the ground line, which I find to anſwer with fewerexceptions in drawing furniture than any other rule,though in this, and other figures, I have paid no regardto it, as this would be quite inconvenient, for want ofroom on the plates. Let then q I be the width, and 1,2the length of the table; draw q1 , and the other lines詈for the feet, to C, and from 2 draw to I, cutting at 3,which gives the length; and from 3 draw parallel, forthe other leg, which in this example is not ſeen. Fromeach of theſe points raiſe perpendiculars, and draw DJPERSPECTIVE DRAWING.389bparallel to G R, for the height of the table; and fromr, a, draw the viſuals r C, a C, meeting at n. Thehorſemay be drawn in any angle to the top, it being parallelto the picture has no vaniſhing point, and conſequentlyits angle is on the picture, the fame as the original.For the top, fee Prob. 4.In tapering fquare legs in any table, fig. A fhews themethod at large; 1 , 2 is the fquare of the leg, and 3, 4,reduces it to half the fize, to which it is to be taperedat the bottom; draw 1 , 2, 3, 4 to C the centre, andfrom 2 draw to d the diftance, which gives the diagonalof the ſquare of the foot; draw the contrary diagona. ,cutting at a, b, and the point c, was cut by the otherline to d, then are the points a, c, b, the proper tapering points, to which, lines from the full fquare of thelegs muſt be drawn, as at 5, 6, fig. 1 .Of Fig. 4, plate 2.The Repreſentation of a Stand, or RoundTable, on a Pillar,and three Claws, two of which are parallel and oneperpendicular to the Picture.The diſtance, C I, being given, draw at I the triangle 1 I, 2, and produce its fides to V O V, whichwill be the vaniſhing points of the triangle, in whichthe claws may be infcribed, therefore draw a V,à V O. Make G a equal to the fide of the giventriangle, and draw G V cutting at d; draw d, b, parallel to Ga, which will give the triangle; to findthe centre of which, draw Ca, and from G drawto b, and their interfection will be the centre atl. The truth of this is demonftrable by obſerving,that the diagonal of the two triangles at I , are perpendicular or at right angles to each other, and a

390 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.1line bifecting any fide, and perpendicular to it, cutsthe diagonal in the centre of either triangle: Gb is,therefore, perpendicular to a, d, cutting Ca, the bifection in e; from which raiſe a perpendicular for thepillar. In this example, the table top is above thehorizon, ſo that the eye is fuppofed to be between it andthe claws; but this makes no difference in the rulesfor drawing it. Let a 7 be drawn perpendicular toGR, the ground line, and equal to the height of theftand; and draw 4, 5, parallel to the ground, and equalto the diameter of the top, which is a circle originally;draw lines from 4, 7, 5 to C, and make C D equal IC, thediftance of the eye. From 4 draw to D, cutting 5 Cat 9; draw 9, 8, which will give a fquare to containthe circle; draw 5, 8, the contrary diagonal, whichgives the centre, through which draw 10, 12; make6, 5 equal two-fevenths of the femi-diameter, and draw6 to C, which will cut the diagonals in the pointsthrough which the circle is to paſs; do the fame on theother fide, or draw parallel lines to the oppofite anglesfrom o, p, and there will be 8 points through which thecurve is to paſs, as fhewn by the points on the underfide ofthe top. Make a, r equal to the heighth of theclaws, and draw to C, cutting the pillar on the top ofthe claws. For the top of the toes at t, draw from tto V, V O, as at s and n; and for every other part,the eye mufl be the guide, governed by a well formedjudgment in the theory of perſpective.1Of Fig. 5, plate 2,Ofan Octagon Top Table, with four Claws, having theirToes parallel and perpendicular to the Picture.To fhorten the defcription, we fhall fuppofe thelearner acquainted with the vanishing line, ground line,PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 391and diſtance of the picture; and therefore proceed torepreſent a ſquare at a, 4, b, d, equal to the fize of thetop, and the fame for the top. Draw the perpendicularline 1, 2, half the diameter of the top, and defcribethe arch 1 , 3; from 2 draw 2, 4, the diagonal, andmake 4, 6 equal 3 , 4; and from O drawto A6 the diftance, which will cut the diagonal in the place of thetoes, ifthey are confidered as projecting from the pillar,equal to the edge of the table, as in this cafe; how theother toes are found is obvious, by the dotted linestraced to each. For the octagon at the top, nothingmore is requifite than drawing from 5, 6, 8, 7, 3, 10,perpendicular lines to the correfpondent numerals at thetop, and joining them with lines; and for the height ofthe claws, draw ga and o a for thetoes.Of Fig. 6, plate 2.The Repreſentation of an Octagon Table, with Drawers,having all its Sides oblique to the Picture, and refting onFour Claws.In the preceding example, the fides of the octagontop are, two of them, parallel, two perpendicular, andfour of them oblique to the picture, which circumſtancemakes it much more convenient and eafy for drawing:but in this, every fide being inclined to the picture, itrequires a confiderable extent for two of the vaniſhingpoints, as at V N, by fig. 7, and V near the bed.Theſe two points are for the front fides, and the twobehind, which are parallel to them. The type at I,fhews how the vaniſhing points for each fide are found.Thus the line I a is parallel e, c, and I b to d, e, thefronts of the table, and are therefore produced till theycut the vanifhing line, which is the fame as for the firefereen and bed, continued the whole length of the plate.392 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.The lines Ik, I h are parallel reſpectively to the fidesb, c, a, d, and are therefore produced till they cut at dand D, the vanishing points of the fides, a, d, b, c.Now, as the other fides of the table are reſpectivelyparallel to thoſe four feen in front, they have the ſamevaniſhing points; and as every angle of the top touch thediagonals and diameters of a fquare, let 1 , 2, 3, 4 bethe fquare of the top, and G R BLthe fame ſquare onthe ground plane, and draw the diagonals of each toV NO, V O, and their interfections find the centre anddiameter 5, 6 M T of the fquares. Proceed now to drawthe lines to each vaniſhing point, and their interfectionswith thefe will form the fides of the top, as is obviousfrom the plate. The border round the top is found by laying its original width on the lines 1 , 2, at 7, cutting 5, 6.From d, draw a line forward, cutting the diagonal 1, 3;then from V N cut the perpendicular, paffing throughthe centre C, which method is to be continued round allthe fides . The depth of the rail and drawers are laid onthe perpendicular 1 G at e, and e, fis to be drawntoV O, the vanishing point of the diagonals; and fromfbegin by a line from V N, continued round the four apparent fides to the fame points as were employed for thetop, and ſo of every other line which are parallel to thefides of the top. How the claws are to be managed,with refpect to their projection, is by laying on theground line G R, R a, equal to the ſaid projection, thatis of half the ſquare G R on the diagonal line, whichis as I o is to In on the type, for it ſhould be obſerved,that every line in perfpective, according to their poſitionto each other, bears the fame ratio as their originals ingeometry. This may be underfood by comparing thetype I, of the original geometrical plan, with its perpective on the ground; for e, m, on the type, is fimilarto a M in perſpective, and I o at the type is fo to R a on•PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 393the ground; and becauſe I d is parallel to e m, V No isthe vaniſhing point of the line a n in the perſpective.Hence it appears that the claws project from the pillar , orrather centre of it, more than R a, half the diameter ofthetable, in as much as I l, on the type, is more than I o, oras the diagonal is to the fide of a ſquare.Of Fig. 7.The Reprefentation ofa Tripod Work Table Fire Screen, obliqueto the Picture.Draw C I, the centre and diftance of the picture, and atI draw the triangle 1 , 2, 3 in an inclination II to IC, thevertical line, as may be aſſumed or propoſed. The vaniſhing line I, V N a is parallel to the fide 1 , 3, I, v, n, e, to1 , 2, and I v, near the bed, to A B in the perfpectiveplan, that is originally fo; II is the perpendicular of thetriangle, and is produced to Di. I, v i, is produced perpendicular to V N a, I, confequently v i, is the vaniſhingpoint of a line A n perpendicular to BD. Let G R betheground line; draw then A D, v n o, A B v, and makeAm equal to the fides of the original triangle P. And asv, p is equal I v, it is the diſtance of that vanishing line,therefore draw in p, m cutting at B; from B draw to V N a,cutting at D; then is the triangle ABD the reprefentation of Am on the plane P. To find the centre for thepillar, divide A m at a, and from a draw to P cutting at b,and from bto Oi, draw A to v, i, and s will be the centre.Make / equal to the fide of the block to which the top ishinged, and draw theſe to p, for the ſame reaſon as m was;and from xy draw to Oi, cutting at tn for Oi; vi isequal I vi, and is therefore the distance of the vanishingline I v i. Draw through tn lines to V N a. From thevaniſhing point d of the diagonal of a ſquare, whoſe fides areIvi, IV Na, draw through s, cutting in fand d, whichgive the ichnography of the block. Thus are we prepared0394 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING .fordrawingthe upper part ofthe fcreen-place therefore theheight ofthe block at 4, and draw to v i, and the length ofthe fcreen face at 5 , 6, equal on each fide 4. From d, thediagonal vaniſhing point, draw through the line 4, vi; andfrom d on the ichnography of the block, raife a perpendicular cutting at 7 , and from 7 draw to V N a, vi; thenfrome andƒcut thefe lines, and the block will be found.From n, on the ichnography, raife a perpendicular to 8,and from 5, 6 draw to vi, which gives the face of thefcreen in its apparent height. For the width, lay on AR,nzequal to half of it, from which direct lines to Qcutting at nk, and from k raiſe a perpendicular to 9; andhow the other half of the fcreen, and the breaks at theangles are obtained is clear from the numerals 10, 12, without further tediouſneſs in defcription. The drawing ofthepillar and claws muft be learned from experience and obfervation, for it would be intolerably prolix to enter intothe minutia of thefe; befides the whole would be in confufion from the multiplicity of lines and figures, that wouldbe requifite to a particular detail of all the parts. Tomake perſpective pleafant and eafy, the ftudent fhouldlearn to reafon from the analogy of parts; fo that in how to reprefent the moft confpicuous parts of objects,he may eaſily defcend to thoſe more remote, or moreminute, according to their poſitions and relation to eachother.Of Fig. 8. plate 2.The Reprefentation ofa Four-poſt Bed, oblique to the Picture.In this example one would think obfervation alone wouldbe fufficient after what hath paffed upon the fubject; butas fome of myreaders, who follow the upholſtery branch,may be defirous to come as fpeedily as poffible to theknowledge of fuch a drawing, I fhall proceed, as before, toexplain the lines; and, it is here to be obſerved, that every thing is drawn to a ſcale of feet, as marked 1 , 2, 3, &c.PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 395both for the length, width, and height of the bed, togetherwith the height of the horizontal line, which is 5 feetabove GR, the ground line; and the diftance of the eyeIC is rather more than from Cto R, agreeably to whatwe have before noticed under fig. 1 , in the beginning ofthis fection. IC, being then the diftance of the eye fromthe picture; draw Iv, making an angle, equal to thatwhich the end of the bed makes with the picture; andfrom I draw I, V N perpendicular to I v, then are V‹ N, ≈the vanishing points of the fides and ends of the bed refpectively. Make v d equal I v, then is vd the distanceof the vanishing line tranfpoſed to the horizontal line, bywhich to define the repreſentation ofany original line. Thusdrawing Bv for the end ofthe bed, from 5 feet draw to dcutting the reprefentation of the end of the bed B v in o,which is faid to define that line, becauſe B a reprefents 5feet; but as we want the width to be a foot more, and asthere is not ſpace beyond 5 to lay on that foot, to make it6 feet, drawo b parallel to the ſcale line, and draw I v, cutting at b, from b draw to d, and becauſe o b is the repreſentation of one foot on that parallel, the bed end will bethus made equal to 6 feet. From 7 draw to i, which willgive the length of the bed, becauſe V N, i is the diſtanceof the vanishing line V N, I. Make e, f, g on the perpendicular fcale line G g equal to the feveral heights of theparts of the bed, and draw from theſe to i, interfecting thefeveral lines to V N, which being drawn forward as to kB, give the repreſentations oftheſe. Or theſe heights maybe placed on Bk and drawn to V N; but to keep clear ofthe bed pillar, at B we have thought it preferable to uſe theother line at Gg, as the effect is perfectly the fame. Obferve all the lines on g, h, k, at the top of the bed, tend toi, by which every part on the viſual k V N is meaſured ordefined; and in like manner may any other part on theend of the bed, as at r, the centre, be defined by d, for k r is equal to half the end of the bed. Laftly,obſerve that every line at the head end of the bed, which isparallel to the foot end, vanifh, or tend to v, and fo doall thoſe parallel to the fides, or on the fides, tend to VN.After fuch remarks I preſume every particular of the wholebed will be eaſily underſtood.Fig. 8. plate 2.Ofthe Repreſentation of a Gentleman's Shaving Table, havingits Front parallel to the Picture.The learner may here obſerve that the poſition of theglafs occafions that intricacy which appears in the lines ofthis figure, as I have been particular in fhewing how theends of the glafs vaniſh.It is true the cupboard door is opened oblique, and isthe occafion of the vanishing points VV, for VI is drawnto the diſtance I, and is fuppofed to be parallel to the fideof the door originally confidered, and I V is perpendicularto V I, and is parallel to the edge of the door. MakeV, d, V equal V I, then will d, V be the diſtance of the vaniſhing line V I. Bifect the angle V IV at o, and produceI o to n, then n will be the vanishing point ofthe diagonalsof any fquare inclined to the picture in that angle. FromVproduce the top and bottom of the door, and from Vdraw through 4, and from the diagonal point n drawthrough the inner edge of the door, cutting at 5. Laftly,through 5 draw 5, 6, which determines the width of thedoor, which, in this fituation, appears too wide, becauſe itis on this fide of the picture next the eye, but the rule isthe fame. The angle of the glaſs is at a b, and e c is theoriginal height of the frame in which it is hung by a centre.Make d S parallel to ab, which gives S for the vanishingpoint of the inclined plane. Draw SD parallel to d C,and make S D equal Sd, and D will be the diſtance of thatplane. Weproceed now to find the vaniſhing points forPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 397the ends ofthe glafs, by making CE equal to the diſtanceIC. Draw SE and make E V N perpendicular to S E,then will VN be the vanishing point of both ends of theglafs, for they are parallel to each other. Draw from thecentre of the glaſs a b to 3, and from 3 to C, which willcut the centre of the frame, ſuppoſed to be already drawn.Then from 3 draw through that centre, and draw a parallel line to the oppofite fide of the frame, through whichanother line from S must be drawn for the other fide ofthe glafs. Now the apparent length of the glaſs may bedetermined two ways, either by drawing to C from 4 and2, or bytaking na and a b, and laying from Pto 7, anddrawing to do, as the figure itſelf ſhews, the length of theglaſs being determined either way, draw the ends to VN,to which point they tend. Concerning the parallel andperpendicular parts of this piece of furniture, we judge itneedleſs to ſay anything to thoſe who have gone throughthe preceding parts.OfFig. 9, plate 1.The Reprefentation of a Chair, oblique to the Picture.The diftance I C, vanishing line V VN, and groundline 4, 3, 2, 5 being given, draw the plan P of the chairfeat, and produce the fides to the ground line. Obfervethe front ofthe chair P, is parallel to V I, andthe fide 9,10 is the fame to V I, and the oppofite fide to IV N, andCI to the line paffing perpendicular through the centre ofthe feat; fo that we have four vaniſhing points out of theAndthe learner fhould further notice, that, as wehave drawn from a plan produced ' till its fides interfect thepicture, no ufe is made of the diftances of the feveralvaniſhing lines, as has been done in the foregoing examples. Draw then the feveral lines as fhewn at 4, 3, I,2, 5, and their interfections will find the place ofthe feet.Raife a perpendicular at 2, 8, and from 8 the height ofthecentre.

398PERSPECTIVEDRAWING.feat draw to V, and downwards from 8 place the depthof the rail, or ſtuffing, and draw to the reſpective vaniſhing points. The height of the back is laid on from 8 onthe perpendicular, and drawn to Vuntil it cut a correlpondent perpendicular, touching the angle of the chair asat n, from whence a line is drawn to V N, giving theheight of the back. For the centre of the back, drawfrom 3, to 6, and from m, raiſe a perpendicular, and let itpaſs over the feat to o, the vanishing point of that line;which will give the centre of the balluſter, or back of thechair. How the other fmall parts are to be drawn,muſt be left to the judgment of the practitioner, as it isimpoffible to apply more minute rules to fuch ſmall examples.Of Fig. 10, plate 1 .Ofa Step Ladder oblique to the Picture, andto the Plane oftheHorizon.This example is given for the exerciſe of the learner,that he may now try his ſkill, in vanishing points, lines,and planes. The whole figure may be conceived, asfituated in three original planes, of different pofitions toeach other: thus, the foot of the ſteps, are feated in aplane parellel to the horizon, and, therefore, GR isdrawn for the interfection of that original plane with thepicture; and H L being drawn parallel to it, and at afpace above G R, equal the height of the eye, it is thevaniſhing line ofthe faid original plane, and every otherplane parallel to it; as the fteps, every one of which,though they feem not to be fo to the eye of the unfkilfulobferver, are in planes originally parallel to each other, andto the horizon. Hence all the tops, and underfides ofthefteps, vaniſh into V, near H: to which point they may allfrom the bottom, to the top, be drawn.Second-The fides of the fteps whofe elevation is P,PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 399are in planes parallel to each other; perpendicular to theground plane, but oblique to the picture: V, C, I , is theangle of their obliquity. Hence a line paffing through VVa, parallel to the vertical line C I, or, which is the famething, perpendicular to the ground, is the vaniſhing line ofthat inclined plane; therefore, ef, from the bottom oftheſe fides are drawn to V, becauſe the fides of the ladderare repreſented by thefe as being in that inclined plane,and parallel to each other: 4, the top, is equal to e fthe bottom and therefore vaniſh to V a.Third-The front edges of the fteps, and of the fides, arein a plane oblique both to the ground and picture. Theangle it makes with the picture, is, OV, CI; hence, efis drawn to O V, and alfo all the fronts of the ſteps, forthey are all parallel to each other. The inclinationwhich this original plane makes with the ground, is theline a b at P, as it bears to the ground line G R; hencefrom O V, a line is drawn parallel to a b on P, cuttingthe vanishing line V Va at Va, and therefore V a isthe true vanishing point of the front and back edges ofthe fides of the fteps, for every angle of the fides of theladder are parallel to each other.We proceed now to find the centre S, and distance S I,of the vanishing line VaVO. Through C, draw Ci parallelto Va S, and make C i equal CI, and draw C S, perpendicular to the vanishing line Va; OV, then is S its centre,and C S continued to I, perpendicular to S, and i S being turned to II, II willbe the diftance of the eye onthat plane, and V a I 1 , the distance of the vanishing line.Va, OV of that plane; therefore make V a, doequal Va II; and from every step on P, draw lines todo, cutting feverally on the line bk, from which drawevery front edge of the fteps to O. V. The reft beingfo obvious from, the general theory of the whole thus400 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.illuftrated, must be understood, and therefore I shall notclog the figure with any more letters, nor render thedetail further tedious, by a more minute confideration.Plate 3.Ofthe Reprefentation of the Ionic and Corinthian Capitals,having their Faces parallel to the Picture.The Compofite is omitted, it being only the Ionic andCorinthian joined together.And as the learner is fuppofed to have gone regularlythrough the preceding leffons, it will be quite unneceffaryto give a detail of every line, as this would greatly injure the effect ofthe capitals, by attaching a great numberof letters to them. I fhall therefore only make fome general references to them, and leave the particulars to thereader's own obfervations, by inſpecting the plate.And first I would remark, that the capitals thus reprefented, greatly affift the workman in attaining to theknowledge of the diftinct parts, and to the whole ofthecapitals; and it is prefumed that architecture in generalwould be better understood, if it was thus delineated.To draw the plan of each capital, is effentially requifiteto an accurate reprefentation of them. And let thelearnerbegin with the Ionic, as it is by much the eafieft ofthetwo. In drawing the plan, make a ſcale of minutes,which fhould be as large as can be difpenfed with; thenopening the compaffes to 25 of thefe, defcribe a circle anddivide it into four quarters, at one of which defcribe thevolute, as in this example-by any of the methodstaught in the laft fection of geometrical drawing. Bythis elevation, the plan of the volutes will be moſt correctly afcertained, and the whole capital . And obferve,that on the plan the volutes are five minutes in width,and four are taken for their concavity, which is drawnPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 401from the fummit of an equilateral triangle as at s. Everyother part of the plan must be obvious from infpection;and therefore, proceed to fhew it in perſpective; and asthe abacus of the capital is a perfect ſquare, its angles willfall on each diagonal of the fquare, which includes thethe ovalo, or largeſt circle on the plan. From , p, q, onthe right hand diagonal of the plan, it is apparent howthe feveral circles are found, to any that know any thingof perfpective, and it is vain for any other to attempt todraw theſe capitals, which are even troubleſome to thoſewell versed in the ſubject: and it ſhould alſo be remarked, that the knowlege of perſpective alone, will not befufficient, except we have previously drawn the ordersgeometrically. The ichnography of the capital beingthus found, draw lines from r, t, to the height ofthe capital at f, e, from which find a perfpective fquare, agreeing with that the plan. Draw e, 1, perpendicular onwhich to lay on the height of the volute, and the abacusabove, which must be taken from the profile of the Ioniccolumn, plate 32; ſo alſo muſt every part of the Corinthian plan and capital be adjuſted from the meaſurementof the profile of that order, in plate 33. The Ionic volute on the plan being parallel to the picture, or to G R,the repreſentation is to be drawn by the fame centres,and method used in drawing them geometrically. Thebreadth of the horn ofthe volute, is laid on at ↳, k, andfrom k, draw a line to o, cutting at m. The parts a, b,c, d, are for the projection of the ovalo, aftragal, and hollow, at each of which there muſt be fquares repreſented,and their diagonals pointed from the circles on the ichnography, as from 1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8. The fluting aredrawn as from w, v, to the circle 1 , 2, 3 , &c. and raiſedperpendicular from the feveral points on that circle, as at9, 10. The carved eggs and darts on the echinus, areD d402 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.reſpectively over each flute and fillet, and are found in thefame way on the largeſt circle.Ofthe Repreſentation of the Corinthian Capital, having itsFaces parallel and perpendicular to the Picture.The halfplan ofthis capital muſt be drawn in the following manner:-After making the fcale of minutes as before,take twenty-five of theſe, and defcribe the fhaft ofthecolumn, and divide it into four equal parts, and draw theradii; and on theſe deſcribe the plan of the leaves. Thefirst row of which project ſeven minutes, and the fecond fixmore, in all thirteen, as marked on the plate. Then take fixtyminutes, and place it from its centre, on the diagonal line60 at a, and take two minutes and a half, and on a deſcribethe circle; and through a draw b, c perpendicular to thediagonal line, which gives the width of the horn of thevolute. Now, as the face ofthe abacus is concave on everyfide, find the centre of the curve by taking c, e and placingit from bto O on the line Od; the centre O will defcribeit, which is fo drawn on every fide. From the angularpoint P, deſcribe the projection of the echinus and hollow,which may be equally divided, but it is ufual to give a littlemore to the echinus or ovalo. Now proceed to find theperfpective of the plan as in the other capital, and from 7,8, reprefent a fquare, which includes the whole of thecapital. Alo, at A B C do the fame for the two rows ofleaves, the projections of which are found by their diagonalsand diameters, the fame as in the reprefentation of anycircle; and the turn-over of thefe leaves is 5 minutesdeep; which, to keep their points correct, will requireanother circle, as fhewn by the dotted lines at 9, 10. Thehorn of the abacus vanishes into the distance, becauſe itis the diagonal of a fquare, as is feen onthe plan; andtherefore take the fide of the fquare p, e, at the plan, andlayto 7, I, on the top of the capital, and from 1 drawPERSPECTIVE DRAWING.403to the distance on the left, which, in this example, exceeds the bounds of its plate. From 7 draw to the centreC, and the interfection will give the horn, the centre ofwhich will be on the diagonal of the higheſt ſquare; fromwhich draw to the other diagonal, for the right hand horn.For the curve of the abacus, draw perpendicular lines, asat 2, 3, 4, 5, on the plan; from which draw to 2, 3, 4,5, at the top of the capital; and from 2, 3, 4, 5,draw to C, the centre. Laftly, take g 2, and fet it from2 tok, at the top, and draw from k to the diſtance D, andfo from /, n, o, which will give four points, through whichthe path of the curve muſt be directed; and for the reft,the learner muft exerciſe his own genius, from what hedifcerns on the plate, rather than be wearied out with thetediouſneſs of repeated references. I fhall, however,mention that the leaves find their place on the vaſe of thecapital, by drawing them from the plan, in the fame manner asthe flutes are done.SECTION XII.Of the complete Picture, in which isfhewn the Connection ofvarious Vanishing Points, with the Diſtance, and Centreof the Picture, together with the Doctrine of Shadowscombined therewith, as exhibited in Plate 4 of Perspective.To this plate I had an eye at the beginning of thiswork, as expreffed in the title; but I did not think ofhaving three more as large; but on arriving at the ſubjectof perſpective, being led more particularly to confiderthe uſefulneſs of it to young perfons, and others mate.rially concerned in drawing, I was defirous of doingthe ſubject more juſtice, by adopting thefe large folioplates, which give an opportunity ofſhewing the vaniſhingpoints of objects obliquely fituated, without which the404 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING..fubject cannot be treated of in a fatisfactory manner: andfirſt,Of the linear part of the picture, which contains moftof the difficulties that can occur in one picture, andwhich in this occafions feven different vanishing points;one of which is out of the picture, or the termination ofthe line, called the fide of the oblique chair. But thelearner fhould obferve, however numerous the vaniſhingpoints may be in one picture, there is but one centre andone diſtance; thefe two, as he will prefently fee, governall the other points and lines, whether relative to theobjects themſelves or to their fhadows. Therefore let himobferve, that C is the centre of this picture, and I on thevertical line, paffing through the centre, is the place ofthe eye, or from C to I is the diftance of the eye fromthe picture. The horizontal line paffes through C, parallel to the ground line G R. And now we fhall proceed with the chair on the right fide, which has its frontparallel to the picture; but the fides of it being oblique tothe front and to each othe , in an equal degree, they havetheir vanishing points at P and at P v, at equal distancesfrom the centre C. On G R, it ſhould be obſerved oncefor all, that all original lengths and breadths must be laidon, and the heights on perpendicular lines to G R. Therefore confider 1, 2, the length of the front, which, bythe fcale, is twenty-three inches; which fcale is for everypiece of furniture in this picture. Make 2, 3 the heighth •of the feat, and 3, 4 that of the back above the feat.From 4 draw to C, cutting at 7; from which, draw to P,the vanishing point of the fide rail, and a perpendicularat & gives the height of the back. How this perpendicularat 8 is found, may eaſily be feen , by obferving the lines5, 6, which tend to V, the diftance, and give the width•of the feat, by cutting a viſual from 1 to C. For anything more, the learner, who has gone through plate 2,PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 405will find it unneceffary to fay any thing more; and in allthe other pieces, I proceed on this fuppofition, otherwisethey would be fo loaded with figures and letters, as to ſpoilthe effect of the picture, and their defcription would berendered intolerably tedious: for it must be apparent tothe fenfible reader, that my deſign in this plate is to giveaview of the nature of the entire picture, and not to teachthe minutias of each piece of furniture, which he is tolearn from the preceding plates. Under this view, wewill proceed to the Lady's Dreffing Cheft , which, as thechair front, is parallel to the picture; confequently a, c, d₂b, the length of the front, tend to C the centre, and thediſtance is V. The upper drawer projects out, fo as totouch the picture, which any thing is faid to do when itcomes into a line drawn perpendicular from the groundline, as the dotted line from.c, on which is laid the heightsof the drawers, and the partition edges fignified by theſepoints or dots; for, obferve the middle drawer does notcome into , but to k, about half as far out. The The projection then of the dreffing drawer is better than a foot,and is laid from a to 2, and a line drawn at V, cuttingat f, which gives the line for the front; and g is for thedepth of the cove, cutting at b. The whole width ofthis dreffing cheft * is laid from 2 to 1. The next thingworthy# of notice, is the dreffing glaſs, raiſed to an angleequal to that which VS makes, with the horizontal line;therefore S is the centre of this inclined plane, and S Dthe vanishing line; becauſe the ends of the glass areparallel to the picture and to the horizon, Make S Dequal S V, then is SD the diftance of the vanishing iineSD, ofthe fides of the glafs. From the neareſt angle ofthe glafs, draw the line m, parallel to SD, and let the pointmbe confidered as the length of the glafs, From m drawtoD, which cuts the viſual tending to S at n, and gives itsapparent length; or, if the line a, p, be drawn parallel to406PERSPECTIVEDRAWING.S V, through the angle of the glaſs, make o equal in lengthto m; and from draw to V, and it will have the fameeffect. So that let this be remembered, that when it isinconvenient to find D, V will do equally as well, whenthe original meaſurement is laid on a line whofe interſection with the picture is parallel to the original inclinedplane.Of the Lady's Writing Table and Book Cafe.The ends of this table are oblique to the picture in anangle equal to IL, therefore L is the vanishing point ofevery line on the ends parallel to the plane of the horizon,"and therefore I need not to mark any of theſe; for theyare all confidered as parallel to it which tend to L, as a Lis ever perpendicular to the ground. The front andback of the table vaniſh into V N, becauſe from the placeof the eye I, V NI is perpendicular to IL. And herealfo obferve that the drawer, the top and bottom ofthereading deſk, the book-cafe fhelves, top and bottom, allvaniſh or tend to V N, as the line b. From b to g is theheight of the table, and from`g to h the height of themiddle ſhelf of the book-cafe; from b draw to , and fromIto L, to find k.We now confider the reading or writing flap, whichrefts againſt the top of the table in an angle equal to V N,VH, wherefore V HL is the vaniſhing line of the endsof the deſk, for they are parallel to the ends of the table,though oblique to the top of it, and being thus oblique theends tend to V H, perpendicular over L, becauſe L is thevaniſhing point of the ends of the table. But the fides ofthe deſk are parallel to the horizon, and therefore vaniſh toVN. Next proceed to find the centre of the vaniſhingline V N, V H, inclined to the horizon. From C the common centre of the picture, draw CCa perpendicular toVN, V H, and continue it far enough to receive the difPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 407tance ofthe vanishing line Ca i, which is here out of thepicture, but may be underſtood by comparing fig. 4, plateI, which is the fame cafe, only the angle of inclination isto the other hand. Draw Ci parallel to V N, V H andfrom i draw i C, a, which, being laid on from Ca, givesthe line VNO, and thus the diſtance D 4 of the vaniſhing line V N, V H is found, as the reader will eafily fee byfig. 4, plate 1. Draw from the neareſt angle of the deſkP, parallel to V N, V H, and p 4, being the original fide ofthe defk, draw to D 4. Laftly, obferve a at C is thevaniſhing point of the diagonal of any ſquare whoſe fidesvaniſh into V N, V H, as we have formerly explained; andas the defk is fquare, a line from q paffes through the oppofite angle to aby C.Of the Chair on the left, whofe Front and Sides are oblique tothe Picture.- Firft, obferve, that ifthe fides were ſquare with the front,they would vaniſh in V, becauſe the front vaniſhes in V I,for VI, I is perpendicular to IV. But we fuppofe thefides to bevel from the front, as much as the lines I 3,I 2 do to II, produce I 3 till it cut at V E, and in likemanner produce I 2, which exceeds the plate, as noted bythe writing; but where it terminates on the horizontalline, that is the vaniſhing point of the oppofite fide of thechair. Make V I di equal VII, and, in the fame way, dequal IV. Laftly, the ſcale st for the proportion of thechair is adjuſted to the ſcale A B, on the principles noticedat fig. 8, plate 1 , which fee. Each divifion on s t is 3inches, turn up 6 of thefe, which will be as 18 inches forthe height of the feat, from which draw to VI. Give 21 ofthefe inches to the length of the front, and draw to d 1;ſo, on the other hand, at v for the depth of the chair fromfrom front to back and draw to d. The height of the backJo1• placed at u. To fay any thing more is needlefs, and, ofcourſe, I have the fhadows to confider afterwards.Ofthe Lady's or Gentleman's Secretary and Bookcafe, havingits Ends and Front oblique to the Piðure.In this example I must not be prolix in the deſcription,having more particularly to confider the fhadowing, andfhall therefore only obferve the following things: -ThatVNis the vanifhing point of the ends, and L of the front.The opened door comes into the picture, and vanishes intothe fame point as the ends. Draw d for the neareſt end,and I to Lfor the front. From d to 1 is equal to thewidth ofthe door; therefore in drawing 1 , at that diſtancefrom d, admits of the opening of the door. Through odraw from d 3 to h; h, k, n are then the centre and extremities of the lower part; e is its height; and ƒ that ofthe upper part. Laftly, the width ofthe end is at b.I might now proceed to the fhadows; but this, we prefume, will not be eafily understood till we have pointed outto the learner their nature, by a few plain examples, whichwe ſhall give in the next ſection .SECTION XIII.Of Shadows occafioned by the Sun's Rays.The infinite diftance of the fun's rays admits of theirbeing confidered as parallel to each other, and thereforewhen the fun is fuppofed to be in a plane parallel to thepicture, the rays are repreſented by lines parallel to eachother, and the fhadows they project on the ground, or anyplane parallel to it, are alfo parallel to the ground line, andtheir ends vaniſh into the centre of the picture. On thisprinciple are the fhadows of the picture on plate 4 conducted, as being the moſt convenient for thoſe objects, andmoſt familiar to illuftrate,PERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 409There are, however, two other principles which may beadopted in the application of fhadows; as, when the funis fuppoſed to be before the picture, and when it is confidered behind it. Whenthe fun is before it, the ſhadowsfall behind the object , fometimes towards that vaniſhingline into which their objects vaniſh. But when the fun'srays are fuppofed to come from behind the picture, itsfhadows have a contrary effect, and make their way towards the ground line, to which, as they approach, theybecome broader and appear before their objects. And itmuft ever be obſerved, that whatever pofition of the fun'srays be adopted in a picture, that muſt be applied uniformlythrough the whole, and to every object.Whenthe rays of light come either before or behind thepicture, or, in other words, in any direction oblique to thepicture, both the rays of light and the fhadows projected bythem, will have their proper vaniſhing points, and confequently the fhadows will be oblique to the ground line.The vanishing points of light will be either above or belowthe horizon, and always placed on lines drawn perpendicular to it. When the light is behind the picture, thevaniſhing point of the fun's rays will be above; but, iffrom the front, below the horizontal line.The three cafes of fhadowing, now defcribed, may bethus illuftrated:1. When the rays are parallel to the picture, as figure10, plate 2, rr, rr, are the rays, parallel to each other,and in an angle, according to the fuppofed height of thefun. The cube being oblique, C and d are the vaniſhingpoints of the fides; draw r, n, r, 0, 1 , 2, each parallel tothe ground line from each angle; draw r C and I d, andthe fhadow will be completed.2. When the fun is in the front of the picture, as fig.11, here the cube is parallel to the picture, and therefore its fides vanish into C the centre. Through C410 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING . 'draw SC; and fuppofe S the vanishing point of the fun'srays on the picture, draw from 1 to S, which will cut thevifual line 2 C at 2, from whence a line being drawnparallel to the ground line, the fhadow is complete.3. Whenthe fun is behind the picture, as at fig. 9, thecube is oblique, and its fides vaniſh into V L, I is thediftance, C the centre, and d the diſtance of the vaniſhingline IL; but thefe belong only to the linear reprefentation;but what follows is for the fhadow. Through V, draw aline perpendicular, and fuppofe S the vaniſhing point ofthe rays. From the vanishing point V drawthe lines 4,and 3. From S do the fame, touching the angles of thecube 1, 2, and theſe rays will interfect the lines from V at3, 4. From 4 draw to L, the vaniſhing point ofthisfide of the cube, and the ſhadow will be completed.Having given this concife view of the nature ofſhadows,I fhall now proceed to the picture, plate 4, and confiderits fhadows; but, to prevent it from being too crowdedwith letters, we fhall only attend to the gentleman'sfecretary, as it contains every difficulty in the whole, ſothat the learner will eafily know how to proceed with thefhadowing of the other pieces. Ithas already been obſerved,that the fhadows in this picture fuppofe the fun in a planeparallel to it, and the rays, therefore, have no vaniſhingpoint on the picture, but are drawn by parallel lines, as8, 9, 10, 11, &c, which rays are ftopped by lines drawnparallel to the ground line, from each angle of the lowerpart of the ſecretary; and from theſe interfecting points,lines are drawn to the refpective vaniſhing points, bywhich the fhadows are compleated.Let us then begin with the open door, by drawing theray 3 and 2, for the top and bottom of the door. Drawfrom 2 a line to V N, alfo from three to that point.Now as the door projects further out than the front ofthefecretary drawer, a line must be drawn perpendicular fromPERSPECTIVE DRAWING. 411which inFrom 4which is athe end of the front to p, cutting a line tending to V N.The from p, draw a line parallel to 4,terfects the line drawn from 3 to V N.draw to the vanishing point L. From q,point perpendicular to the front angle of the upper part,draw parallel to 9, and from 9 to L as before. Drawtheray 10 II meeting that line at the point 11 , and from IIdraw to V N; then obferve the ray 13 14 paffes from theback angle of the top of the book- cafe, and therefore thefpace from 13 to 11 , is the ſhadow projected by the topend of the book-cafe. Laſtly, the ray 12 comes from theback angle ofthe lower part, and is interfected by a parallel line from the bottom of it; and as the ſecretary, orlower part is longer than the book- cafe, fo the ſhadow at12, is broader than at 13, which is from the book- cafe.In this manner I prefume the learner will be able to findthe ſhadows of the other objects, eſpecially if affifted bythe following obfervations.`Firſt-that lines muſt be drawn parallel to the groundline from the bottom angles on which the objects reft, asfrom each of the table legs. Second-thefe lines muftalways be interfected by rays, drawn from each projectingangle at the top. Third-the points of ſhadows projectedon the ground thus found, muſt be joined by lines tending to the fame vaniſhing points, to which the objectsthemſelves vaniſh.If in this picture the fun's rays had come from behind,and in an angle to it, equal to the line I V P, which thelearner will obferve is diſtinguiſhed by writing, the fhadows in that cafe would appear like 1, 2, 8 in the ſmallpicture, which is thus repreſented that the large one maybe more clearly underſtood, as well as the fubject of fhadows in general. But if the rays had come from thefront, the fhadows would have been projected on theground, as that of fig. 2, in the fmall picture. Fromthis miniature picture, the learner will fee more of the412 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.doctrine of fhadows, than poffibly could have been unsderftood from the large one without it; for he may obſervethe connection between the diſtance, centre of the picture, various vanishing points, both for the lines andfhadows, and alfo for the rays of the fun, which I myfelfnever could thoroughly understand, even after a great dealofreading, until being able to conceive of it in the mannernow prefented to my reader; and which, for his fake, Iwill now analyze, and then cloſe this ſubject.Confider G M N R as the boundaries of the picture, HLits horizon, GRthe ground line, C I the centre anddiftance of the picture, and I V, and d the place of theeye tranfpofed to the horizon. Fig, I is parallel to the picture, and its ends vanifh into the centre. Fig. 2 is obliqueto it, both ends and front, and vanifh to dand I V. Wenow proceed to fix on the pofition of the fun, with reſpectto the picture; and the pofition which is moſt approved bypainters, is that which-fuppofes the fun in the front of thepicture, for then the objects are bright in front, and theirfhadows recede behind them, as fig. 2. In this fituationit may be either perpendicular, or inclined to it. Ifperpendicular, then the vanifhing point of the fun's rays will befomewhere on a perpendicular line, paffing through thecentre C. The angle that the rays make with the horizon,may be greater, or lefs, as we pleaſe, but ſuppoſe 37°.From the diftance I V, draw to s b, which will be at fuchan angle, then will s b, be the vaniſhing point of the fun,and that of the fhadow will be it, into which the object itfelf vanishes; that is, the parts of the objects which areparallel to the horizon, as 5, 1 , in fig. 3, but thoſe perpendicular to it, will vaniſh to the centre, as 1 , 2, fig. 3. Ifthe light comes from behind the picture, and keep its perpendicular pofition and angle of inclination to the horizonas before, then s, as high above the horizon, ass b belowit, will be the vanishing point of the folar rays, and thefhadows will come forward, as in fig 4; for the crossPERSPECTIVE DRAWING, 413ga, vanishes into d, being parallel to the horizon, but thepright part being parallel to the vanishing line of the rayscs, sb, its fhadow vanifhes into C, therefore draw Coout, and from s, the vanishing point ofthe fun, drawsp, meeting at a, and through r, draw r t. Laftly,draw the rays gn, cutting at r t, which gives the fhadowofthe cross. The fhadow of fig. 3 is obvious from whathas been faid; and we will now confider the fun's raysoblique both ways. Suppofe the fun then to be inclinedto the picture, in the line I, V P, as was noticed before;make V P, D equal I, VP the diſtance of the fun's vaniſhing line, then draw SI, D parallel to, or confider itto be the angle of, the fun's rays with the horizon; thenwill I be the vanishing point when the fun is behind,and s as much below, will be its vanifhing point when inthe front of the picture; and the vanishing points of thefhadows will be in V P. According to the laft pofition,is fig. 2 fhadowed by drawing from the angles ba, to sbelow, and from its bottom fl, to V P, interfecting ated, from which points draw to I V, which compleats thefhadow. The cube, fig. 1 , is fhadowed both ways, thatthe learner may compare the difference: for obſerve, theline 5, 4 tends to s below, and gives the fhadow at 4;but as the front of the cube is parallel, fo is the fhadowbehind; and as the angle 5 of the cube is perpendicularto the ground, or parallel to the fun's vanishing line V P,SI, s, fo the other fide of the fhadow vanishes to V P,the fun's vanishing point. Laftly, if we confider the funat S I, then draw through 7, 8, and 5. From V P, drawthrough 9, cutting at 6, from C the centre, drawthrough6, becauſe the ends of the cubes vaniſh to C, I mean thehorizontal angles 5, 7, 8, 10; and as the line C, 6 meetsthe ray 7, 2, draw 2, 3 parallel to the angle of the cube8. From V P, draw through the angle 12, which8甍1414 PERSPECTIVE DRAWING.meets at 3, and completes the fhadow: for obferve, thatthe angle 10, 8, does not effect the fhadow on that fide ofthe cube, as is evident from the lines. It is the perpendicular angle 12, 8, from whence the fhadow is projectedforward at 12, 3 for the plane of rays paffing by that angle, being parallel to the vanishing line of the fun, V P,SI the fhadow of the angle 12, 8 muft vaniſh into V P,but on the other fide next the centre C ofthe picture, thereare two planes of rays meeting each other, which occafionthe outline ofthe fhadow to be compoſed with two lines,one tending to C, the other to V P. The rays paffing overthe angle 5, 7, are parallel to the vaniſhing line, which isI, C, s b, and therefore the fhadow it produces at 6, 2tends to C, but the plane of rays paffing the angle 5, 9 isin a plane paffing through V P, therefore its fhadow 9, 6,vanishes to VP.Upon the whole then, I truft the learner fees ſomethingof the variety of vaniſhing points, that may occur in onepicture, produced by objects perpendicular, and variouſlyoblique to the picture. Howtheſe are governed by the diftance, and centre, and what dependence the projections ofſhadows have upon theſe.Much more might have been offered, both on the linear,and ſhadowing part of perſpective as to examples; but inpoint ofprinciples and theory, as much has been ſaid, asmay enable the learner to extend his knowledge in perfpective, to any degree he may defire, or find neceſſary.OFPainting in General.CHAP. I. Of common and domeftic Painting.The reader, having wearied himſelf with the rigid rulesof perſpective, may here recreate his mind a little withcommon practical painting, as a foundation for advancesin landſcape, and other higher branches of this art. Wehave laid fome foundation for this in geometrical, architectural, and perſpective drawing; without which, noman can be, as a painter, more than a common countrydauber; although he may, at the fame time, poffefs talentsand genius that may render him capable of the higheſt improvement. Yet it is neceffary for an entire ftranger tobegin with knowing as much of plain painting as fuch areſuppoſed to do, that he may be acquainted with all the materials, and the manner of compounding them to advantage, and ufing them on plain grounds with fuccefs.There are various methods of priming, coating, andgiving the finiſhing lay of plain furfaces, according tothe object in view, in point of durability, cheapneſs,facility and beauty, and conſiſtent with the adopted principle, whether in oil, varniſh, or water colours.•In all external works, the beſt priming is white lead,with which fome mix Spaniſh brown, when the colour willadmit of it, as for common timber work, and linfeed oil,mixed thin, that the oil may more readily fink into the woodto preſerve it; but the fecond lay of colour may be alittle thicker, and gradually increaſe till the work isfiniſhed, which, as it is proceeded with, admits more ofthe fpirits of turpentine, and other drying ingredients.416PAINTINGIN GENERAL.And, in the intervals between each priming and painting,a fufficient time ſhould be allowed for each cover to drybefore another is laid on; and for this purpofe, to avoidmixing the colour too thick, and on the other hand, tobe careful not to dilute the mixture with too much turpentine; which will work through the colour of the precedinglay, and injure the work as to durability. And the youngpainter fhould be careful to keep his bruſh perpendicularto the furface he paints, and work with the end of the toolas much as poffible.In the nicer parts of external work, fuch as front doors,and windows much expoſed to the air, delicate and brightcolours, hable to change, the pure oil of walnuts may beapplied in grinding, and in diluting the paint, add to thisoil, an ounce of the fpirits of turpentine to about a poundof colour; and to give luftre to the work, a fmall portionof turpentine varnifh may be added, which will preventthe paint from bliftering. In all works expoſed tothe heatof the fun, drying materials, except boiled linfeed oil,fhould be avoided, that the intenſe heat may not blifterand crack the work. For internal work, fuch as doorsthat require a fine body and luftre, it is ufual to beginwith clear coating, or fize, made of leather, or fometimes with glue, but the former is preferable, in which alittle ochre is mixed, but very thin. After two primings ofthis kind, the furface fhould be ſmoothed with glafspaper, before the oil primers be laid on. And if it befound that the knots of wood will not take the oil paint,touch them with a mixture of oil, red lead, and litharge.In proceeding with the coatings of oil colours, the ficcatives may be uſed with great freedom, that the work maydry more ſpeedily, to prevent its receiving the duft, thatis fo apt to fall on work that is long in fetting. In darkcolours, give to every pound, in diluting them, half anounce oflitharge; to bright colours, a drachm of whitePAINTING IN GENERAL. 417copperas, ground in walnut oil . Some ufe adrying oil,prepared as follows:-Take half an ounce of litharge, asmuch of calcined cerufe, a kind of burnt white lead, thefame quantity ofterre d'ombre, and as much of talc, boiledfor two hours, on a flow and equal fire, with one pound oflinfeed oil, ftirred the whole time; after which, it muſtbe carefully ſkimmed and clarified; which will increaſein goodneſs as it grows old. In compounding this oilwith paint, give about a quartern or fourth part of a pintto a pound weight of colour, which is already preparedin other respects for laying on; for it ſhould be obfervedthat no kind of drying ingredient must be mixed with thepaint, till it is to be immediately ufed; otherwife it willbe more difficult to lay on, and, in ſome caſes, willquite ftiffen the colour, and render it ufelefs. The finiſhing lay of colours , on doors, &c. fhould not be appliedtill the preceding work is well hardened; and then bruſhit over, after havingfoftly rubbed off any little particlesof roughneſs with glafs paper, fo as not to injure thebrightneſs already given to the work. Having thusprepared for the laft lay, if the quality of the work willafford it, grind the colours in turpentine only, or witha mixture of turpentine varniſh and the pure fpirits ofturpentine, in equal quantities; and then bring it to aflowing or limped ftate by copal varniſh. This mixturewilldry quick, not crack, and will give a peculiar luftreto the work. The dearnefs of copal varniſh precludesa general uſe of it; and, therefore, the drying oil abovementioned, with fugar of lead added, may do for moſtpurpoſes; but the manner of grinding may be the fameas when copal is ufed; but take notice, fhould there bein the compofition of turpentine varniſh, too much rofin,this mixture will be apt to chill, or thicken rapidly, toprevent which, add a mixture of raw linfeed oil andE e418PAINTINGIN GENERAL.Venice turpentine, which will foften it, and make itflow .The white lead ground in oil , as it comes from themill, fhould not be diluted with turpentine varniſh, forthe fame reaſon, as they do not agree together in ſuchquantities; and when it is wanted to preferve its whitenefs, a mixture of nut oil, oil of walnuts, or pinks, withfpirits of turpentine, ſhould be uſed in bringing it to aproper confiftence; but, for common purpoſes, boiled orraw linfeed oil and turpentine will do. With respect tofine dead whites, fometimes ufed in domeftic painting,the priming ſhould be of ſeruſe, and glove leather fize,with Paris white, well ground in water; and after afufficient ground is laid, not too thick, left it ſhouldcrack, grind up white flake, if for fine work, or common white ground up in turpentine only, and dilutedwith nut oil to a fuitable degree, with a little pale cryſtalvarniſh, that has been lately invented, which will bindthe work. To know with certainty, what proportionswill do, fo as to leave the white dead, fize a ſmall pieceof wood with the fame as is uſed for the work, and beforethe oil colour is laid on, try the effect on the ſmall piece;after which you proceed with fafety. The deadneſs ofthe white will partly depend upon the coats of fize given,which, if fubftantial, partly abforbs the oil colour, andrenders it dead; but if the work be not firm enough inthe ſurface, another lay must be added .The colours that are uſed in oil, may be found in thethe dictionary, under the articles Black, Blue, Red, &c.where fome notice is taken of their quality and uſe,which fee.The colouring of walls is another article of domefticpainting that ſhould be attended to. Ifthe walls are notdry, they require to be repeatedly waſhed with boilingPAINTING IN GENERAL. 419linfeed oil; but if well feafoned, two or three layers willdo; then lay on two coats of ochre, ground and dilutedin linfeed oil, boiled. But obferve, that after the firftlay of ochre, the walls ought to be cleared of knots orroughneſs with glaſs or emery paper; after which,the laft lay of priming ground, fine; and thus prepared,they may be finiſhed in any colour. But, if intendedofa fine bright bolour, as French grey, or ftraw, cerufewill do better for priming than ochre.CHAP. 2. Of Painting in Common Water Colour.To paint in water colours , is to do it in thoſe whichare ground in water, and diluted in fize. There arethree kinds of this painting: namely, common, thevarniſhed, and that which is called king's white.Painting in common water colour, may include thewalls and ceilings of ſtaircaſes, and is generally performed by the infufion of earths in water mixed withfize.For this, or any other kind of common whiting, ſteepSpaniſh white, moderately pounded, in water for twohours. Infuſe a little of the black of charcoal andqueen's blue, if it be required of a greyish tint; if apure white, a little of the blue only. The beſt kind offize for this, or any other fort of whiting, is that madeof glove leather; the clippings of which may be had atany glove-makers. This is to be boiled, till the waterin which it is boiled feels ſticky between the fingers; andfor walls, and other large furfaces, the fize fhould onlybefo ftrong as to prevent its rubbing off by the hand.In this ftate it will lay with more freedom and ſmoothnefs, than when the fize is ftronger. If the walls aredirty, they ſhould be ſcraped clear of greaſe, and bruſhed,and then waſhed over with lime-water, which makes420 PAINTING IN GENERAL..the whiting take better. If the walls are rather incliningto dampneſs, or not thoroughly dried after plaftering,the fize muſt be ftronger, and the furface waſhed twiceover with lime-water.Afecond method of whiting walls , is very beautiful:Procure a fufficient quantity of the beft lime, and let itpafs through fine linen; pour it into a large tub, furnifhed with a spigot, at the height equal to that whichthe lime occupies; fill the tub with clear fountain water,and ftir and beat it well up; then let it fettle twentyfour hours, and, opening the fpigot, let the water paſsoff, and ſupply it again with freſh water, repeating theoperation a few times, which will bring the lime to thegreatest degree of whiteness. If the lime thus purifiedbe thought too glaring a white, add a little blue verditer to the quantity to be uſed, and with it, a ſmallquantity of turpentine, to give it brilliancy. The fizeufed in the firft method will do in this, with the addition of fome alum. A new wall may require four orfive layers of this waſh; and when it is fufficiently dry,rub it over with a brufh of hog's briftles, which willbrighten and enliven the appearance.A fhining black for the backs of chimneys, or any thingof this kind, may be made with lamp black and lead ore,mixed with fize. When the colour is dry, poliſh it bydipping a dry bruſh into the duft of lead ore, and rub thecoloured chimney with this till it fhines.CHAP. 3. OfVarnished Water Colours.This kind of painting leaves no offenſive ſmell, andpermits the places to be inhabited as foon as finiſhed.The fize for this kind of painting is made of clippingsof parchment, the fame as for gilding, which fee underthe article Gilding. To this fize is added, a liquid madePAINTING IN GENERAL. 421as follows:-Take three heads of garlic, and a handfulof wormwood leaves; boil them in three pints of watertill they are reduced to one; pafs the juice through alinen cloth, and mix it with a pint of parchment fize;add half a handful of falt, and half a pint of vinegar,and boil the whole. Size the wood with this boilingliquor, taking care to fpread it even on. This firftfizing ferves to fill up the pores of the wood, and toprevent the materials afterwards from collecting in abody, which cauſe it to fall off in fcales. In a pint offtrong parchment fize, to which is to be added four pints.of warm water, put two handfuls of Bougavil or Spaniſhwhite; ftir it about over a fire, and when it is well mixedand gently heated, give the work as many layers of thisas may be found requifite; ifthe furface muſt be poliſhed,it will require feven or eight times; which, after having effected by means of glafs paper, pumice ftone, coldwater, and new linen cloth, the colour may be appliedof any tint. But obferve, that whatever colour is uſedit must be diluted in parchment fize, after grinding itwith water. When the work is well hardened, makea weak and perfectly clear fize, which must be trainedthrough a cloth, of which, with a foft hog's hair bruſhthat has been uſed, give the work two layers; and caremust be taken to lay them cool, quick, and even on, leſtthe fize ſhould ſoften the colour, and render the furfacethat was poliſhed uneven, and perhaps of two colours.Much of the beauty of the work depends upon the laſtfizing; for, if any part be omitted, the varnish willpenetrate through, and give it a different fhade. Afterthe fizing is dry, varnish it over two or three timeswith white hard fpirit varnish. If the tint is to be white,this will occafion the most trouble, it being moft liableto fhew every imperfection of the work, eſpecially ifthe furface be large. It is impoffible to varnish over1422 PAINTING IN GENERAL.white grounds without impairing the luftre; and, therefore, it is common in houfework, to finish in thin fizeand white flake, when the work is very fine, and whitelead or cerufe when much of it is wanted. But ifthewhite ground muſt be varniſhed, mix with it, very thin,a little white flake, finely pounded, and if poffible, makeone lay do; for in going over it twice, it will be moreapt to fhade. Laftly, it fhould be obſerved, that thewhole of the operations fhould be performed within thereach of a mild heat, and none of the fize laid on boiling hot; but the laſt ſhould be laid on little more thannew milk warm.What is called king's white, has a reference to themanner of ufing it, and not to the quality ofthe white;it is in all refpects conducted like the former, except thatthere is only a ſmall quantity of indigo to take the yellowfrom the white, without any black of charcoal, as in filver greys, and without any varniſh. This white anſwersextremely well in apartments which are feldom uſed, asit is very liable to fpoil. It is the beſt white wherethere is any kind of gilding; in which caſe it receives alittle varniſh.CHAP. 4. Of Painting Furniture.The principal thing which conftitutes this a diftinctbranch of painting, is the general ufe of fize and varniſhcolours, by which it is performed with much greaterdiſpatch and effect. Yet the prices allowed in thecountry, at leaſt in many parts of it, are fo poor, thatthe painter can hardly diftinguifh furniture from commonoil painting.Of Painting Chair-feats.Rufh-bottom chairs ought always to have their featsprimed with common white lead, ground up in linfeed1PAINTING IN GENERAL. 423oil, and diluted with fpirits of turpentine. This firftpriming preſerves the ruſhes, and hardens them; and, tomake it come cheaper, the ſecond coat of priming mayhave half Spaniſh white in it, if the price require it.The third coat fhould be ground up in fpirits of turpentine only, and diluted with hard varnifh, which willdry quick; but ſhould not be applied till the priming beperfectly dry. Of this, probably the feats may requireto have two lays, to make the work firm. A very ſmallquantity of turpentine varniſh may alſo be uſed forcheapneſs, and to keepthe fpirit varniſh in a more flowingftate; but the lefs it is ufed the better, fince it is of fucha quality as makes it very fubject to turn foft and clammyby the heat of the body, when the chairs are uſed to ſiton; eſpecially, for fome time, at their firft ufe. Theywho uſe any kind of water colour for ruſh bottoms,entirely deceive the purchaſer, for it rots the ruſhes,and by the fudden puſh of the hand upon the feat, thecolour will frequently fly off. All the other parts ofchairs are primed with Spanish white, and glove leatherfize, as in any other mode of fize painting. Sometimesonce over may do, but when the work requires wellfiniſhing, three times, which fhould be ruſhed, or glasspapered down, for the beauty of the japan depends muchupon the well-finished fizing; and it is better when thelaft coat of fizing is of white lead; upon fuch a ground,any colour maybe laid with advantage, as it will alwayshelp the effect of the varniſh colours, and particularlybright greens and ſtraws.

To fhorten the defcription, the reader fhould obſerve,that all kinds of colours are to be ground in fpirits ofturpentine, and no more of it than what is wanted forprefent ufe, as it prefently dries, and will require asmuch fpirits to grind it as at the firft. And the fame424 PAINTING IN GENERAL.must be obſerved in all the varniſh colours, and for morereafon, for when it is left to ftiffen, or fet in pots, it isentirely wafted.Of Painting Chairs.In painting chairs with a green ground, common verdigrife may be uſed; and, as it is extracted from copper, itis ofa drying quality, and is much helped in colour by beingpartly diluted withgood turpentine varniſh, and partly copal; which will preſently dry, if laid on thin, whichit always fhould be. But if, in laying on the laſt coatofgreen, the tool be dipped into white hard varniſh, ina feparate pot, before it is put into the green, this willaffift much in fpeedy drying. The green may be compounded to any fhade by means of white lead, and king'syellow, both ofwhich muſt firſt be ground in turpentineout of the dry colours; fee alfo Green in the dictionary.A ftraw colour is beft compounded of white lead, king'syellow, and a little Oxford ochre; and as the king'syellow is a flow drying colour, the more the tint imbibesofthis, the more it is requifite to lay it on in white hardvarniſh. Black grounds for chairs, are generally madeof lamp black; but the black will bear the beft out on awhite ground, prepared as before. This colour is of agreafy or oily quality, and a bad drier; confequently,requires a ſtrong fize priming. Some burn the lamp black,to take awaythe oil out of it; but this occafions a greatwafte, and does not always fucceed in drying muchfooner. It is fometimes mixed with ivory black, whichhelps it to dry, but is too dear for common chair work.When cheapness is not fo much regarded, it fhould beground up in turpentine, very fine, but previously fiftedfrom the grit to which it is fubject, and then laid on inwhite hard varniſh, very thin, and repeated. But toPAINTING IN GENERAL. 425help the black, a little varniſh compoſed of aſphaltum,black rofin, and the drying linfeed oil, which wasformerly mentioned, may be uſed in diluting the lampblack, after being ground in turpentine; for obſerve,lamp black never comes up to its proper colour fo well,as when impregnated with ſomething of linfeed oil in it,If this aſphaltum varnish be uſed with white lead andlamp black, ground in pure turpentine, it may be applied to chairs as the firft priming; and a fecond, without white lead, will prepare the chairs for the laſt coat,which fhould be in white hard varnish only.CHAP. 8. Of Drawing Lines on Chairs.As black chairs look well whenornamented with yellow lines, it may be proper to give fome directions as tothe mixture of the colour, and the manner of drawingthefe. King's yellow and white flake, with a trifle oforange lead, ground finely up in fpirits of turpentine verythick; for ifthere be too much of the turpentine, the yellow will wash to the ground, and produce a bad line.After grinding, it should be as a pafte; in which ſtateit will admit a proper quantity of copal varnish in diluting it. No other will produce fo good a line, and therefore the beſt of it fhould be procured, as the expencewill foon be faved in time. The thicknefs of this mixture, ſhould not be inore, when diluted with copal, thanwill permit it to run very freely from the pencil thatis filled with it, when it is preffed against an uprightfurface; for except it will run from the pencil in fuch apofition, it will not freely leave the pencil when it ispreffed on a level furface, which pofition almoft everything is placed in when it is to be run with lines. Thekind of pencil fhould be of camels hair, very long;fome halfinch, and three-quarters, or onè inch long inthe426 PAINTING IN, according to the thickness of the line to be drawn.The pencil being well primed with this colour, whichſhould be kept in a deep hole, bring it to a fine point, ona flat marble ftone; and, in drawing the line, apply thefore-fingerto ſome ſtraight angle of the work, and at thefame time, keeping the pencil between the first finger andthe thumb, draw fteadily along, and the quicker thebetter the line will be drawn, if the colour be in properorder. Any other neceffary deviation from this generalrule, muſt be learned from experience and practice,which alone can fupply the defects of every theory inthis art. In ornamenting japanned furniture, no perſoncan proceed further than to do it by lines, except hehas previously been taught, or has practiſed ornamentaldrawing himſelf. To fuch, a hint or two will be fufficient to enable them to avoid any material error, whichI fhall point out by fome remarks on window and bedcornices, which are generally ornamented with leavesand fome kind of trophy, or Aowers.OfJapanning Window Cornices.As thefe do not require a great quantity of fize, Iadviſe only to give one lay of common whiting and fize,except on any part that cuts acroſs the grain of the wood,as thoſe with round ends, in which cafe it will requiremore fizing with common whiting, that the ground maybe rubbed ſmooth without fhewing the grain. For ifthe fize coats do not hide it, the finiſhing colours will not.But when the ſurface of either fort of cornices are ſmoothand ftraight, one of fize, and the reft in white lead andvarniſh as before directed; or if two fizings be neceſſary,let the last be of white lead, if the ground be finiſhed inwhite; and, to preferve the beauty of the white, giveit a coat of clear varniſh before the ornament is painted1PAINTING IN GENERAL. 427upon the ground. If their be any tablet in the centre,let this be painted laft, that it may not be in injured whilſtthe other parts are finiſhing.The ornaments ſhould be ſketched in with a blacklead pencil, very light, and ſo as not to exceed the outline ofthe colour. And as the leaves and flowers are proceeded with, they ſhould be nearly finiſhed at the firſtpainting; particularly when the colours are required todry quick; for in this cafe the tints will not blend intoeach other, if it be not effected whilft the colours are infome degree wet; and therefore they may be ground upin nut oil, and diluted in copal varniſh, which will notfet fo quick, and give more opportunity to retouch thework. When the work is finiſhed thus far, to give iteffect, it ſhould be touched with high lights, and fomeftrong fhadows laid quick on, and with colours thatwill fet as quick as may be, to give the greater force,as theſe things are viewed at a good diftance. Thuscompleted, give the work at least two coats of whitehard varniſh. But be particular with white grounds, leftany ofthe foft colours fhould not be dry, as the varniſhis apt to work into fuch parts, and fpoil the ground.For gilding chairs, fee Gilding, in the dictionary.CHAP. 5. Remarks on the Choice of Colours.The colours uſed in japanning are precifely the fameas thofe for good oil painting; but, it is to be obferved,that in every kind of colour, there is fome of a bad, andothers of a good quality. Several colours are adulterated,either to reduce the article to a cheap price, or bafelyto deceive the purchaſer. White lead is fometimesmixed with Spaniſh white, which may be diſcovered ingrinding it up in oil, for the Spaniſh white turns moreof a dirty yellow caft, the more it is ground; but white428PAINTINGIN GENERAL.lead, when good and pure, increaſes in brightneſs themore it is ground. Lakes are frequently adulteratedwith white flake, vermillion, and Pruffian blue; which,for fome purpoſes, will anfwer very well for the lake colour. But the pure good lake is very dear, and in thelump may be known by breaking a piece, which willappear of a bright fcarlet on the broken furface, orftrongly inclining to that hue; the bad inclines to ablue crimson colour. Pruffian blue is alfo debafed inquality by heterogenious mixtures; the beſt kind, whenbroken, inclines to a deep violet, and is light; and thatwhich appears a fine blue when broken, is impregnatedwith flake, lead, or the like. The beft vermillion inclines to a lake colour, or a deep ſcarlet. There aretwo kinds of verdigrife generally ufed, the commonand diftilled; the common is in large lumps, and contains more or lefs of fmall pieces of uncorroded copper,which makes it troubleſome to grind; but it is frequentlypowdered, and cleared ofthe grains ofcopper, which makesit more convenient to grind; but it is more apt to fade inthis ſtate, when it is kept long; and for this reafon, inthe country, where the fale of it is flow, it is fafeft tobuy it in the lump, in which ſtate it is beft kept fromfading. The diftilled is clear of both theſe objections;for in the operation of the refinement, the copper is extracted from it, and it is put into large pieces. This ismuch eaſier ground than the other, and is of all othersthe moft bright green, when combined with othercolours, which help to keep it from fading, to which itis fubject. And for the purpoſe of preventing this, itought to be worked as much as poffible in turpentineand copal varniſh .CHAP. 6. OfFine-body Water Colours.Moft of the colours that are uſed in oil and varniſh,will answer for this kind of painting. But they ought1PAINTING IN GENERAL. 429to be of the best quality, as in this mode of working theywill not prove fo brilliant and forceable, as when worked invarniſh, or oil. This branch of fine painting is beft adapted to landſcape, and may be executed with great diſpatchand effect on the walls of elegant apartments, formed intoſeparate pannels. The colours are ground in fair water,and may be kept in pots, in a moift ftate, for a confiderabletime, when water is poured over them. In this ftate, theyare taken out by the palette knife, and placed on the paletteboard; and a kind of foreign glue is diffolved into fairwater, in about the proportion of an inch fquare to a pint.With this glue fize the colours are tempered on the palette;which, if they fhine when applied to the picture, they aretoo much impregnated with the fize, and therefore fomewater muſt be uſed in diluting them on the palette, andthe pencil firſt dipped into the fize, and then applied tothe colour, and fo laid on. And when the colour doesnot work freely from the pencil, it ſhould be dipped intoanother pot with fair water, to wash it, the fame as inpainting in oil, the pencil is waſhed in fpirits of turpentine. After this the pencil muſt be dipped into the fize, andthe colour thus applied, and handled in the manner of oilpainting. This defcription is fuitable to the eaſel piece,or ſmall picture; and when the landſcape is on the pannelof a wall, it only requires longer tools, and greater quantities of each material, together with a bolder effect, asthey are to be viewed from the centre of the apartinent.The fkies, in this mode of painting, must be finiſhedat one time, when the colour and ground are wet, inwhich ftate only the fine mixture of foft fky tints canbe managed. And this indeed is the first thing to bedone, that nothing may afterwards difturb it. Moſt otherremarks in this kind of landſcape painting will fall inwith what may be obſerved on oil landſcape.430 PAINTING IN GENERAL.CHAP. 7. Of Transparent Water Colours.Most of thefe colours are extracted from vegetables,cloths, or earths. Thoſe of vegetable origin are the moſttranfparent, and fuch as are earthy the leaft, and thereforework with the greateft ftrength or body; and thoſe fromcloth in a medium quality.There are two ways of painting in tranſparent colours;one, by mixing white flake, or filver white, with the othercolours, and laying on a thick body; the other, by waſhing the paper with the tranfparent colours only. In thefirit method, when the drawing is finiſhed in the out line,the tranfparent colours are mixed with the white, to a degree about the middle colour, between the higheſt lightsand deepest fhadows. From which middle tint, the gradations of light and fhade are regulated. But if this wayof working be applied to landſcape, the learner ſhouldobferve to uſe the pure tranfparent colours for the ſky,which will appear most natural and clear; and in bringing the landſcape forward, he may ufe more of the whitefor ftrength.The other method of ufing tranfparent colours, is thefame as working with Indian ink, in which the white ofthe paper is for the high lights, and muft never be loft,otherwife there can be no true effect given. And it ſhouldbe particularly obferved, not to lay on the colours anythicker than will work tranfparent, or that the paper willeafily receive, otherwiſe it will ſpoil the work. When,therefore, the out- line of the drawing is finished, and putin faintly with the fame colours that are to be uſed intinting, the work fhould be cleaned off with ftale whitebread, to take away all dirt and greafe occafioned by penciling. Then wet the paper within the outline, annd hold itto the air of the fire , which will tend to open the furface ofthe paper to receive the colours with more freedom. And11PAINTING IN GENERAL. 431whilft the drawing is in this damp ftate, proceed with thinwathes of the feveral tints. In this manner repeat theoperations once or twice a day, till the work receives thatftrength oftint which will give it the defired effect. Themore time allowed to the intervals of each tinting the better, for then the work will receive a greater body of colour atlaft . And when the work is thus far finifhed, and thoroughly dried in, the ftrong touches ofthick colour may then begiven in particular places. To perform water colour waſhing well, it requires to be laid afide, and the work refumedoccafionally; for they who begin and finiſh a water - colourwork at one time, are quite miſtaken in the nature of it.Ifthere be any part of the paper that does not take thecolour, dip the pencil in a little ox gall, and touch thepart with it, and let it dry, and afterwards apply the colour.If any print is to wash with colours which has beenprinted on foft paper, it muſt firſt be washed with ox gall,to prevent the colours from running.Laftly, when a large furface of paper is to be waſhedover, the pencil cannot be too large for this purpoſe; andthe paper being wet, hold it to the fire till the wet is regularly funk in; then lay it on a damp cloth, to keep thefurface to be coloured in a moift ftate, during the wholetime of waſhing it; mix the colour in fuch a quantitythat will be fure to cover the whole, and let it be thingthen take as much at one time in the pencil as will, if poffible, cover the whole; and keep the face of the paper in aninclined direction, and beginning from the top, and workdownwards, and follow the colour till the whole is covered,taking care not to have to retouch, as this would ſpoil thework.Paper for working in this way, ought to be judiciouſlyſelected , as much of the beauty of its work is dependentupon it. Some drawing paper is over gummed, and4432 PAINTING IN GENERAL.therefore will not take the wafhed colour; and hence, on afecond tint being given, the firft will partly wash off. Itmay also be to an extreme the other way, in which cafe, thecolours will run and finkin unevenly. The proper mediumis, to find the furface rather rough on applying the tongueto it; and if it be clear, and free of knots, this is a likelypaper. In a large drawing to be coloured in the aboveftyle, few are fenfible ofthe importance of a right choiceof paper, which fometimes makes the fole difference thatappears in water colour works, which, by ftrangers, is attributed to the difference of methods , and other fecrets,which have no exiſtence in the art.CHAP. 8. Of Landscape Painting in Oil.The frame of the intended picture may be covered withfine canvas, and prepared by laying on a coat of ſtrongglue, to fill up the pores of the canvas, and next withglover's fize, and powdered white lead, which must berubbed fmooth, and a lay of brown ochre, white, andEight red, ground in nut oil, and brought to the colour oftanned leather. This colour gives a warmth to the ſhadow colours, and is proper for glazing. The defign beingfketched in with chalk, or any thing capable of beingpartly era fed, until the drawing is made correct, takeburnt umber, with drying oil, mixed with a little oil ofturpentine, and work upon the drawing in a very lightmanner, as we would do with Indian ink, in fhading adrawing on paper, and leaving the colour of the preparedcloth for the lights. This lays the foundation of the deadcolouring, which is not to be put in fo ftrong as thefinishing tints, nor to confift of any thing bright or glaring. The fky fhould be done firft; then all the distances;and fo work forward to the principal group in the centre ofthe picture, and from that to the fore ground. And, it isPAINTING IN GENERAL. 433to be obſerved, that each group of objects fhould bepainted at the fame time, that their colours may harmonize with each other. Obferve, the finishing of the ſkyfhould be done all at one painting, if poffible; becauſe thetenderneſs requifite in the character of the clouds cannot beproduced fo well as when the whole is wet. And as theazure or blue is the first colour, it ſhould be laid on ſtiff,that the colours of the clouds may more eafily be receivedby it. The greateſt diſtances, or thoſe neareſt the ſky,fhould have their tints made with the colours of the ſky,which ſhould be blended together in a foft manner to agreewith it.The best landfcape painters divide their work into threeſeparate paintings, except the ſky; and each is allowed partlyto dry before they proceed with the fucceeding one. Theſeſeparate paintings lay a foundation for each other, and arenot to destroy the work preceding. The firft, or deadpainting, lies in the broad fhadows, and gives the naturalcolours of objects, in a medium between extreme light andfkade, and according to their feveral diftances, every objectgrowing ftronger, and partaking of more of the primitivecolours as they advance to the fore ground.The fecond painting is to give more roundnefs andclearness to every object, and to glaze and brighten thewhole, but not to deftroy the fhadows of the dead painting,which ought to be feen through the glazing. The glazing colours are, lake, terraverte, Pruffian blue, and brownpink, with burnt umber, worked in good drying oil andcopal, or other oil varnishes, thinned with fpirits of turpentine, and managed as tranſparent colours, to givebeauty and effect to all that was done in the firſt painting.All the grounds of the objects fhould be made more diftinctly out, with fuch glazing fhadow colours as feem neareft to the natural hue ofthe objects in that fituation. Thethird painting heightens the lights, ftrengthens the fhadows,Ff434 PAINTING IN GENERAL.and gives the finiſhing touches to every part. Says a certain artiſt, “ the figures in a landſcape are the laſt workof the picture; thofe in the foreground fhould be done firſt,and thoſe in the distances next; for, after the figures in thefirst and fartheft groups are painted, it will be much eaſierto findthe proportions of thofe in the middle parts ofthepicture." And we fhould obferve, that the fhadows of thefigures, fhould be of the fame hue or colour, with thoſeof the group or place they are in.The true lights of a picture, are by comparative whites;the fhadows, by comparative blacks; the reflections, byyellows, in a comparative degree; the turnings off, by alead blue. Reflected light partakes of the colour of theobject that reflects it. And lastly, as every object recedesto the back ground, it muſt appear to mix with the air.This is the true rule of nature, in few words; for as thequantity of air is greater between the eye of the ſpectatorand the object at a distance, than when it is near to it;confequently that very denſe medium of air cauſed bydiftant objects, muft tinge every natural colour with itsown appearance. This is that part of painting ufuallycalled keeping, upon which depends much ofthe perfectionof the art.435A LISTOf most of the Master Cabinet-makers, Upholsterers, and Chair Makers, in and about London,For 1803.ADAMS, Japan Chair Manufacturer, 403, Oxford Street Adams, Cabinet- maker, 122, MinoriesAllen, G. Upholsterer, Cabinet- maker, &c. 158, Fenchurch- st.Anderson, Chair- maker, Windmill- street, Tottenham- court- roadBagster, James, Upholsterer, 20, PiccadillyBarber, J. Cabinet- maker, 37, Red Lion-squareBarberry, Cabinet-maker, George-street, Oxford- roadBarrett and Wicksteed, Cabinet- makers, 53 & 54, Wardour-streetBarry, A. Upholsterer, 7, Vere- street, Oxford- streetBateson, David, Cabinet- maker, 128, High HolburnBeale, J. Cabinet- maker, 5, Old BaileyBeard, A. Cabinet- maker and Upholsterer, 157, Fenchurch-streetBeaumont, John, Cabinet- maker, 45, Beech- street, BarbicanBeauchamp, G. Cabinet- maker, 18 , St. Paul's Church-yardBell, Robert, Upholsterer, 29, MinoriesBerry, J. Carpet Warehouse, 131 , Fleet- streetBinns, Joseph, Cabinet- inlayer, 24, Duke- street, SmithfieldBinns, Cabinet-maker, 99, Mount- street, Grosvenor- squareBirkit, Richard, Cabinet-maker, King-street, Golden- squareBlades and Palmer, Upholders, 177 , PiccadillyBlaiklock, M. Cabinet- maker, 14, North Audley- streetBlaxland, Upholsterer, 71 , Old Broad- streetBlennerhasset, R. Upholder, 9 , Windmill- street, FinsburyBolton, John, Upholsterer, 109, St. Martin's-laneBond, B. Cabinet and Chair- maker, 24, Ratcliff- highwayBounfall, A. Japanned- chair-manufactory, Middle RowBowker, John, Carpet and Upholstery Warehouse, 3 , Fostern - rowBoyce, R. Upholsterer, &c. 22, Charlotte- street, Fitzroy- squareBradley, Francis, Cabinet-maker, 2 , Newman-street, Oxford RoadBrown, W. Chair Manufactory, Carlisle- lane, LambethBruce, D. Cabinet & Upholstery Manufactory, 113, Aldersg- st.Buckinham, H. Japanned- chair Manufactory, Old- street, MintBunce, William, Upholsterer, 8 , Russel- street, Covent-gardenBurbury, Cabinet- maker, George-street, Oxford-roadCaincross, William, Cabinet-maker, 11 , Hollen-street, Soho436 LIST OF MASTER CABINET- MAKERS , &C .Calloway, John, Upholsterer, 64, New Bond-streetChipchase, R. and H. Upholsterers, 39, Dover-street, PiccadillyChippendale, Thomas, Upholsterer, 60, St. Martin's- laneChristie, John, Chair-maker, 4, Warwick- street, Golden-squareClaridge, R. Upholsterer, 185, Oxford- streetClarke, John, Upholsterer, 1 , Cattle- street, Long-acreClayford, J. Upholsterer, 31 , Bartlett's- buildings, HolbornCleland, A. Cabinet- maker, 14, Charles- st . Middlesex HospitalCloake, T. Upholsterer, 4 and 56, Broker- row, FinsburyCockerill, J. Japanned-chair Manufactory, Curtain- road, and 203,Oxford- streetColeman, Cabinet- maker, Curzon street, May- fairCollip, John, Upholsterer, 122, Great Portland-streetCope and Gray, Upholders, 10, King- street, BloomsburyCotter, William, Cabinet-maker, 24, Burr- street, WappingCox, Stephen, Upholsterer, 10 and 11 , Great Portland- streetCrighton, William, Upholsterer, 28, King-street, SohoDalzeel, Cabinet maker, 4, Chapel-street, Bedford-rowDavis, S. Upholsterer, 2, Little St. Martin's- laneDavis, N. Upholsterer, 16, Giltspur-strcct, SmithfieldDawes, T. Cabinet maker and Upholder, 69, Dean-street, Soho,and 48, Conduit- street, Hanover- square Deacon, Samuel, Cabinet- maker, 22, Wardour- street, SohoDerbyshire, John, Cabinet-maker, 145, Whitecross- streetDickson, Upholsterer, Castle- street, Long-acreDingle, Cabinet and Chair-maker, 9, Great Pulteney-streetDollett, Upholsterer, 48 , MinoriesDonaldson, Chair-maker, Great Denmark- street, SohoDraper, Upholsterer, &c . Broker- row, FinsburyDraper, Chair- maker and Japanner, Queen- street, Southwark Dunch, Upholsterer, 12, Shepherd-street, New Bond- streetDuthoit, Cabinet- maker, 9 , Old Broad- streetEdmonds, Cabinet- maker, 6, Old Compton- street, SohoElliott and Co. Upholsterers to his Majesty, 97, New Bond- streetElward, Marsh, and Co. Upholsterers, 13 , Mount-streetEngleheart, Cabinet- maker, 40, Castle- street, Oxford- marketEvans, Upholsterer, 1 , Budge- row Eyre, Upholstery Warehouse, 356, Oxford - streetFarrer, Upholsterer, Prince's- street, Leicester- squareFawley and Ward, Japanned- chair, &c. Manufactory, 43, Wardour- street, SohoFiner, William, Upholsterer, 21 , Camomile- streetFinlayson, Chair-maker, Midford- place, Tottenham- court-roadFleming and Sheppard, Upholsterers, 4, Chandos- streetFleuriot, Upholsterer, 7, Great Tower- streetFlint and McLellan, Upholsterers, 114, Great Russel- streeti LIST OF MASTER CABINET- MAKERS, &C. 437Flint, Cabinet- maker, &c. 13 , Greek- street, SohoFlintoff, Upholsterer, 67, SmithfieldFolgham and Son, Case and Cabinet- makers, 81 , Fleet- streetFontaine, Upholder, 25, Great Russel- street, Covent- gardenFossett, Upholsterer, 5 and 6, Leadenhall - streetFoxall and Fryer, Upholsterers, 19 , Old Cavendish- streetFrance and Beckwith, Upholsterers, 101 , St. Martin's LaneGee, Turner and Chair- maker, 49, Wardour- streetGibbons, Upholsterer, 3 , BucklersburyGillow and Co. Cabinet- makers, &c. 176, Oxford- streetGlover, C. Upholsterer, Corner of Albemarle- street, PiccadillyGlover, T. Upholsterer, 201 , PiccadillyGodfree, Upholsterer and Cabinet- maker, Palace Yard, WesminsterGoodcheap, Cabinet- maker, 142, Goswell - streetGraham and Lichfield, Uphosterers, 72, St. Martin's- laneGraham, Cabinet-maker, &c. 7 , St. Paul's Church-yardGroves, Upholstery, &c. Warehouse, 179, BoroughGreen, Cabinet- maker, 20, Mortimer- streetGreenwood, Cabinet- maker, 23 , Fenchurch- streetGriffin, Chair-maker, Whitcomb- streetGriffith, Cabinet- maker, &c. Redcross- street, SouthwarkGriffiths, Upholsterer, 27, Little Alie- streetGrimes, Cabinet-maker, 69, Red Lion- street, ClerkenwellHales, Upholsterer, 1, Bolt- court, Fleet- streetHall and Hersant, Cabinet-makers, 2, Broker- row, FinsburyHamilton, Upholsterer, 54, WhitechapelHarris, Chair.maker, Church- street, LambethHawkins, Cabinet- maker, 9, Broad- street, BloomsburyHay, Cabinet- maker, 73, Long- acrerenning, Upholsterer, 23, Leicester- squareHeppell, Upholsterer, 53, Wigmore- street, Cavendish- squareHepworth, Cabinet-maker, 12, Little St. Martin's- laneHerring, Upholsterer and Cabinet- maker, 109, Fleet- streetHewlins, Upholsterer, 2, StrandHodgson, Upholsterer, &c. 70, Gt. Lincoln's - inn - fieldsHolberd, Upholsterer, 16, Noble- street, Foster-laneHolloway, Upholsterer and Undertaker, 34, Rathbone- placeHomersham, Upholsterer, 245 , BoroughHorsley, Chair- maker, 1, Worship-street, FinsburyHudson and Corney, Cabinet- makers, 4 and 13 , Broad- street, Soho .Huggett, Chair Manufactory, Borough- roadInce, 23, Holles street, Cavendish- squareJames, Upholsterer, 63, ShoreditchJenkins, Upholder, &c. 75, Long-acreJermain, Cabinet-maker, 10 Broad- street, Golden squareJolit, Cabinet-maker, 6, Old Broad- street438LISTOFMASTERCABINET- MAKERS, &C.Jordan, Chair and Cabinet Manufactory, 15, Artillery-streetKay, Upholsterer, 14, Ludgate-hillKemp, Cabinet-maker, &c. 64, CornhillKent and Lack, Upholsterers, 67, London-wallKerr, Cabinet-maker and Upholsterer, 31 , Pall -mallKidd, Upholsterer and Cabinet -maker, 62, New Bond- streetLamb, Cabinet-maker, 9 and 10, Jewin- streetLegg, Upholsterer, 71 , Fleet- streetLittle, Upholsterer, &c . 47, Mortimer.streetLoader, sen. Upholstery Warehouse, 14, Broker-row, FinsburyLoader, jun. ditto ditto, 5, dittoLong, Upholsterer, 13, Great Newport - streetLonsdale, Cabinet- maker, &c. 7, Broad-street, SohoLyatt, Cabinet- maker, 34, Chiswell- streetLyne, Cabinet-maker, 13 , Vere street, Cavendish- squareLyon, Upholsterer, Duke-street, Manchester- squareM.Dowell, Chair- maker, Tottenham - streetM'Lean and Son, Upper Terrace, Tottenham-court- road, andMarylebone-streetMackenzie and Blissott, Upholsterers, 24. Maryhome str. PiccadillyMann, Upholsterer and Cabinet- maker, 28, Rood- laneMarshall, Upholsterer, 21 , Gerrard- street, SohoMaxey, Upholsterer, 60, Aldersgate- streetMayhew and Ince, Upholsterers, 47, Marshall-str. Carnaby.mark.Meek, Chair Manufactory, 11 , Forster- street, BishopsMills, Cabinet-maker, &c. Bedford street, Bedford-rowMoore, Upholsterer, Leopard's Court, Baldwin's GardensMorel, Upholsterer, Great Marlborough- streetMorgan and Saunders, Upholsterers, 16 and 17 , Catherine- streetMorris, Cabinet Warehouse, 26, St. Paul's Church-yardMowyer and Co. Cabinet- makers, 208, Oxford RoadNewman, Upholsterer, 13, St. Catherine'sNewton, Upholsterer, &c. 63, Wardour- street, SohoNorris, Upholstery Warehouse, 55, High HolbornNoyes, Upholsterer, 61 , Cannon-streetOakley, Shackleton, and Evans, Upholsterers, 22 , St. Paul'sChurch-yard, and 8, Old Bond- streetOswald and Nicols, Cabinet and Chair-makers, 75 , Welstead-streetOxford- roadOwen, Upholsterer, 54, Broad- street, SohoPartridge, Cabinet-maker, Rupert-streetPatton and Co. Chair-makers, Little Rathbone-placePearson, Upholsterer, 25, Clement's- lanePeirson, Upholsterer, &c. 14, Cullum- streetPettitt, Cabinet-maker and Upholsterer, 47, Brewer-streetPhillips, Upholstery Warehouse, 134, Fenchurch - streetLIST OF MASTER CABINET- MAKERS, & C. 439Philp, Upholsterer and Cabinet-maker, Great St. Helen'sPickstone, Upholsterer, 7, Newcastle- street, StrandPizzie, Cabinet-maker and Upholsterer, Cullum- streetPotts and Son, Upholsterers, 99, Wardour- streetPrentice, Cabinet- maker, 12, Little Wild- streetPreston, Upholsterer, &c. 349, Rotherhithe- streetPrice, Upholsterer, Red- cross- street, BoroughPringle, Cabinet-maker, Wardour-street, near Oxford StreetPurdie, Cabinet- maker, &c. 98, High HolbornRandall, Upholsterer, 171 , PiccadillyReeder, Cabinet- maker, 392 , Oxford- streetRhodes, Cabinet- maker, 7, Warwick-court, HolbornRicketts, Upholstery Warehouse, 14, Broker- row, FinsburyRiley and Fowler, Cabinet- makers, &c. 77, Swallow- streetRiley, Upholsterer, 25, Cork- street, Burlington- gardensRobins, J. Upholsterer, Warwick- house, Beak- street, Golden-squareRobinson, Upholsterer, 29 , Little Queen-street, HolbornRobison, Upholsterer, 76, High- street, MaryboneRuckman and Wine , Chiali Manufactory, zo, Ked- cross- street,Borough12,Salmon, Cabinet- maker, &c. Chapel-street, Lamb's- conduit- street.Salmon, Chair Manufactory, 427, Oxford-streetSammes, Upholsterer, &c. 53, Great Russel-street, BloomsburySandilands, Cabinet-maker, &c. 112 , WappingSavill, Upholsterer, &c. 17, Aldgate High- streetSchofield, Cabinet-maker, Charlotte- street, Rathbone- placeScott, Upholsterer, &c. 29, Ludgate- hillSeaton, Cabinet- maker and Upholsterer, GreenwichSeddon and Co. Upholsterers and Cabinet-makers, 24, Dover-streetSeddons, Cabinet-maker, 150, Aldersgate-streetSemple, Cabinet- maker, 78, Margaret- street, Oxford- roadShaw and Son, Upholsterers, 34, Hatton- streetSherren, Cabinet- maker, 38, Margaret- street.Sherwood, Cabinet- maker, 42, Bartholomew- closeShipman, Cabinet- maker, 9, George-yard, Lombard- streetSims, Upholsterer, 145, High HolbornSimson, Upholsterer, 19, St. Paul's Church-yardSimson, Cabinet- maker, 4, New Bond- streetSmallwood, Cabinet- maker, 5, Greenfield- street, WhitechapelSmith, Chair-maker, Wardour- street, SohoSmith and Co. Upholsterers, 69, Lower Grosvenor- street'Smith and Co. Upholsterers, 7 , Great East CheapSnell, Upholsterer, 15, Hanover- street, Long-acre Somerville, Cabinet-maker, 29, Chancery- laneSpeer, Cabinet maker and Upholsterer, 2 , Tower- streetStaines and Carpenter, Upholstery Warehouse, 5, Ironmonger-lane440 LIST OF MASTER CABINET- MAKERS, &C.Stephens, Upholsterer and Cabinet- maker, 217, PiccadillyStephens, Upholsterer, 18 , Lower Brook- street, Bond-streetStephenson, Cabinet- maker, Greek-street, SohoStokes, Cabinet- maker, 26, Tooley- streetStovill, Upholsterer, 3 , Lower Grosvenor- streetStubbs, Blind-maker, Oxford- roadStubbs, Chair maker, 20, Old- streetSwift, Grant, and Hurley, Upholsterers, &c, 226, PiccadillyTait, Upholsterer, &c. 92, Jermyn - street, St. James's Thomas, Jos. Upholsterer, 13 , Charles - street, Grosvenor- square Thompson, B. R. Dyed Chair-maker, 62, Red-lion - str . Clerkenw.Thomson and Fiske, Cabinet- makers, 2, Duke-street, SmithfieldTolput, Joshua, Upholsterer, &c. 115, Long-acre Torbut, Cabinet-maker, 12 , Red Lion-streetToulmin & Kerr, Upholstery Warehouse, 28, Broker- row, FinsburyTucker, Thomas, Upholsterer, 24, Hatton- streetTurley, Cabinet maker, Lamb's Conduit- street, Red Lion-squareTurner and Hulloh, Cabinet-makers, 27 , Broker-rowTurner, Smith, and Co. Upholsterers. 122. New Bond-streetTurner, John, Cabinet-maker, 16, Titchfield street, MaryboneTurnly, Chair-maker, Garden- row, near the ObeliskWalker, M. Upholsterer. 71 , Fleet- marketWallace, J. Upholder and Cabinet-maker, 5, Gr. Portland-str.Watson, Cabinet-maker, 21 , Wardour- street, SohoWatson, David, Upholsterer, 51 , Parliament- streetWatson, H. Upholsterer, 14, Bridge- street, WestminsterWeatherall, John, Upholsterer, 52, Dean-street, SohoWebb, William, Chair-manufacturer, Newington, SurryWestwood, M. Upholsterer, &c. 32, Crooked - laneWhite, John, Upholsterer, 3 , Storey's-gate, WestminsterWidnell, Josiah, Carpet Manufacturer, Holborn-hillWilkinson, W. and T. Upholstery Warehouse, 10, Broker- rowWilmot, Thomas, Cabinet- maker, 16, John-street, Oxford- streetWilson, Messrs. Cabinet- nak. and Upholsterers, 128, &376, StrandWilson, T. Cabinet- maker, 20, King- street, BoroughWinstanley, R. Upholsterer and Auctioneer, 10, Paternoster- rowWoolley, G. Cabinet and Upholstery Manufact. 196, PiccadillyWright, F. and W. Upholsterers, 410, Oxford- street.Wright, J. Upholsterer, 40, Great Russel- streetWyburd and Terry, Japan Chair Manufactory, City-roadYateman, Wm. Upholsterer, 12, St. Paul's Church-yardPrinted by W.Smith, King Street, Seven Diats.SUBSCRIBERS' NAMES,ADDITIONAL TO THOSE OF THEFORMER LIST.ACKERMANN, Mr. Strand, 14 copiesAllaway and Osmond, ReadingAppleton, Mr. HullArrowsmith, James, Richmond, YorkshireBotcherby, Robert, DarlingtonBrampton and Carrington, KetteringBrook, John, LeedsCass, John,ScarboroughChapman and Son, HullClaron, Mr. Upholsterer, PlymouthColnaghi and Co, Cockspur-street, Charing-crossCormel, Mr. Cabinet- makerDallman, Mr. Cabinet makerDeacon, Mr. Cabinet- makerDodd, Samuel, NottinghamElliott, Thomas, NottinghamElwick and Robinson, WakefieldFilde, Mr.Franklin, Mr. Chair- makerFreeman, John, NorwichGardner, James, ChesterGilson, Mr. Cabinet- maker, Boston, LincolnshireGordon, Mr. Cabinet- makerGregson and Bullon, Upholsterers, LiverpoolHalley, G. H. WakefieldHanson, John,HuddersfieldHapperton, Mr. Cabinet- makerHarris, Mr. Chair- maker, Church-street, LambethHicks, John, HullHolliday, William, BurlingtonKaye, John, ManchesterKebe, Mr. Cabinet- makerKent, Mr. Cabinet- makerSUBSCRIBER'S NAMES.Kilrington , Mr. Cabinet - makerKnight, H. and C. TauntonLees, Mr. Cabinet- makerLovelace, Mr. Cabinet-makerMarshal, Mr. Cabinet-makerMattison, Mr. BostonMayer, Mr. Cabinet- makerMetcalf, John, RiponMiller, Mr. Cabinet-makerM'Lellan and Sons, MansfieldMurray, Mr. Stamford Newham, Mr. Robert, Cabinet-maker, StocktonNewton and Son, Barton Umb.Nickson, Samuel, ChesterParker, John, DealPeck, Thomas, Hull Price, Thomas, Cabinet- maker, Redcross-street, SouthwarkRelph, Mr. Cabinet-makerRichardby, Thomas, DurhamRobinson, Mr. Brigg Russel, Mr. John, Cabinet-maker, BristolSimpson, George, Witham, near HullSmallwood, Mr. Cabinet- maker, No. 29, Chancery- laneSmith, Josiah, DewsburySouthell and Wilson, LiverpoolSponge, William, WellingboroughStewart, Matthew, NorthshieldsStockdale, Mr. Cabinet-makerTeal and Son, LeedsTernly, Chair-maker, Garden-row, nearthe Obelisk, St. George'srow.Thompson, John, Durham Thurston, Horatio, BethVincent, Samuel, Spalding Vinicomb, Mr. Cabinet-makerVivian, Mr. Cabinet- makerWalton, Mr. Cabinet- makerWass, Bright, Darlington Watkins, Cabinet- makerWatson, Mr. Cabinet- maker Williamson and Co. Market RaisenWilliamson, Benjamin, BostonWilson, George, SunderlandWren and Cory, PrestonCMPL.1.T.SheratonDeeALCOVE BEDHPublished Sep 27. 1802.1111PL.2.842A1010204F1 .20B60130T.SheratonDel30F4.1203040Scale of 10thsGEOMETRICAL LINES1060750Ivory or Scale Protractor80 70Brafs Protractor90100 9070 8090 30aTangentLine10010807020SinesF6.110Partagon 1089000no504037Poligons70130F2 .Published Aug 25, 1803.331403645679LineofLinesF3 .261015060160BD15no18020209 10 11 126Hexagon 120Heptagon 128-Octagon 135Nonagon 140 Decagon -Undecagon 147 Duodecagon 150Degreesin their angles144730 LineofSinesTangents40ESecants408F5.5060 70 809363230607080001PL.2.FIG. 1 .HBEWICKEDGN.1.T. Sheraton Del3N.3 .RFIG.3 .bodDIFIG. 5 .N.2 .Published Sep 27 1802.FIG. 2 .FIG 7.FIG.4 .N.4 .FOL&P2 3DronePublished Aug 25.1803(ello)L3.BFm1.Sheraton DelF4.

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PL.66 .SARCOPHAGUS.1.Sheraton delin.Published Jan 20th 1803.1.Barbway.DPL.67.SECRETARY and BOOKCASE .T.Sheraton delin.Published Jan, 24, 1803.Barlow sculp.18


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